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Trichophyton Rubrum
Trichophyton
Trichophyton
rubrum is a dermatophytic fungus in the phylum Ascomycota, class Euascomycetes. It is an exclusively clonal,[1] anthropophilic saprotroph that colonizes the upper layers of dead skin, and is the most common cause of athlete's foot, fungal infection of nail, jock itch, and ringworm worldwide.[2] Trichophyton
Trichophyton
rubrum was first described by Malmsten in 1845 and is currently considered to be a complex of species that comprises multiple, geographically patterned morphotypes, several of which have been formally described as distinct taxa, including T. raubitschekii, T. gourvilii, T
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Tinea Manuum
Tinea manuum (or tinea manus[1]) is a fungal infection of the hand.[2] It is typically more aggressive than tinea pedis but similar in look. Itching, burning, cracking, and scaling are observable and may be transmitted sexually or otherwise, whether or not symptoms are present. Alternatively, it may be caused by an allergic reaction, known as a "dermatophytid reaction". "For example, a fungal infection on the foot may cause an itchy, bumpy rash to appear on the fingers. These eruptions (dermatophytids, or identity or id reactions) are allergic reactions to the fungus. They do not result from touching the infected area. The eruptions may appear on many different areas of the body at once."[3] Treatment[edit] It can usually be treated with long-term use of a topical antifungal medications such as selenium sulfide shampoo
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Histidine
Histidine
Histidine
(symbol His or H;[2] encoded by the codons CAU and CAC) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated –NH3+ form under biological conditions), a carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated –COO− form under biological conditions), and an imidazole side chain (which is partially protonated), classifying it as a positively charged amino acid at physiological pH. Initially thought essential only for infants, longer-term studies have shown it is essential for adults also.[3] Histidine
Histidine
was first isolated by German physician Albrecht Kossel
Albrecht Kossel
and Sven Hedin in 1896.[4] It is also a precursor to histamine, a vital inflammatory agent in immune responses
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Urease
Ureases (EC 3.5.1.5), functionally, belong to the superfamily of amidohydrolases and phosphotriesterases.[1] Ureases are found in numerous bacteria, fungi, algae, plants, and some invertebrates, as well as in soils, as a soil enzyme. They are nickel-containing metalloenzymes of high molecular weight.[2] These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia:(NH2)2CO + H2O → CO2 + 2NH3The hydrolysis of urea occurs in two stages. In the first stage, ammonia and carbamate are produced. The carbamate spontaneously and rapidly hydrolyzes to ammonia and carbonic acid. Urease
Urease
activity increase the pH of its environment as it produces ammonia, which is basic. Its activity was first identified in 1876 by Frédéric Alphonse Musculus as a soluble ferment.[3] In 1926, James B
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Neoscytalidium Dimidiatum
Neoscytalidium dimidiatum was first described in 1933 as Hendersonula toruloidea from diseased orchard trees in Egypt.[3] Decades later, it was determined to be a causative agent of human dermatomycosis-like infections and foot infections predominantly in the tropical areas; however the fungus is considered to be widespread.[3] A newer name, Scytalidium dimidiatum, was applied to synanamorph of Nattrassia mangiferae,[4] otherwise known as Neofusicoccum mangiferae. Substantial confusion has arisen in the literature on this fungus resulting from the use of multiple different names including: Torula dimidiata, Scytalidium dimidiatum, Fusicoccum dimidiatum,[1] and Hendersonula toruloidea.[5]Contents1 History and taxonomy 2 Growth and morphology 3 Habitat and ecology3.1 Human infection 3.2 Plant disease4 ReferencesHistory and taxonomy[edit] In 1933, British mycologist Dr. Rolland Marshall Nattrass described an arthroconidial asexual fungus that he named H
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Folliculitis
Folliculitis
Folliculitis
is the infection and inflammation of one or more hair follicles. The condition may occur anywhere on the skin except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
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Granuloma
Granuloma
Granuloma
is an inflammation found in many diseases. It is a collection of immune cells known as histiocytes (macrophages).[1] Granulomas form when the immune system attempts to wall off substances it perceives as foreign but is unable to eliminate
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Cushing Syndrome
Cushing's syndrome
Cushing's syndrome
is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.[3][8] Signs and symptoms may include high blood pressure, abdominal obesity but with thin arms and legs, reddish stretch marks, a round red face, a fat lump between the shoulders, weak muscles, weak bones, acne, and fragile skin that heals poorly.[2] Women may have more hair and irregular menstruation.[2] Occasionally there may be changes in mood, headaches, and a chronic feeling of tiredness.[2]
