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Traprain Law
Coordinates : 55°57′47″N 2°40′21″W / 55.96306°N 2.67250°W / 55.96306; -2.67250 Traprain Law
Traprain Law
from the north TRAPRAIN LAW is a hill about 221m (724 feet) in elevation, located 6 km (3.7 mi) east of Haddington in East Lothian
East Lothian
, Scotland
Scotland
. It is the site of an oppidum or hill fort , which covered at its maximum extent about 16 ha (40 acres) and must have been a veritable town. Whether it was a seasonal meeting place or permanent settlement is a matter of speculation. The hill was already a place of burial by around 1500 BC, and showed evidence of occupation and signs of ramparts after 1000 BC. The ramparts were rebuilt and re-aligned many times in the following centuries
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Haddington, East Lothian
The Royal Burgh of HADDINGTON (Scots : Haidintoun ) is a town in East Lothian , Scotland. It is the main administrative, cultural and geographical centre for East Lothian, which as a result of late-nineteenth century Scottish local government reforms, actually took the form of the county of Haddingtonshire for the period from 1889-1921. It lies about 20 miles (32 km) east of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
. The name Haddington is Anglo-Saxon , dating from the sixth or seventh century AD when the area was incorporated into the kingdom of Bernicia . The town, like the rest of the Lothian region, was ceded by King Edgar of England and became part of Scotland
Scotland
in the tenth century. Haddington received burghal status , one of the earliest to do so, during the reign of David I (1124–1153), giving it trading rights which encouraged its growth into a market town
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East Lothian
EAST LOTHIAN (Scots : Aest Lowden, Scottish Gaelic : Lodainn an Ear), is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland
Scotland
, and a lieutenancy area . For a time, it was also known as HADDINGTONSHIRE. It borders the City of Edinburgh , Midlothian and the Scottish Borders . Its administrative centre is Haddington , although its largest town is Musselburgh . East Lothian is also the name of a registration county , which has different boundaries to the council area. The council area was created in 1996, replacing the East Lothian district of the Lothian region
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Scotland
SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: _ Alba
Alba
_ ( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides
Hebrides
. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707
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Oppidum
An _OPPIDUM_ (plural _OPPIDA_) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement. Oppida are associated with the Celtic late La Tène culture , emerging during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, spread across Europe, stretching from Britain and Iberia
Iberia
in the west to the edge of the Hungarian plain in the east. They continued in use until the Romans began conquering Europe. North of the River Danube , where the population remained independent from Rome, oppida continued to be used into the 1st century AD
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Hill Fort
A HILLFORT or HILL FORT is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage. They are typically European and of the Bronze and Iron Ages . Some were used in the post-Roman period. The fortification usually follows the contours of a hill, consisting of one or more lines of earthworks , with stockades or defensive walls , and external ditches. Hill forts developed in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, roughly the start of the first millennium BC , and were in use in many Celtic areas of central and western Europe until the Roman conquest
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Defensive Wall
A DEFENSIVE WALL is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements. Generally, these are referred to as CITY WALLS or TOWN WALLS, although there were also walls , such as the Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China
, Walls of Benin , Hadrian\'s Wall
Wall
, Anastasian Wall
Wall
, the Cyclopean Wall
Wall
Rajgir and the metaphorical Atlantic Wall
Wall
, which extended far beyond the borders of a city and were used to enclose regions or mark territorial boundaries. In mountainous terrain, defensive walls such as _letzis _ were used in combination with castles to seal valleys from potential attack
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Iron Age
The IRON AGE is an archaeological era , referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World ( Afro-Eurasia ) when the dominant toolmaking material was iron . It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia and the Stone Age in Africa, with exceptions. Meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt iron ore , remove impurities and regulate the amount of carbon in the alloy were developed. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region
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Antonine Wall
The ANTONINE WALL, known to the Romans as Vallum Antonini, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland
Scotland
, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde . Representing the northernmost frontier barrier of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, it spanned approximately 63 kilometres (39 miles) and was about 3 metres (10 feet) high and 5 metres (16 feet) wide. Security was bolstered by a deep ditch on the northern side. It is thought that there was a wooden palisade on top of the turf. The barrier was the second of two "great walls" created by the Romans in Northern Britain. Its ruins are less evident than the better-known Hadrian\'s Wall to the south, primarily because the turf and wood wall has largely weathered away, unlike its stone-built southern predecessor
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracu
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Hadrian's Wall
HADRIAN\'S WALL (Latin : Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts ' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia , begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea , and was the northern limit of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, immediately north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons
Ancient Britons
, including the Picts . It had a stone base and a stone wall. There were milecastles with two turrets in between. There was a fort about every five Roman miles . From north to south, the wall comprised a ditch, wall, military way and vallum , another ditch with adjoining mounds
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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor , North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe
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Votadini
The VOTADINI, also known as the Wotādīni, Votādīni or Otadini, were a Celtic people of the Iron Age in Great Britain. Their territory was in what is now south-east Scotland and north-east England, extending from the Firth of Forth and around modern Stirling
Stirling
to the River Tyne
River Tyne
, including at its peak what are now the Falkirk , Lothian and Borders regions and Northumberland
Northumberland
. This area was briefly part of the Roman province of Britannia . The earliest known capital of the Votadini
Votadini
appears to have been the Traprain Law hill fort in East Lothian, until that was abandoned in the early 5th century . They afterwards moved to Din Eidyn ( Edinburgh
Edinburgh
). The name is recorded as Votadini
Votadini
in classical sources
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Britons (historic)
The BRITONS, also known as CELTIC BRITONS or ANCIENT BRITONS, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages , at which point their culture and language diverged. They spoke the Common Brittonic language, the ancestor to the modern Brittonic languages . The earliest evidence for the Britons and their language in historical sources dates to the Iron Age. After the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, a Romano-British culture emerged, and Latin and British Vulgar Latin coexisted with Brittonic. During and after the Roman era, the Britons lived throughout Britain
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British Language (Celtic)
COMMON BRITTONIC was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain . It is also variously known as OLD BRITTONIC, BRITISH, and COMMON or OLD BRYTHONIC. By the 6th century , this language of the Celtic Britons had split into the various Brittonic languages : Welsh , Cumbric , Cornish , Breton and perhaps also Pictish . Common Brittonic is a form of Insular Celtic , which is descended from Proto-Celtic , a hypothetical parent language that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was already diverging into separate dialects or languages. There is some evidence that the Pictish language may have had close ties to Common Brittonic, and might have been either a sister language or a fifth branch
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