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Transylvanian Saxons
The TRANSYLVANIAN SAXONS (German : Siebenbürger Sachsen; Romanian : Sași transilvani; Hungarian : Erdélyi szászok) are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania
Transylvania
(German : Siebenbürgen) from the mid 12th century onwards. Coat of arms of the Transylvanian Saxon University in the Middle Ages The colonization of Transylvania
Transylvania
by Germans
Germans
was begun by King Géza II of Hungary (1141–1162). For decades, the main task of the German settlers was to defend the southeastern border of the Kingdom of Hungary . The colonization continued until the end of the 13th century. Although the colonists came mostly from the western Holy Roman Empire and generally spoke Franconian dialects, they were collectively known as Saxons
Saxons
because of Germans
Germans
working for the Hungarian chancellery
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Luxembourg
Coordinates : 49°45′N 6°10′E / 49.750°N 6.167°E / 49.750; 6.167 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg * Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg (Luxembourgish ) * Großherzogtum Luxemburg (German ) * Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: " Mir wëlle blei
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Moselle
The MOSELLE (French : la Moselle, IPA: ; German : Mosel; Luxembourgish : Musel) is a river flowing through France , Luxembourg , and Germany . It is a left tributary of the Rhine , which it joins at Koblenz . A small part of Belgium is also drained by the Moselle through the Sauer and the Our . The Moselle "twists and turns its way between Trier and Koblenz along one of Germany's most beautiful river valleys." It flows through a region that has been influenced by mankind since it was first cultivated by the Romans. Today, its hillsides are covered by terraced vineyards where "some of the best Rieslings grow", and numerous ruined castles dominate the hilltops above wine villages and towns that line the riverbanks
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Rhineland
The RHINELAND (German : Rheinland, French : Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine River , chiefly its middle section . CONTENTS * 1 Term * 2 Geography * 3 History * 3.1 Pre-Roman * 3.2 Roman and Frankish conquests * 3.3 Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* 3.4 French Revolution * 3.5 Prussian influence * 3.6 1918–1945 * 3.7 Post-1946 * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading TERM The Rhine Province (green) as of 1830 superimposed on modern (1945) borders. Historically, the RHINELANDS refers (physically speaking) to a loosely defined region embracing the land on the banks of the River Rhine
Rhine
in Central Europe
Central Europe
, which were settled by Ripuarian and Salian Franks
Franks
and became part of Frankish Austrasia
Austrasia

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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Colorado
COLORADO (/ˌkɒləˈrædoʊ, -ˈrɑːdoʊ/ ( listen ) ) is a state of the United States
United States
encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
and the western edge of the Great Plains . It is the 8th largest geographically and 21st most populous U.S. state. The estimated population of Colorado
Colorado
was 5,540,545 on July 1, 2016, an increase of 10.17% since the 2010 United States
United States
Census . The state was named for the Colorado River
Colorado River
, which Spanish travelers named the Río Colorado
Colorado
for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains. The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, and on August 1, 1876, U.S. President Ulysses S
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Ceaușescu
NICOLAE CEAUșESCU (Romanian: ( listen ); 26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian Communist politician. He was general secretary of the Romanian Communist Party from 1965 to 1989, and hence the second and last Communist leader of Romania. He was also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council , from 1974 concurrently as President of the Republic , until his overthrow in the Romanian Revolution in 1989. Born in 1918 in Scornicești , Olt County , Ceaușescu was a member of the Romanian Communist youth movement. Ceaușescu rose up through the ranks of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej 's Socialist government and, upon Gheorghiu-Dej's death in 1965, he succeeded to the leadership of Romania’s Communist Party as General Secretary
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Idaho
IDAHO (/ˈaɪdəhoʊ/ ( listen )) is a state in the northwestern region of the United States . It borders the state of Montana
Montana
to the east and northeast, Wyoming
Wyoming
to the east, Nevada
Nevada
and Utah
Utah
to the south, and Washington and Oregon
Oregon
to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia
British Columbia
. With a population of around 1.6 million and an area of 83,569 square miles (216,440 km2), Idaho
Idaho
is the 14th largest , the 39th most populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise
Boise

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Ohio