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Lymphocytes
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system. Lymphocytosis
Lymphocytosis
include natural killer cells (which function in cell-mediated, cytotoxic innate immunity), T cells (for cell-mediated, cytotoxic adaptive immunity), and B cells (for humoral, antibody-driven adaptive immunity). They are the main type of cell found in lymph, which prompted the name "lymphocyte".Contents1 Types1.1 T cells and B cells 1.2 Natural killer cells2 Development 3 Characteristics 4 Lymphocytes and disease4.1 High 4.2 Low 4.3 Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes5 Blood
Blood
content 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksTypes[edit]A stained lymphocyte surrounded by red blood cells viewed using a light microscope.The three major types of lymphocyte are T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells
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T Cells
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. T cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells, by the presence of a T-cell receptor
T-cell receptor
on the cell surface. They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus from thymocytes[1] (although some also mature in the tonsils[2]). The several subsets of T cells each have a distinct function. The majority of human T cells rearrange their alpha and beta chains on the cell receptor and are termed alpha beta T cells (αβ T cells) and are part of the adaptive immune system
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Id Reaction
Cutaneous autosensitization Autosensitization dermatitis autoeczematisation autosensitisation dermatitis cutaneous autosensitisation sensitization dermatitisClassification and external resourcesSpecialty dermatologyICD-10 L30.2 ( ILDS L30.205)eMedicine article/1049760[edit on Wikidata]Id reactions (also known as "disseminated eczema,"[1] and "generalized eczema"[1]) are types of acute dermatitis developing after days or weeks at skin locations distant from the initial inflammatory or infectious site. They can be localised or generalised.[2][3] This is also known as an 'autoeczematous response'[4] and there must be an identifiable initial inflammatory or infectious skin problem which leads to the generalised eczema
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Lunula (anatomy)
The lunula, or lunulae (pl.) (from Latin, meaning 'little moon'), is the crescent-shaped whitish area of the bed of a fingernail or toenail. The lunula is the visible part of the root of the nail. In humans, it appears by week 14 of gestation, and has a primary structural role in defining the free edge of the distal nail plate (the part of the nail that grows outward). Appearance[edit] It is located at the end of the nail (that is closest to the skin of the finger), but it still lies under the nail. It is not actually white but only appears so when it is seen through the nail. Outlining the nail matrix, the lunula is a very delicate part of the nail structure. If one damages the lunula, the nail will be permanently deformed. Even when the totality of the nail is removed, the lunula remains in place and is similar in appearance to another smaller fingernail embedded in the nail bed. In most cases, it is half-moon-shaped and has unique histologic features
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Fungus
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)AscomycotaPezizomycotina Saccharomycotina TaphrinomycotinaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina UstilaginomycotinaSubphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise
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Zoophilic
Zoophily
Zoophily
is a form of pollination whereby pollen is transferred by animals, usually invertebrates but may include vertebrates,[1] particularly by hummingbirds and other birds, and bats, but also by monkeys, marsupials, lemurs, bears, rabbits, deer, rodents, lizards, and other animals. Zoophilous species, like entomophilous species, frequently evolve mechanisms to make themselves more appealing to the particular type of pollinator, e.g. brightly colored or scented flowers, nectar, and appealing shapes and patterns. These plant-animal relationships are often mutually beneficial because of the food source provided in exchange for pollination. Zoophilous species include Arctium, Acaena, and Galium aparine. Pollination
Pollination
is defined as the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma. There are many vectors for pollination, including abiotic (wind and water) and biotic (animal)
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Protease
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis; protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Proteases have evolved multiple times, and different classes of protease can perform the same reaction by completely different catalytic mechanisms
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