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Traprain Law
Coordinates : 55°57′47″N 2°40′21″W / 55.96306°N 2.67250°W / 55.96306; -2.67250 Traprain Law
Traprain Law
from the north TRAPRAIN LAW is a hill about 221m (724 feet) in elevation, located 6 km (3.7 mi) east of Haddington in East Lothian , Scotland
Scotland
. It is the site of an oppidum or hill fort , which covered at its maximum extent about 16 ha (40 acres) and must have been a veritable town. Whether it was a seasonal meeting place or permanent settlement is a matter of speculation. The hill was already a place of burial by around 1500 BC, and showed evidence of occupation and signs of ramparts after 1000 BC. The ramparts were rebuilt and re-aligned many times in the following centuries. Excavations have shown it was occupied in the Late Iron Age from about AD 40 through the last quarter of the 2nd century (about the time that the Antonine Wall
Antonine Wall
was manned). Following the Roman withdrawal to the line of Hadrian\'s Wall it was occupied from about 220 almost uninterruptedly until about 400 when an impressive new rampart was built, then within a few decades the site was abandoned. In the 1st century the Romans recorded the Votadini as a British tribe in the area, and Traprain Law
Traprain Law
is generally thought to have been one of their major settlements; named _"Curia"_ by Ptolemy
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Haddington, East Lothian
The Royal Burgh
Royal Burgh
of HADDINGTON (Scots : Haidintoun ) is a town in East Lothian
Lothian
, Scotland. It is the main administrative, cultural and geographical centre for East Lothian, which as a result of late-nineteenth century Scottish local government reforms, actually took the form of the county of Haddingtonshire for the period from 1889-1921. It lies about 20 miles (32 km) east of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
. The name Haddington is Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
, dating from the sixth or seventh century AD when the area was incorporated into the kingdom of Bernicia . The town, like the rest of the Lothian
Lothian
region, was ceded by King Edgar of England and became part of Scotland
Scotland
in the tenth century. Haddington received burghal status , one of the earliest to do so, during the reign of David I (1124–1153), giving it trading rights which encouraged its growth into a market town . Today Haddington is a small town with a population of less than 9,000 people; although during the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
, it was the fourth-biggest city in Scotland
Scotland
after Aberdeen
Aberdeen
, Roxburgh and Edinburgh. In the middle of the town is the Town House , built in 1748 according to a plan by William Adam
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East Lothian
EAST LOTHIAN (Scots : _Aest Lowden_, Scottish Gaelic : _Lodainn an Ear_), is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland , and a lieutenancy area . For a time, it was also known as HADDINGTONSHIRE. It borders the City of Edinburgh , Midlothian and the Scottish Borders . Its administrative centre is Haddington , although its largest town is Musselburgh . East Lothian is also the name of a registration county , which has different boundaries to the council area. The council area was created in 1996, replacing the East Lothian district of the Lothian region . The district had been created in 1975 under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 , consisting of the old county of East Lothian plus the burgh of Musselburgh and the parish of Inveresk (which included Wallyford and Whitecraig ) which until then had been in the county of Midlothian. When abolished, for local government purposes, in 1975, the county of East Lothian bordered the county of Midlothian to the west, and Berwickshire to the south
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Scotland
SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: _ Alba
Alba
_ ( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides
Hebrides
. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI , King of Scots , became King of England and King of Ireland
Ireland
, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms . Scotland
Scotland
subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England
England
on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain

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Oppidum
An _OPPIDUM_ (plural _OPPIDA_) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement. Oppida are associated with the Celtic late La Tène culture , emerging during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, spread across Europe, stretching from Britain and Iberia
Iberia
in the west to the edge of the Hungarian plain in the east. They continued in use until the Romans began conquering Europe. North of the River Danube , where the population remained independent from Rome, oppida continued to be used into the 1st century AD. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Location and type * 3 History * 4 Examples * 4.1 Belgium/Luxembourg/Netherlands * 4.2 Czech Republic * 4.3 France * 4.4 Great Britain * 4.5 Germany * 4.6 Hungary * 4.7 Italy * 4.8 Portugal * 4.9 Serbia * 4.10 Slovakia * 4.11 Spain * 4.12 Switzerland * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links DEFINITION The Hallstatt and La Tène cultures _Oppidum_ is a Latin
