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Trichophyton Rubrum
TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM is a dermatophytic fungus in the phylum Ascomycota
Ascomycota
, class Euascomycetes . It is an exclusively clonal, anthropophilic saprotroph that colonizes the upper layers of dead skin, and is the most common cause of athlete\'s foot , fungal infection of nail, jock itch , and ringworm worldwide. Trichophyton rubrum was first described by Malmsten in 1845 and is currently considered to be a complex of species that comprises multiple, geographically patterned morphotypes, several of which have been formally described as distinct taxa, including T. raubitschekii, T. gourvilii, T. megninii and T. soudanense
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Auxotrophy
AUXOTROPHY (Ancient Greek : αὐξάνω "to increase"; τροφή "nourishment") is the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth (as defined by IUPAC
IUPAC
). An auxotroph is an organism that displays this characteristic; auxotrophic is the corresponding adjective. Auxotrophy is the opposite of prototrophy, which is characterized by the ability to synthesize all the compounds needed for growth. The method of replica plating implemented by Esther Lederberg included auxotrophs that were temperature-sensitive; that is, their ability to synthesize was temperature-dependent. (Auxotrophs are usually not temperature-dependent. They can also depend on other factors.) Multiple auxotrophs can also coexist at the same time, within the same organism
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Histidine
HISTIDINE (abbreviated as HIS or H; encoded by the codons CAU and CAC) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins . It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated –NH3+ form under biological conditions ), a carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated –COO− form under biological conditions), and an imidazole side chain (which is partially protonated), classifying it as a positively charged amino acid at physiological pH. Initially thought essential only for infants, longer-term studies have shown it is essential for adults also. Histidine
Histidine
was first isolated by German physician Albrecht Kossel and Sven Hedin in 1896. It is also a precursor to histamine , a vital inflammatory agent in immune responses. The acyl radical is HISTIDYL
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Zoophilic
ZOOPHILY is a form of pollination whereby pollen is transferred by animals, usually vertebrates but may include invertebrates , particularly by hummingbirds and other birds, and bats , but also by monkeys , marsupials , lemurs , bears , rabbits , deer , rodents , lizards and other animals. Zoomophilous species, like entomophilous species, frequently evolve mechanisms to make themselves more appealing to the particular type of pollinator , e.g. brightly colored or scented flowers, nectar, and appealing shapes and patterns. These plant animal relationships are often mutually beneficial because of the food source provided in exchange for pollination. Zoophilous species include Arctium , Acaena , and Galium aparine
Galium aparine
' Pollination
Pollination
is defined as the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma (Worldnet)
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Miconazole
MICONAZOLE, sold under the brand name MONISTAT among others, is an antifungal medication used to treat ring worm , pityriasis versicolor , and yeast infections of the skin or vagina. It is applied to the skin or vagina as a cream or ointment. Common side effects include itchiness or irritation of the area in which it was applied. Use in pregnancy is believed to be safe for the baby. Miconazole
Miconazole
is in the imidazole family of medications. It works by decreasing the ability of fungi to make ergosterol , an important part of its cell membrane . Miconazole
Miconazole
was patented in 1968 and approved for medical use in 1971. It is on the World Health Organization\'s List of Essential Medicines , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system . The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.23 to 0.60 USD for a 30 gm tube. In the United States a course of treatment costs less than 25 USD
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Macroconidia
A CONIDIUM (plural CONIDIA), sometimes termed an ASEXUAL CHLAMYDOSPORE or CHLAMYDOCONIDIUM (plural CHLAMYDOCONIDIA), is an asexual , non-motile spore of a fungus . The name comes from the Greek word for dust , κόνις kónis. They are also called MITOSPORES due to the way they are generated through the cellular process of mitosis . The two new haploid cells are genetically identical to the haploid parent, and can develop into new organisms if conditions are favorable, and serve in biological dispersal . Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction
in ascomycetes (the phylum Ascomycota
Ascomycota
) is by the formation of conidia, which are borne on specialized stalks called CONIDIOPHORES. The morphology of these specialized conidiophores is often distinctive of a specific species and can therefore be used in identification of the species. The terms MICROCONIDIA and MACROCONIDIA are sometimes used
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Penicillin
Template:Drugbox = pentacid PENICILLIN (PCN or PEN) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use ), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin , and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use ). Penicillin
Penicillin
antibiotics were among the first medications to be effective against many bacterial infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci . Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use. About 10% of people report that they are allergic to penicillin; however, up to 90% of this group may not actually be allergic. Serious allergies only occur in about 0.03%. All penicillins are β-lactam antibiotics . Penicillin
Penicillin
was discovered in 1928 by Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming . People began using it to treat infections in 1942
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Protease
A PROTEASE (also called a PEPTIDASE or PROTEINASE) is any enzyme that performs proteolysis ; protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds . Proteases have evolved multiple times , and different classes of protease can perform the same reaction by completely different catalytic mechanisms . Proteases can be found in Animalia , Plantae , Fungi , Bacteria , Archaea and viruses
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Urease