OHIO /oʊˈhaɪ.oʊ/ ( listen ) is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States . Ohio is the 34th largest by area , the 7th most populous , and the 10th most densely populated of the 50 United States . The state's capital and largest city is Columbus . The state takes its name from the Ohio River . The name originated from the Seneca language word ohiːyo', meaning "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory , the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state (and the first under the Northwest Ordinance ) on March 1, 1803. Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees , and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes"
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Low Countries
The LOW COUNTRIES (Dutch : De Lage Landen or De Nederlanden, French : Les Pays-Bas) is a coastal region in western Europe
Europe
, consisting especially of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine
Rhine
, Meuse , Scheldt , and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level. This wide area of Western Europe
Europe
roughly stretches from French Gravelines
Gravelines
and Dunkirk at its southwestern point, to the area of Dutch Delfzijl and German Eastern Frisia at its northeastern point, and to Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and French Thionville in the southeast
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Thuringia
The FREE STATE OF THURINGIA (English: /θəˈrɪndʒiə/ ; German : Freistaat Thüringen, pronounced ) is a federal state in central Germany
Germany
. It has an area of 16,171 square kilometres (6,244 sq mi) and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states. Most of Thuringia
Thuringia
is within the watershed of the Saale , a left tributary of the Elbe
Elbe
. The capital is Erfurt
Erfurt
. Thuringia
Thuringia
has been known as "the green heart of Germany" (das grüne Herz Deutschlands) from the late 19th century, due to the dense forest covering the land. It is home to the Rennsteig
Rennsteig
, Germany's most well-known hiking trail , and the winter resort of Oberhof making it a well known winter sports destination
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Carpathian Mountains
The CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS or CARPATHIANS (/kɑːrˈpeɪθiənz/ ) are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly 1,500 km (932 mi) long across Central and Eastern Europe , making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains , 1,700 km (1,056 mi)). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears , wolves , chamois , and lynxes , with the highest concentration in Romania , as well as over one third of all European plant species. The Carpathians and their foothills also have many thermal and mineral waters , with Romania having one-third of the European total. Romania is likewise home to the second-largest surface of virgin forests in Europe after Russia, totaling 250,000 hectares (65%), most of them in the Carpathians, with the Southern Carpathians constituting Europe's largest unfragmented forested area
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Cumans
The CUMANS (POLOVTSI) were a Turkic :116 nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman-Kipchak confederation . After the Mongol invasion (1237), many sought asylum in Hungary
Hungary
, as many Cumans
Cumans
had settled in Hungary, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and Turkey before the invasion. :2 :283 Related to the Pecheneg , they inhabited a shifting area north of the Black Sea
Black Sea
and along the Volga
Volga
River known as Cumania
Cumania
, where the Cuman- Kipchaks
Kipchaks
meddled in the politics of the Caucasus
Caucasus
and the Khwarezm Empire . :7 The Cumans
Cumans
were fierce and formidable nomadic warriors of the Eurasian steppe who exerted an enduring impact on the medieval Balkans
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Prussia
PRUSSIA (/ˈprʌʃə/ ; German : Preußen (help ·info ) ) was a prominent historical German state originating out of the Duchy
Duchy
of Prussia
Prussia
and the Margraviate of Brandenburg , and centred on the region of Prussia
Prussia
. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg
Königsberg
and from 1701 in Berlin
Berlin
, shaped the history of Germany
Germany
. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire
German Empire
under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19
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Târnăveni
Coordinates : 46°19′47″N 24°16′12″E / 46.32972°N 24.27000°E / 46.32972; 24.27000 TâRNăVENI Municipality Târnava-Mică County Prefecture, formerly Kis-Küküllő
Kis-Küküllő
County Hall Coat of arms Târnăveni
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Cibin Mountains
CINDREL MOUNTAINS (also known as CâNDREL MOUNTAINS, CIBIN MOUNTAINS, or the SZEBEN ALPS) are a group of mountains in central Romania
Romania
in the centre of the Southern Carpathians , in the North-East of the Parâng Mountains group . From the Transylvanian Plateau , with heights between 200 and 400 m, in the North and East, the heights grow abruptly through a zone of deep valleys at about 900 m on the verge of the massif where some villages are situated. The heights continue to grow slowly towards the highest peak, Cindrel Peak, at 2,244 m. Only two other peaks in the range rise above 2000 metres: Balandrul Mare (2,210 metres) and Starpului (2,146 metres). Because the massif is easily accessible, the ethnographical area Mărginimea Sibiului has formed around the mountain, having sheep-herding and wood industry as the main occupations
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