Latin
word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome . The word is derived from the earlier Latin
Latin
_ob-pedum_, "enclosed space", possibly from the Proto-Indo-European _*pedóm-_, "occupied space" or "footprint"
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Hill Fort
A HILLFORT or HILL FORT is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages . Some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks , with stockades or defensive walls , and external ditches. Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC , and were in use in many Celtic areas of central and western Europe until the Roman conquest. CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Chronology * 3 Historiography * 4 Types of hill fort * 5 Hill forts by country * 5.1 Great Britain * 5.2 Central Europe * 5.2.1 Migration Period * 5.3 Portugal and Spain * 5.4 Estonia * 5.5 Ireland * 5.6 Latvia
Latvia
* 5.7 Lithuania
Lithuania
* 5.8 Scandinavia and Russia * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links NOMENCLATUREThe terms "hill fort", "hill-fort" and "hillfort" are all used in the archaeological literature. They all refer to an elevated site with one or more ramparts made of earth, stone and/or wood, with an external ditch. Many small early hill forts were abandoned, with the larger ones being redeveloped at a later date. Some hill forts contain houses
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Defensive Wall
A DEFENSIVE WALL is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements. Generally, these are referred to as CITY WALLS or TOWN WALLS, although there were also walls , such as the Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China
, Walls of Benin , Hadrian\'s Wall
Wall
, Anastasian Wall
Wall
, the Cyclopean Wall
Wall
Rajgir and the metaphorical Atlantic Wall
Wall
, which extended far beyond the borders of a city and were used to enclose regions or mark territorial boundaries. In mountainous terrain, defensive walls such as _letzis _ were used in combination with castles to seal valleys from potential attack. Beyond their defensive utility, many walls also had important symbolic functions – representing the status and independence of the communities they embraced. Existing ancient walls are almost always masonry structures, although brick and timber-built variants are also known. Depending on the topography of the area surrounding the city or the settlement the wall is intended to protect, elements of the terrain such as rivers or coastlines may be incorporated in order to make the wall more effective. Walls may only be crossed by entering the appropriate city gate and are often supplemented with towers
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Iron Age
The IRON AGE is an archaeological era , referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World ( Afro-Eurasia ) when the dominant toolmaking material was iron . It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia and the Stone Age in Africa, with exceptions. Meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt iron ore , remove impurities and regulate the amount of carbon in the alloy were developed. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region
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Antonine Wall
The ANTONINE WALL, known to the Romans as _Vallum Antonini_, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland
Scotland
, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde . Representing the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, it spanned approximately 63 kilometres (39 miles) and was about 3 metres (10 feet) high and 5 metres (16 feet) wide. Security was bolstered by a deep ditch on the northern side. It is thought that there was a wooden palisade on top of the turf. The barrier was the second of two "great walls" created by the Romans in Northern Britain. Its ruins are less evident than the better-known Hadrian\'s Wall to the south, primarily because the turf and wood wall has largely weathered away, unlike its stone-built southern predecessor. Construction began in AD 142 at the order of Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Antoninus Pius , and took about 12 years to complete. Antoninus Pius never visited Britain, whereas his predecessor Hadrian
Hadrian
did. Pressure from the Caledonians may have led Antoninus to send the empire's troops further north. The Antonine Wall
Antonine Wall
was protected by 16 forts with small fortlets between them; troop movement was facilitated by a road linking all the sites known as the Military Way
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracuse (663–669, Eastern) LANGUAGES * Latin (official until 610) * Greek (official after 610) * Regional / local languages RELIGION * Before AD 380: Imperial cult -driven polytheism * From AD 380: Christiani
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Hadrian's Wall
HADRIAN\'S WALL (Latin : _Vallum Aelium_), also called the Roman Wall, Picts
Picts
' Wall, or _Vallum Hadriani_ in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province
Roman province