UREASES (EC 3.5.1.5), functionally, belong to the superfamily of amidohydrolases and phosphotriesterases. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia . The reaction occurs as follows: (NH2)2CO + H2O → CO2 + 2NH3 More specifically, urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbamate ; the carbamate produced is subsequently degraded by spontaneous hydrolysis to produce another ammonia and carbonic acid . Urease
Urease
activity tends to increase the pH of its environment as it produces ammonia, a basic molecule. Ureases are found in numerous bacteria , fungi , algae , plants and some invertebrates , as well as in soils, as a soil enzyme. They are nickel-containing metalloenzymes of high molecular weight. Its activity was first identified in 1876 by Frédéric Alphonse Musculus as a soluble ferment . In 1926, James B
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Neoscytalidium Dimidiatum
NEOSCYTALIDIUM DIMIDIATUM was first described in 1933 as Hendersonula toruloidea from diseased orchard trees in Egypt
Egypt
. Decades later, it was determined to be a causative agent of human dermatomycosis -like infections and foot infections predominantly in the tropical areas; however the fungus is considered to be widespread. A newer name, Scytalidium dimidiatum, was applied to synanamorph of Nattrassia mangiferae, otherwise known as Neofusicoccum mangiferae. Substantial confusion has arisen in the literature on this fungus resulting from the use of multiple different names including: Torula dimidiata, Scytalidium dimidiatum, Fusicoccum dimidiatum, and Hendersonula toruloidea. CONTENTS * 1 History and taxonomy * 2 Growth and morphology * 3 Habitat and ecology * 3.1 Human infection * 3.2 Plant disease * 4 References HISTORY AND TAXONOMYIn 1933, British mycologist Dr
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Id Reaction
ID REACTIONS (also known as "Disseminated eczema," and "Generalized eczema" ) present with a variety of infectious disorders, often occurring in response to an inflammatory tinea of the feet, resulting in an eczematous dermatitis. :81 The inflammation is in the absence of a locally visible cause. CONTENTS * 1 Cause * 2 Diagnosis * 3 Treatment * 4 See also * 5 References CAUSE THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (September 2017)DIAGNOSIS THIS SECTION IS EMPTY. You can help by adding to it . (September 2017)TREATMENTId reactions are frequently unresponsive to corticosteroid therapy, but clear when the focus of infection or infestation is treated. :81 SEE ALSO * Candidid * Dermatophytid * Leukemid * List of cutaneous conditions
List of cutaneous conditions
REFERENCES * ^ A B Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St
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Lunula (anatomy)
The LUNULA, or LUNULAE (pl.) (little moon in Latin
Latin
), is the crescent-shaped whitish area of the bed of a fingernail or toenail . The lunula is the visible part of the root of the nail. In humans, it appears by week 14 of gestation , and has a primary structural role in defining the free edge of the distal nail plate (the part of the nail that grows outward). APPEARANCEIt is located at the end of the nail (that is closest to the skin of the finger), but it still lies under the nail. It is not actually white but only appears so when it is seen through the nail. Outlining the nail matrix, the lunula is a very delicate part of the nail structure. If one damages the lunula, the nail will be permanently deformed. Even when the totality of the nail is removed, the lunula remains in place and is similar in appearance to another smaller fingernail embedded in the nail bed . In most cases, it is half-moon-shaped and has unique histologic features
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Tinea Manuum
TINEA MANUUM (or TINEA MANUS ) is a fungal infection of the hand. It is typically more aggressive than tinea pedis but similar in look. Itching, burning, cracking, and scaling are observable and may be transmitted sexually or otherwise, whether or not symptoms are present. Alternatively, it may be caused by an allergic reaction, known as a "dermatophytid reaction". "For example, a fungal infection on the foot may cause an itchy, bumpy rash to appear on the fingers. These eruptions (dermatophytids, or identity or id reactions ) are allergic reactions to the fungus. They do not result from touching the infected area. The eruptions may appear on many different areas of the body at once." TREATMENTIt can usually be treated with long-term use of a topical antifungal medications such as selenium sulfide shampoo. However, in some cases an oral antifungal such as griseofulvin may have to be prescribed
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T Cells
A T CELL, or T LYMPHOCYTE, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell ) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity . T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells , by the presence of a T-cell receptor on the cell surface . They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus from thymocytes (although some also mature in the tonsils ). The several subsets of T cells each have a distinct function. The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system . Specialized gamma delta T cells , (a small minority of T cells in the human body , more frequent in ruminants ), have invariant T-cell receptors with limited diversity, that can effectively present antigens to other T cells and are considered to be part of the innate immune system
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Lymphocytes
A LYMPHOCYTE is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate 's immune system . Lymphocytes include natural killer cells (NK cells) (which function in cell-mediated , cytotoxic innate immunity ), T cells (for cell-mediated , cytotoxic adaptive immunity ), and B cells (for humoral , antibody -driven adaptive immunity ). They are the main type of cell found in lymph , which prompted the name "lymphocyte". CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 T cells and B cells * 1.2 Natural killer cells * 2 Development * 3 Characteristics * 4 Lymphocytes and disease * 4.1 High * 4.2 Low * 4.3 Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes * 5 Blood
Blood
content * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links TYPES A stained lymphocyte surrounded by red blood cells viewed using a light microscope . The three major types of lymphocyte are T cells , B cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Lymphocytes can be identified by their large nucleus
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