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Transmission (mechanics)
A TRANSMISSION is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Often the term transmission refers simply to the GEARBOX that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English
British English
, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain , including clutch, gearbox, prop shaft (for rear-wheel drive), differential, and final drive shafts. In American English, however, the term refers more specifically to the gearbox alone, and detailed usage differs. The most common use is in motor vehicles , where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a relatively high rotational speed , which is inappropriate for starting, stopping, and slower travel
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Automotive
The AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design , development , manufacturing , marketing , and selling of motor vehicles , some of them are called automakers. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue . The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations . The term automotive was created from Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry
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Steam Engine
A STEAM ENGINE is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid . Steam
Steam
engines are external combustion engines , where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power , nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle
Rankine cycle
. In the cycle, water is heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done. The reduced pressure steam is then exhausted to the atmosphere, or condensed and pumped back into the boiler
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Pump
A PUMP is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases ), or sometimes slurries , by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary ), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity , engines , or wind power , come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps. Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells , aquarium filtering , pond filtering and aeration , in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection , in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers
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Crankshaft
A CRANKSHAFT—related to crank —is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion . In a reciprocating engine , it translates reciprocating motion of the piston into rotational motion; whereas in a reciprocating compressor , it converts the rotational motion into reciprocating motion. In order to do the conversion between two motions, the crankshaft has "crank throws" or "crankpins ", additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the crank, to which the "big ends" of the connecting rods from each cylinder attach. It is typically connected to a flywheel to reduce the pulsation characteristic of the four-stroke cycle , and sometimes a torsional or vibrational damper at the opposite end, to reduce the torsional vibrations often caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinders farthest from the output end acting on the torsional elasticity of the metal
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HORSE
at least 48 published The HORSE (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus . It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae . The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Eohippus , into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses . These feral populations are not true wild horses , as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski\'s horse , a separate subspecies, and the only remaining true wild horse
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Mining
MINING is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody , lode , vein , seam , reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals , coal , oil shale , gemstones , limestone , chalk , dimension stone , rock salt , potash , gravel , and clay . Mining
Mining
is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining
Mining
in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water . Mining
Mining
of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times
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Industry
INDUSTRY is the production of goods or related services within an economy . The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry. When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing
Manufacturing
industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal
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Agricultural
AGRICULTURE or FARMING is the cultivation and breeding of animals , plants and fungi for food , fiber , biofuel , medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology
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Wind Turbine
A WIND TURBINE is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical power . Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of vertical and horizontal axis types. The smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. Slightly larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid . Arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms , are becoming an increasingly important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels
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Rotational Speed
ROTATIONAL SPEED (or SPEED OF REVOLUTION) of an object rotating around an axis is the number of turns of the object divided by time, specified as revolutions per minute (rpm), revolutions per second (rev/s), or radians per second (rad/s). The symbol for rotational speed is cyc {displaystyle omega _{text{cyc}}} (the Greek lowercase letter "omega")
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Internal Combustion Engine
An INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons , turbine blades , rotor or a nozzle . This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy . The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto (see Otto engine )
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Helicopter
A HELICOPTER is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors . This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover , and to fly forward, backward, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d\'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix (ἕλιξ) "helix, spiral, whirl, convolution" and pteron (πτερόν) "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", and "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight , with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936
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Machine (mechanical)
MACHINES employ power to achieve desired forces and movement (motion ). A machine has a power source and actuators that generate forces and movement, and a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement. Modern machines often include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement, and are called mechanical systems . The meaning of the word "machine" is traced by the Oxford English Dictionary to an independently functioning structure and by Merriam-Webster Dictionary to something that has been constructed. This includes human design into the meaning of machine. The adjective "mechanical" refers to skill in the practical application of an art or science, as well as relating to or caused by movement, physical forces, properties or agents such as is dealt with by mechanics . Similarly Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines "mechanical" as relating to machinery or tools
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Hoist (device)
A HOIST is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or pneumatically driven and may use chain, fiber or wire rope as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of a lifting hook . CONTENTS* 1 Types of hoist * 1.1 Wire rope hoist or chain hoist * 1.2 Construction hoists * 1.3 Mine hoists * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links TYPES OF HOIST Builder's hoist, with small gasoline engine A differential pulley chain hoist A hoist on the Trump International Hotel "> A water-powered mine hoist used for raising ore from De re metallica
De re metallica
. The basic hoist has two important characteristics to define it: Lifting medium and power type
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Gearbox Software
GEARBOX SOFTWARE, LLC is an American video game development company based in Frisco, Texas . It was established in 1999 by developers from companies such as 3D Realms and Bethesda Softworks , with one of the founders, Randy Pitchford , as CEO. The company initially created expansions for the Valve Corporation game Half-Life , then ported that game and others to console platforms. In 2005 Gearbox launched its first independent set of games, Brothers in Arms , on console and mobile devices. It became their flagship franchise and spun off a comic book series, television documentary, books, and action figures. Their second original game series Borderlands was released in 2009, and by 2015 had sold over 26 million copies. The company also owns the intellectual property of Duke Nukem and Homeworld
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