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Treaty
A TREATY is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations . A treaty may also be known as an (INTERNATIONAL) AGREEMENT, PROTOCOL, COVENANT, CONVENTION, PACT, or EXCHANGE OF LETTERS, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered treaties and the rules are the same. Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts : both are means of willing parties assuming obligations among themselves, and a party to either that fails to live up to their obligations can be held liable under international law
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Yothu Yindi
YOTHU YINDI ( Yolngu for "child and mother") were an Australian musical group with Aboriginal and balanda (non-Aboriginal) members, formed in 1986 as a merger of two bands formed in 1985 - a White rock group called the Swamp Jockeys and an unnamed Aboriginal folk group. The Aboriginal members came from Yolngu homelands near Yirrkala on the Gove Peninsula in Northern Territory 's Arnhem Land
Arnhem Land
. Founding members included Stuart Kellaway on bass guitar, Cal Williams on lead guitar, Andrew Belletty (Drums), Witiyana Marika on manikay (traditional vocals), bilma (ironwood clapsticks ) and dance, Milkayngu Mununggurr on yidaki (didgeridoo ), Geoffrey Gurrumul Yunupingu on keyboards, guitar and percussion, and leader Mandawuy Yunupingu on vocals and guitar
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Treaty (song)
"TREATY" is a song by Australian indigenous music band Yothu Yindi
Yothu Yindi
, which is made up of Aboriginal and balanda (non-Aboriginal) members. Released in June 1991, "Treaty" peaked at No. 11 on the ARIA Singles Chart in September. "Treaty" was the first song by a predominately-Aboriginal band to chart in Australia and was the first song in any Aboriginal Australian language (Yolngu-Matha) to gain extensive international recognition, peaking at No. 6 on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play
Hot Dance Club Play
singles charts. In May 2001 "Treaty" was selected by Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA) as one of the Top 30 Australian songs of all time. In 2009 'Treaty' was added to the National Film and Sound Archive
National Film and Sound Archive
's Sounds of Australia registry
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Indiana
INDIANA /ɪndiˈænə/ ( listen ) is a U.S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States . Its capital and largest city is Indianapolis . Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U.S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, and Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, varying cultures of indigenous peoples and historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years
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Treaty, Indiana
TREATY is an unincorporated community in Liberty Township , Wabash County , in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Indiana
Indiana
. HISTORYTreaty was founded in the mid-1870s, and was named after the nearby Treaty Creek. A post office was established at Treaty in 1874, and remained in operation until it was discontinued in 1935. GEOGRAPHYTreaty is located on Indiana
Indiana
State Road 15 between Wabash and La Fontaine , at 40°43′28″N 85°46′56″W / 40.72444°N 85.78222°W / 40.72444; -85.78222 . REFERENCES * ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States
United States
Geological Survey . October 25, 2007. Retrieved 2016-06-20. * ^ "Treaty, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System
Geographic Names Information System
. United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2016-06-20. * ^ Baker, Ronald L. (October 1995)
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication<
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Treaty Of Brest-Litovsk
The TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany , Austria-Hungary , Bulgaria , and the Ottoman Empire ), that ended Russia's participation in World War I . The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Polish : _Brześć Litewski_; since 1945 Brest ), after two months of negotiations. The treaty was agreed upon by the Bolshevik government under threat of further advances by German and Austrian forces. According to the treaty, Soviet Russia defaulted on all of Imperial Russia 's commitments to the Triple Entente alliance. In the treaty, Bolshevik Russia ceded the Baltic States to Germany; they were meant to become German vassal states under German princelings
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International Law
INTERNATIONAL LAW is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations . It serves as a framework for the practice of stable and organized international relations. International law differs from state-based legal systems in that it is primarily applicable to countries rather than to private citizens. National law may become international law when treaties delegate national jurisdiction to supranational tribunals such as the European Court of Human Rights or the International Criminal Court . Treaties such as the Geneva Conventions may require national law to conform to respective parts. Much of international law is consent-based governance. This means that a state member is not obliged to abide by this type of international law, unless it has expressly consented to a particular course of conduct. This is an issue of state sovereignty
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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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International Organizations
An INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence. There are two main types: * International
International
nongovernmental organizations (INGOs): non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that operate internationally. These include international non-profit organizations and worldwide companies such as the World
World
Organization
Organization
of the Scout Movement , International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
and Médecins Sans Frontières . * Intergovernmental organizations , also known as international governmental organizations (IGOs): the type of organization most closely associated with the term 'international organization', these are organizations that are made up primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states )
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Contract
A CONTRACT is a voluntary arrangement between two or more parties that is enforceable by law as a binding legal agreement. Contract is a branch of the law of obligations in jurisdictions of the civil law tradition. Contract law concerns the rights and duties that arise from agreements. A contract arises when the parties agree that there is an agreement. Formation of a contract generally requires an offer, acceptance , consideration , and a mutual intent to be bound . Each party to a contract must have capacity to enter the agreement. Minors, intoxicated persons, and those under a mental affliction may have insufficient capacity to enter a contract. Some types of contracts may require formalities , such as a memorialization in writing
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Preamble
A PREAMBLE is an introductory and expressionary statement in a document that explains the document's purpose and underlying philosophy. When applied to the opening paragraphs of a statute, it may recite historical facts pertinent to the subject of the statute. It is distinct from the long title or enacting formula of a law. In parliamentary procedure using Robert\'s Rules of Order , a preamble consists of "Whereas" clauses that are placed before the resolving clauses in a resolution (formal written motion ). However, preambles are not required to be placed in resolutions. According to Robert's Rules of Order, including such background information may not be helpful in passing the resolution. LEGAL EFFECTWhile preambles may be regarded as unimportant introductory matter, their words may have effects that may not have been foreseen by their drafters
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Gerund
A GERUND (/ˈdʒɛrənd, -ʌnd/ abbreviated GER) is a verb form that functions as a noun. Although similar to a verbal noun , the two are not identical, as a gerund retains properties of a verb, whereas a verbal noun does not; in English this is most evident in the fact that a gerund can be modified by an adverb and can take a direct object. The term " -ing form" is often used in English to refer to the gerund specifically. Traditional grammar made a distinction within -ing forms between present participles and gerunds, a distinction that is not observed in such modern, linguistically informed grammars as A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language and The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language
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Boilerplate Clause
A BOILERPLATE CLAUSE is a legal English term that is used in conjunction with contract law . When forming contracts, parties to the contract often use templates or forms which include boilerplate clauses (boilerplate language - used as standard language). Such clauses refers to the standardized clauses in contracts and they are to be found towards the end of the agreement. Including boilerplate clauses is the process, by which parties to the contract may define their relationship in a better way and they are willing to provide certainty if terms in the contract are ever disputed. Boilerplate clauses are standard contractual terms that are routinely included in many contracts
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Eschatocol
An ESCHATOCOL, i. e. CLOSING PROTOCOL, is the final section of a legal or public document , which may include a formulaic sentence of appreciation; the attestation of those responsible for the document, i. e., the author, writer, countersigner, principal parties involved, and witnesses to the enactment or the subscription; or both. It also expresses the context of the documentation of the action described therein, i. e., enunciation of the means of validation and indication of the responsibilities for documentation of the act, and the final formulae. Formerly common in medieval charters, they have been relegated to notarial acts , diplomatic treaties , certificates , and other formalized writings
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Bilateral Treaty
A BILATERAL TREATY (also called a BIPARTITE TREATY) is a treaty strictly between two state parties. These two parties can be two states, or two international organizations , or one state and one international organization. It is similar to a contract , so it is called contractual treaty. For example: The Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
between Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
, signed in September 1978
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