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Tribe (biology)
In biology , a TRIBE is a taxonomic rank above genus , but below family and subfamily . It is sometimes subdivided into SUBTRIBES. In zoology , examples include the tribes Caprini (goat-antelopes), Hominini (hominins), Bombini (bumblebees), and Thunnini (tunas). The standard ending for the name of a zoological tribe is "-ini". The tribe Hominini is divided into subtribes by some scientists; subtribe Hominina then comprises "humans". The standard ending for the name of a zoological subtribe is "-ina". In botany , examples include the tribes Acalypheae and Hyacintheae . The standard ending for the name of a botanical tribe is "-eae". The tribe Hyacintheae is divided into subtribes, including the subtribe Massoniinae. The standard ending for the name of a botanical subtribe is "-inae"
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Nomenclature Codes
NOMENCLATURE CODES or CODES OF NOMENCLATURE are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature , each in their own broad field of organisms. To an end-user who only deals with names of species, with some awareness that species are assignable to families , it may not be noticeable that there is more than one code, but beyond this basic level these are rather different in the way they work. The successful introduction of two-part names for species by Linnaeus was the start for an ever-expanding system of nomenclature. With all naturalists worldwide adopting this approach to thinking up names there arose several schools of thought about the details. It became ever more apparent that a detailed body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names . From the mid-nineteenth century onwards there were several initiatives to arrive at worldwide-accepted sets of rules
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Pseudomonas
P. AERUGINOSA GROUP P. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. borbori P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. straminea P. CHLORORAPHIS GROUP P. asplenii P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. corrugata P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens P. FLUORESCENS GROUP P. antarctica P. azotoformans \'P. blatchfordae\' P. brassicacearum P. brenneri P. cedrina P. corrugata P. fluorescens P. gessardii P. libanensis P. mandelii P. marginalis P. mediterranea P. meridiana P. migulae P. mucidolens P. orientalis P. panacis P. protegens P. proteolytica P. rhodesiae P. synxantha P. thivervalensis P. tolaasii P. veronii P. PERTUCINOGENA GROUP P. denitrificans P. pertucinogena P. PUTIDA GROUP P. cremoricolorata P. entomophila P. fulva P. monteilii P. mosselii P. oryzihabitans P. parafulva P. plecoglossicida P. putida P
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Biology
BIOLOGY is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms , including their physical and chemical structure , function , development and evolution . Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches . Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity , and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species . It is also understood that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment
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Domain (biology)
Eukaryota (represented by the Australian green tree frog , left), Bacteria
Bacteria
(represented by Staphylococcus aureus , middle) and Archaea (represented by Sulfolobus , right). The hierarchy of biological classification 's eight major taxonomic ranks . Life
Life
is divided into domains, which are subdivided into further groups. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. In biological taxonomy , a DOMAIN ( Latin : REGIO ) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese , an American microbiologist and biophysicist . According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life (biology) consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria
Bacteria
, and Eukarya
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International Commission On Zoological Nomenclature
The INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 27 members from 19 countries, mainly practicing zoological taxonomists . CONTENTS * 1 Organization * 2 Activities * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ORGANIZATIONThe ICZN is governed by the "Constitution of the ICZN", which is usually published together with the ICZN Code . Members are elected by the Section of Zoological Nomenclature, established by the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS). The regular term of service of a member of the Commission is 6 years. Members can be re-elected up to a total of three full six-year terms in a row. After 18 continuous years of elected service, a break of at least 3 years is prescribed before the member can stand again for election
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Botany
BOTANY, also called PLANT SCIENCE(S), PLANT BIOLOGY or PHYTOLOGY, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology . A BOTANIST or PLANT SCIENTIST is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture ", "grass", or "fodder "; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress . Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants ), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes
