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Trimethylboron
Trimethylborane
Trimethylborane
(TMB) is a toxic, pyrophoric gas with the formula B(CH3)3 (which can also be written as Me3B, with Me representing methyl).Contents1 Properties 2 Preparation 3 Reactions 4 Use 5 ReferencesProperties[edit] As a liquid it is colourless. The strongest line in the infrared spectrum is at 1330 cm−1 followed by lines at 3010 cm−1 and 1185 cm−1. Its melting point is −161.5 °C, and its boiling point is −20.2 °C. Vapour pressure is given by log P = 6.1385 + 1.75 log T − 1393.3/T − 0.007735 T, where T is temperature in kelvins.[5] Molecular weight is 55.914. The heat of vapourisation is 25.6 kJ/mol.[4] Preparation[edit] Trimethylborane
Trimethylborane
was first made by Stock and Zeidler
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Preferred IUPAC Name
In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC
IUPAC
name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC
IUPAC
nomenclature. The "preferred IUPAC nomenclature" provides a set of rules for choosing between multiple possibilities in situations where it is important to decide on a unique name. It is intended for use in legal and regulatory situations.[1] Currently, preferred IUPAC
IUPAC
names are written only for part of the organic compounds (see below)
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Boron Trifluoride
Boron
Boron
trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BF3. This pungent colourless toxic gas forms white fumes in moist air. It is a useful Lewis acid
Lewis acid
and a versatile building block for other boron compounds.Contents1 Structure and bonding 2 Synthesis and handling2.1 Laboratory scale3 Properties 4 Reactions4.1 Comparative Lewis acidity 4.2 Hydrolysis5 Uses5.1 Organic chemistry 5.2 Niche uses6 Discovery 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksStructure and bonding[edit] The geometry of a molecule of BF3 is trigonal planar. Its D3h symmetry conforms with the prediction of VSEPR theory. The molecule has no dipole moment by virtue of its high symmetry
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Methyl
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3. In formulas, the group is often abbreviated Me. Such hydrocarbon groups occur in many organic compounds. It is a very stable group in most molecules. While the methyl group is usually part of a larger molecule, it can be found on its own in any of three forms: anion, cation or radical. The anion has eight valence electrons, the radical seven and the cation six. All three forms are highly reactive and rarely observed.[1]Contents1 Methyl cation, anion, and radical1.1 Methyl cation 1.2 Methyl anion 1.3 Methyl radical2 Reactivity2.1 Oxidation 2.2 Methylation 2.3 Deprotonation 2.4 Free radical reactions3 Chiral
Chiral
methyl 4 Etymology 5 See also 6 ReferencesMethyl cation, anion, and radical[edit] Methyl cation[edit] The methylium cation (CH3+) exists in the gas phase, but is otherwise not encountered
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Infrared Spectrum
Infrared
Infrared
radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions [1][2][3][4]). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz)[5] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared
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Kelvin
The Kelvin
Kelvin
scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin (symbol: K) is the base unit of temperature in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI). The kelvin is defined as the fraction ​1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F).[1] In other words, it is defined such that the triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K. The Kelvin
Kelvin
scale is named after the Belfast-born, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), who wrote of the need for an "absolute thermometric scale". Unlike the degree Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit
and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred to or typeset as a degree
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Boron Trichloride
Boron
Boron
trichloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BCl3. This colorless gas is a reagent in organic synthesis. It is highly reactive toward water.Contents1 Production and structure 2 Reactions2.1 Reduction3 Uses 4 Safety 5 See also 6 References 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External linksProduction and structure[edit] Boron
Boron
reacts with halogens to give the corresponding trihalides. Boron trichloride is, however, produced industrially by direct chlorination of boron oxide and carbon at 500 °C.B2O3 + 3 C + 3 Cl2 → 2 BCl3 + 3 COThe carbothermic reaction is analogous to the Kroll process for the conversion of titanium dioxide to titanium tetrachloride
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Dimethylzinc
Dimethylzinc, also known as Zinc
Zinc
methyl, DMZ, or DMZn is a colorless volatile liquid Zn(CH3)2, formed by the action of methyl iodide on zinc at elevated temperature or on zinc sodium alloy.2Zn + 2CH3I → Zn(CH3)2 + ZnI2The sodium assists the reaction of the zinc with the methyl iodide. Zinc
Zinc
