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Transponder (satellite Communications)
A communications satellite's transponder is the series of interconnected units that form a communications channel between the receiving and the transmitting antennas.[1] It is mainly used in satellite communication to transfer the received signals. A transponder is typically composed of:an input band-limiting device (an input band-pass filter), an input low-noise amplifier (LNA), designed to amplify the signals received from the Earth station(normally very weak, because of the large distances involved.) a frequency translator (normally composed of an oscillator and a frequency mixer) used to convert the frequency of the received signal to the frequency required for the transmitted signal, an output band-pass filter, a power amplifier (this can be a traveling-wave tube or a solid-state amplifier).Most communication satellites are radio relay stations in orbit and carry dozens of transponders, each with a bandwidth of tens of megahertz
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Transceiver
A transceiver is a device comprising both a transmitter and a receiver that are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing. When no circuitry is common between transmit and receive functions, the device is a transmitter-receiver. The term originated in the early 1920s. Similar devices include transponders, transverters, and repeaters.Contents1 Radio
Radio
technology 2 Telephony 3 Ethernet 4 See also 5 References 6 External articles Radio
Radio
technology[edit] Main article: Two-way radioA modern HF transceiver with spectrum analyzer and DSP capabilitiesIn radio terminology, a transceiver means a unit which contains both a receiver and a transmitter. From the beginning days of radio the receiver and transmitter were separate units and remained so until around 1920
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Wideband
In communications, a system is wideband when the message bandwidth significantly exceeds the coherence bandwidth of the channel. Some communication links have such a high data rate that they are forced to use a wide bandwidth; other links may have relatively low data rates, but deliberately use a wider bandwidth than "necessary" for that data rate in order to gain other advantages; see spread spectrum. A wideband antenna is one with approximately or exactly the same operating characteristics over a very wide Passband. It is distinguished from broadband antennas, where the passband is large, but the antenna gain and/or radiation pattern need not stay the same over the passband. The term Wideband Audio or (also termed HD Voice or Wideband Voice) denotes a telephony using a wideband codec, which uses a greater frequency range of the audio spectrum than conventional voiceband telephone calls, resulting in a clearer sound
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Ku Band
The Ku band
Ku band
(pronunciation: /ˌkeɪˈjuː/) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz). The symbol is short for "K-under" (originally German: Kurz-unten), because it is the lower part of the original NATO K band, which was split into three bands (Ku, K, and Ka) because of the presence of the atmospheric water vapor resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, (1.35 cm) which made the center unusable for long range transmission
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ARSAT-1
ARSAT-1
ARSAT-1
Mission Logo ARSAT
ARSAT
Satellite Fleet← Nahuel 1A ARSAT-2 → ARSAT-1
ARSAT-1
is a geostationary communications satellite operated by AR-SAT and built by the Argentine company INVAP.[2] ARSAT-1
ARSAT-1
was launched into orbit on October 16, 2014 from French Guiana
French Guiana
alongside Intelsat-30 satellite using an Ariane 5
Ariane 5
rocket.[3][4] It is expected to be located at 72° West longitude geostationary slot. ARSAT-1
ARSAT-1
is the first geostationary satellite built in Latin America
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Carrier Frequency
In telecommunication systems, Carrier frequency is a technical term used to indicate:Vaguely speaking, the center frequency or the frequency of a carrier wave The "nominal frequency" or the center frequency of an analog frequency modulation, phase modulation, or double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission (DSB-SC) (AM-suppressed carrier), radio wave The frequency of the unmodulated electromagnetic wave at the output of a conventional amplitude-modulated (AM-unsupressed carrier), or frequency-modulated (FM), or phase-modulated (PM) radio transmitter The nominal frequency or center frequency of various kinds of radio signals with digital modulation -- provided that the message bit stream is a random uncorrelated sequence of equally probable ones and zeroes ("marks" and "spaces")This article related to radio is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article related to telecommunications is a stub
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Communications Channel
A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking. A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream, from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one or several receivers. A channel has a certain capacity for transmitting information, often measured by its bandwidth in Hz or its data rate in bits per second. Communicating data from one location to another requires some form of pathway or medium. These pathways, called communication channels, use two types of media: cable (twisted-pair wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable) and broadcast (microwave, satellite, radio, and infrared). Cable or wire line media use physical wires of cables to transmit data and information