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Bacteriology
BACTERIOLOGY is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology , ecology , genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them. This subdivision of microbiology involves the identification, classification, and characterization of bacterial species. A person who studies bacteriology is a BACTERIOLOGIST. CONTENTS * 1 Microbiology
Microbiology
* 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading MICROBIOLOGYBecause of the similarity of thinking and working with microorganisms other than bacteria, such as protozoa , fungi , and viruses , there has been a tendency for the field of bacteriology to extend as microbiology. The terms were formerly often used interchangeably. However, bacteriology can be classified as a distinct science
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Zoology
ZOOLOGY (/zuːˈɒlədʒi, zoʊˈɒlədʒi/ ) or ANIMAL BIOLOGY is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure , embryology , evolution , classification , habits , and distribution of all animals , both living and extinct , and how they interact with their ecosystems. The term is derived from Ancient
Ancient
Greek ζῷον, zōion, i.e. "animal " and λόγος, logos, i.e. "knowledge, study". CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Ancient
Ancient
history to Darwin * 1.2 Post-Darwin * 2 Research * 2.1 Structural * 2.2 Physiological * 2.3 Evolutionary * 2.4 Classification * 2.5 Ethology * 2.6 Biogeography
Biogeography
* 3 Branches of zoology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYANCIENT HISTORY TO DARWIN Conrad Gesner (1516–1565). His Historiae animalium is considered the beginning of modern zoology
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Bombini
Bombus
Bombus
Calyptapis Oligobombus The BOMBINI are a tribe of large bristly apid bees which feed on pollen or nectar . Many species are social, forming nests of up to a few hundred individuals; other species, formerly classified as Psithyrus cuckoo bees, are brood parasites of nest-making species. The tribe contains a single living genus, Bombus
Bombus
, the bumblebees, and some extinct genera such as Calyptapis and Oligobombus . FOSSILS Bombus
Bombus
cerdanyensis was described from Late Miocene
Miocene
lacustrine beds of La Cerdanya , Spain in 2014. Calyptapis florissantensis was described by Cockerell in 1906 from the Chadronian ( Eocene
Eocene
) lacustrine – large shale of Florissant in the USA
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Form (biology)
In botanical nomenclature , a FORM (forma, plural formae) is one of the "secondary" taxonomic ranks , below that of variety , which in turn is below that of species; it is an infraspecific taxon . If more than three ranks are listed in describing a taxon, the "classification" is being specified, but only three parts make up the "name" of the taxon: a genus name, a specific epithet , and an infraspecific epithet . The abbreviation "f." or the full "forma" should be put before the infraspecific epithet to indicate the rank. It is not italicised. For example: * Acanthocalycium spiniflorum f. klimpelianum or * Acanthocalycium spiniflorum forma klimpelianum (Weidlich & Werderm.) Donald* Crataegus aestivalis (Walter) Torr. & A.Gray var. cerasoides Sarg. f. luculenta Sarg. is a classification of a plant whose name is: * Crataegus aestivalis (Walter) Torr
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Legion (biology)
The LEGION, in biological classification , is a non-obligatory taxonomic rank within the Linnaean hierarchy sometimes used in zoology . CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomic rank
Taxonomic rank
* 2 Use in zoology * 3 See also * 4 References TAXONOMIC RANKIn zoological taxonomy , the legion is: * subordinate to the class * superordinate to the cohort . * consists of a group of related orders Legions may be grouped into SUPERLEGIONS or subdivided into SUBLEGIONS, and these again into INFRALEGIONS. USE IN ZOOLOGYLegions and their super/sub/infra groups have been employed in some classifications of birds and mammals . Full use is made of all of these (along with COHORTS and SUPERCOHORTS) in, for example, McKenna and Bell\'s classification of mammals . SEE ALSO * Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
* Mammal classification REFERENCES * ^ McKenna, Malcolm C. and Susan K. Bell (editors)
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Class (biology)
In biological classification , CLASS (Latin : classis) is: * a taxonomic rank . Other well-known ranks in descending order of size are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , order , family , genus , and species , with class fitting between phylum and order. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the prefix sub-: subclass (Latin: subclassis). * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is classes (Latin classes) Example: Dogs are in the class Mammalia . The composition of each class is determined by a taxonomist . Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists taking different positions. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing a class, but for well-known animals there is likely to be consensus. In botany, classes are now rarely discussed
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