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Traxoprodil
TRAXOPRODIL (developmental code name CP-101606) is a drug developed by Pfizer which acts as an NMDA antagonist
NMDA antagonist
, selective for the NR2B subunit. It has neuroprotective , analgesic , and anti-Parkinsonian effects in animal studies. Traxoprodil
Traxoprodil
has been researched in humans as a potential treatment to lessen the damage to the brain after stroke , but results from clinical trials showed only modest benefit. The drug was found to cause EKG abnormalities (QT prolongation) and its clinical development was stopped. More recent animal studies have suggested traxoprodil may exhibit rapid-acting antidepressant effects similar to those of ketamine , although there is some evidence for similar psychoactive side effects and abuse potential at higher doses, which might limit clinical acceptance of traxoprodil for this application
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Antidepressant
ANTIDEPRESSANTS are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia , anxiety disorders , obsessive compulsive disorder , eating disorders , chronic pain , neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea , snoring, migraine , attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction , dependence , and sleep disorders . They may be prescribed alone or in combination with other medications. The most important classes of antidepressants are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), reversible monoamine oxidase A inhibitors (r MAO-A inhibitors), tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs), and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSAs). St John\'s wort is also used in the treatment of depression
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The ANATOMICAL THERAPEUTIC CHEMICAL (ATC) CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic , pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976. This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act and/or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics . Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use). This means that one drug can have more than one code: acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), for example, has A01AD05 (WHO) as a drug for local oral treatment, B01AC06 (WHO) as a platelet inhibitor , and N02BA01 (WHO) as an analgesic and antipyretic
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Clinical Trial
CLINICAL TRIALS are experiments or observations done in clinical research . Such prospective biomedical or behavioral research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions, including new treatments (such as novel vaccines , drugs , dietary choices , dietary supplements , and medical devices ) and known interventions that warrant further study and comparison. Clinical trials generate data on safety and efficacy . They are conducted only after they have received health authority/ethics committee approval in the country where approval of the therapy is sought. These authorities are responsible for vetting the risk/benefit ratio of the trial – their approval does not mean that the therapy is 'safe' or effective, only that the trial may be conducted
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Stroke
STROKE is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death . There are two main types of stroke: ischemic , due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic , due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking , feeling like the world is spinning , or loss of vision to one side . Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache . The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control . The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure
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Analgesic
An ANALGESIC or PAINKILLER is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain . Analgesic drugs act in various ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. They are distinct from anesthetics , which temporarily affect, and in some instances completely eliminate, sensation . Analgesics include paracetamol (known in North America as acetaminophen or simply APAP), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as the salicylates , and opioid drugs such as morphine and oxycodone . When choosing analgesics, the severity and response to other medication determines the choice of agent; the World Health Organization (WHO) pain ladder specifies mild analgesics as its first step
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Parkinson's Disease
PARKINSON\'S DISEASE (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system . The symptoms generally come on slowly over time. Early in the disease, the most obvious are shaking , rigidity , slowness of movement , and difficulty with walking . Thinking and behavioral problems may also occur. Dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease. Depression and anxiety are also common occurring in more than a third of people with PD. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep , and emotional problems. The main motor symptoms are collectively called "parkinsonism ", or a "parkinsonian syndrome". The cause of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease
is generally unknown , but believed to involve both genetic and environmental factors. Those with a family member affected are more likely to get the disease themselves
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Placebo
A PLACEBO (/pləˈsiːboʊ/ plə-SEE-boh ; Latin
Latin
placēbō, "I shall please" from placeō, "I please") is a substance or treatment with no active therapeutic effect. A placebo may be given to a person in order to deceive the recipient into thinking that it is an active treatment. In drug testing and medical research, a placebo can be made to resemble an active medication or therapy so that it functions as a control ; this is to prevent the recipient(s) and/or others from knowing (with their consent ) whether a treatment is active or inactive, as expectations about efficacy can influence results. This psychological phenomenon, in which the recipient perceives an improvement in condition due to personal expectations, rather than the treatment itself, is known as the PLACEBO EFFECT or PLACEBO RESPONSE. Research about the effect is ongoing. Placebos are an important methodological tool in medical research
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QTc Prolongation
DRUG-INDUCED QT PROLONGATION is seen with a QT interval
QT interval
above 0.45 ms on the ECG and is usually a result of treatment by anti-arrhythmic drugs, such as amiodarone and sotalol , or a number of other drugs that have been reported to cause this problem (e.g., cisapride ). Some anti-psychotic drugs, such as haloperidol and ziprasidone , have a prolonged QT interval
QT interval
as a rare side-effect. Antihistamines , erythromycin , and ciprofloxacin may also cause drug-induced LQT. Genetic mutations may make one more susceptible to drug-induced LQT. It is associated with hypokalaemia, hypocalcaemia and hypothermia and may lead to torsades de pointes . List of drugs associated with prolonging the QT interval
QT interval
that may or may not have FDA warnings
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British Journal Of Pharmacology
The BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of experimental pharmacology . It is published for the British Pharmacological Society by Wiley-Blackwell . It was established in 1946 as the British Journal of Pharmacology
Pharmacology
and Chemotherapy. The journal obtained its current title in 1968. The editor-in-chief is Amrita Ahluwalia . Previous editors-in-chief include Ian McGrath, Humphrey Rang , Alan North, Phil Moore, Bill Large , and Tony Birmingham . A sister journal, also published for the British Pharmacological Society by Wiley-Blackwell is the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Pharmacology
. The journal publishes research papers, review articles, commentaries and correspondence in all fields of pharmacology. It also publishes themed issues, as well as supplements
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Receptor Modulator
A RECEPTOR MODULATOR, or RECEPTOR LIGAND, is a type of drug which binds to and modulates receptors . They are ligands and include receptor agonists and receptor antagonists , as well as receptor partial agonists , inverse agonists , and allosteric modulators
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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge. PubMed Central should not be confused with PubMed
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO . An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
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List Of Investigational Antidepressants
This is a LIST OF INVESTIGATIONAL ANTIDEPRESSANTS , or antidepressants that are currently under development for clinical use but are not yet approved. Chemical/generic names are listed first, with developmental code names, synonyms, and brand names in parentheses. All drugs listed are specifically under development for major depressive disorder (MDD) or treatment-resistant depression (TRD) unless noted otherwise
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Pubmed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in Ja