of Britannia , begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea , and was the northern limit of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, immediately north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons , including the Picts
Picts
. It had a stone base and a stone wall. There were milecastles with two turrets in between. There was a fort about every five Roman miles . From north to south, the wall comprised a ditch, wall, military way and vallum , another ditch with adjoining mounds. It is thought the milecastles were staffed with static garrisons , whereas the forts had fighting garrisons of infantry and cavalry. In addition to the wall's defensive military role, its gates may have been customs posts. A significant portion of the wall still stands and can be followed on foot along the adjoining Hadrian\'s Wall Path . The largest Roman artefact anywhere, it runs a total of 73 miles in northern England . Regarded as a British cultural icon , Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
is one of Britain's major ancient tourist attractions
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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor , North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe . It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece , and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world . Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called _res publica _, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France
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Votadini
The VOTADINI, also known as the Wotādīni, Votādīni or Otadini, were a Celtic people of the Iron Age in Great Britain. Their territory was in what is now south-east Scotland and north-east England, extending from the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
and around modern Stirling
Stirling
to the River Tyne
River Tyne
, including at its peak what are now the Falkirk
Falkirk
, Lothian and Borders regions and Northumberland
Northumberland
. This area was briefly part of the Roman province of Britannia . The earliest known capital of the Votadini
Votadini
appears to have been the Traprain Law hill fort in East Lothian, until that was abandoned in the early 5th century
5th century
. They afterwards moved to Din Eidyn ( Edinburgh
Edinburgh
). The name is recorded as Votadini
Votadini
in classical sources. Their descendants were the early medieval kingdom known in Old Welsh as GUOTODIN , and in later Welsh as GODODDIN . One of the oldest known pieces of British literature is a poem called Y Gododdin , written in Old Welsh, having previously been passed down via the oral traditions of the Brythonic speaking Britons
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Britons (historic)
The BRITONS, also known as CELTIC BRITONS or ANCIENT BRITONS, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, at which point their culture and language diverged. They spoke the Common Brittonic language, the ancestor to the modern Brittonic languages . The earliest evidence for the Britons and their language in historical sources dates to the Iron Age. After the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, a Romano-British culture emerged, and Latin and British Vulgar Latin coexisted with Brittonic. During and after the Roman era, the Britons lived throughout Britain. Their relationship with the Picts , who lived north of the Firth of Forth
Firth of Forth
, has been the subject of much discussion, though most scholars now accept that the Pictish language
Pictish language
was related to Common Brittonic, rather than a separate Celtic language. With the beginning of Anglo-Saxon settlement and Gaelic Scots in the 5th century, the culture and language of the Britons fragmented and much of their territory was taken over by the Anglo-Saxons and Scots Gaels. The extent to which this cultural and linguistic change was accompanied by wholesale changes in the population is still a matter of discussion
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British Language (Celtic)
COMMON BRITTONIC was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain . It is also variously known as OLD BRITTONIC, BRITISH, and COMMON or OLD BRYTHONIC. By the 6th century
6th century
, this language of the Celtic Britons had split into the various Brittonic languages : Welsh , Cumbric , Cornish , Breton and perhaps also Pictish . Common Brittonic is a form of Insular Celtic , which is descended from Proto-Celtic , a hypothetical parent language that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was already diverging into separate dialects or languages. There is some evidence that the Pictish language may have had close ties to Common Brittonic, and might have been either a sister language or a fifth branch. Evidence from Welsh shows a great influence from Latin
Latin
on Common Brittonic during the Roman period , and especially so in terms related to the Church and Christianity
Christianity
, which are nearly all Latin derivatives. Common Brittonic was later replaced in most of Scotland by Middle Irish (which later developed into Scottish Gaelic ) and south of the Firth of Forth also by Old English
Old English
(which later developed into Scots )
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