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Landline
A landline telephone (also known as land line, land-line, main line, home phone, landline, fixed-line, and wireline) is a phone that uses a metal wire or optical fiber telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission. In 2003, the CIA reported approximately 1.263 billion main telephone lines worldwide. China
China
had more than any other country at 350 million and the United States
United States
was second with 268 million
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Single Channel Per Carrier
Single channel per carrier (SCPC) refers to using a single signal at a given frequency and bandwidth. Most often, this is used on broadcast satellites to indicate that radio stations are not multiplexed as subcarriers onto a single video carrier, but instead independently share a transponder. It may also be used on other communications satellites, or occasionally on non-satellite transmissions. In an SCPC system, satellite bandwidth is dedicated to a single source. This makes sense if it is being used for something like satellite radio, which broadcasts continuously. Another very common application is voice, where a small amount of fixed bandwidth is required. However, it does not make sense for burst transmissions like satellite internet access or telemetry, since a customer would have to pay for the satellite bandwidth even when they were not using it. Where multiple access is concerned, SCPC is essentially FDMA
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Radio Station
A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves. Generally, it is a receiver or transmitter, an antenna, and some smaller additional equipment necessary to operate them. Radio stations
Radio stations
play a vital role in communication technology as they are heavily relied on to transfer data and information across the world.[1] More broadly, the definition of a radio station includes the aforementioned equipment and a building in which it is installed. Such a station may include several "radio stations" defined above (i.e. several sets of receivers or transmitters installed in one building but functioning independently, and several antennas installed on a field next to the building). This definition of a radio station is more often referred to as a transmitter site, transmitter station, transmission facility or transmitting station
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Automatic Transmitter Identification System (television)
The Automatic Transmitter Identification System (ATIS) is a communications protocol used for the station identification of television channels carried on satellite TV.[1] ATIS is only required for analog TV transmission and only via satellites or earth stations under United States jurisdiction. It is continuously repeated whilst an earth station is using a transponder on a satellite. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules for ATIS are set forth in 47 CFR §25.281. The system was developed in response to the "Captain Midnight" satellite jamming incident. In 2009, HBO and Elmer Musser were awarded a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award for ATIS. ATIS is a Morse code transmission sent on a subcarrier of 7.1 MHz and must activate automatically any time the station is transmitting. The center frequency must be no more than 25 kHz from this nominal value and the frequency deviation must be no more than 25 kHz peak when being modulated
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Analog Video
Video
Video
is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.[1] Video
Video
was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were quickly replaced by cathode ray tube (CRT) systems which were later replaced by flat panel displays of several types. Video
Video
systems vary in display resolution, aspect ratio, refresh rate, color capabilities and other qualities
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Carrier Wave
In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.[1] This carrier wave usually has a much higher frequency than the input signal does. The purpose of the carrier is usually either to transmit the information through space as an electromagnetic wave (as in radio communication), or to allow several carriers at different frequencies to share a common physical transmission medium by frequency division multiplexing (as, for example, a cable television system). The term is also used for an unmodulated emission in the absence of any modulating signal.[2] Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) to make the carrier carry information. The frequency of a radio or television station is actually the carrier wave's frequency
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Subcarrier
A subcarrier is a sideband of a radio frequency carrier wave, which is modulated to send additional information. Examples include the provision of colour in a black and white television system or the provision of stereo in a monophonic radio broadcast. There is no physical difference between a carrier and a subcarrier; the "sub" implies that it has been derived from a carrier, which has been amplitude modulated by a steady signal and has a constant frequency relation to it.Contents1 FM stereo 2 Television 3 Private audio 4 Datacasting 5 Telemetry
Telemetry
and foldback 6 MCPC satellites 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksFM stereo[edit] Stereo broadcasting is made possible by using a subcarrier on FM radio stations, which takes the left channel and "subtracts" the right channel from it — essentially by hooking up the right-channel wires backward (reversing polarity) and then joining left and reversed-right
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