iodide is formed as a byproduct. It has a disagreeable odor, and is pyrophoric. It has been of great importance in the synthesis of organic compounds. It is soluble in alkanes and often sold as a solution in hexanes. It belongs to the large series of similar compounds such as diethylzinc.Contents1 History 2 Uses 3 Structure 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] This substance was first prepared by Edward Frankland
Edward Frankland
during his work with Robert Bunsen
Robert Bunsen
in 1849 at the University of Marburg
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Grignard Reagents
The Grignard reaction
Grignard reaction
(pronounced /ɡriɲar/) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.[1][2] This reaction is an important tool for the formation of carbon–carbon bonds.[3][4] The reaction of an organic halide with magnesium is not a Grignard reaction, but provides a Grignard reagent.[5]Grignard reactions and reagents were discovered by and are named after the French chemist François Auguste Victor Grignard
Victor Grignard
(University of Nancy, France), who published it in 1900 and was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
for this work.[6] Grignard reagents are similar to organolithium reagents because both are strong nucleophiles that can form new carbon–carbon bonds
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Trimethylaluminium
Trimethylaluminium
Trimethylaluminium
is one of the simplest examples of an organoaluminium compound. Despite its name it has the formula Al2(CH3)6 (abbreviated as Al2Me6 or TMA) as it exists as a dimer. This colorless liquid is an industrially important compound but must be handled with care due to its pyrophoricity; it evolves white smoke (aluminium oxides) when the vapor is released into the air.Contents1 Structure and bonding 2 Synthesis and applications 3 Semiconductor grade TMA 4 References 5 External linksStructure and bonding[edit] Al2Me6 exists mostly as a dimer at room temperature and pressure,[3] analogous in structure and bonding to diborane. As with diborane, the molecules are connected by 2 3-center-2-electron bonds: the shared methyl groups bridge between the two aluminium atoms
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Hexane
Hexane
Hexane
/ˈhɛkseɪn/ is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14. The term may refer to any of the five structural isomers with that formula, or to a mixture of them.[5] In IUPAC nomenclature, however, hexane is the unbranched isomer (n-hexane); the other four isomers are named as methylated derivatives of pentane and butane. IUPAC also uses the term as the root of many compounds with a linear six-carbon backbone, such as 2-methylhexane. Hexanes are significant constituents of gasoline. They are all colorless liquids, odorless when pure, with boiling points between 50 and 70 °C (122 and 158 °F)
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Boron Tribromide
Boron
Boron
tribromide, BBr3, is a colorless, fuming liquid compound containing boron and bromine
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Dibutyl Ether
Dibutyl ether
Dibutyl ether
is a chemical compound belonging to the ether family with the molecular formula of C 8H 18O. It is colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid and has peculiar ethereal smell. Liquid dibutyl ether is lighter than water. On the other hand, the vapor is heavier than air. It is not soluble in water, but it is soluble in acetone and many other organic solvents. Due to this property, dibutyl ether is used as solvent in various chemical reactions and processes. For example, phenyllithium is commercially available as a ca
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Lewis Acid
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct. A Lewis base, then, is any species that has a filled orbital containing an electron pair which is not involved in bonding but may form a dative bond with a Lewis acid to form a Lewis adduct. For example, NH3 is a Lewis base, because it can donate its lone pair of electrons. Trimethylborane
Trimethylborane
(Me3B) is a Lewis acid as it is capable of accepting a lone pair. In a Lewis adduct, the Lewis acid and base share an electron pair furnished by the Lewis base, forming a dative bond.[1] In the context of a specific chemical reaction between NH3 and Me3B, the lone pair from NH3 will form a dative bond with the empty orbital of Me3B to form an adduct NH3•BMe3. The terminology refers to the contributions of Gilbert N
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Standard State
In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use.[1] IUPAC
IUPAC
recommends using a standard pressure po = 105 Pa.[2] Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas, regardless of the temperature
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Teflon
Polytetrafluoroethylene
Polytetrafluoroethylene
(PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. The best known brand name of PTFE-based formulas is Teflon
Teflon
by Chemours.[2] Chemours is a 2015 spin-off of DuPont
DuPont
Co.,[3] which discovered the compound in 1938.[2] PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic: neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction of any solid. PTFE is used as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware. It is non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds, and so it is often used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals
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