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Transistor
A TRANSISTOR is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power . It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits . The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices , and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926 but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time. The first practically implemented device was a point-contact transistor invented in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen , Walter Brattain , and William Shockley . The transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios , calculators , and computers , among other things. The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, and Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement
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Transistor (other)
A TRANSISTOR is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. TRANSISTOR may also refer to: MUSIC* Transistor
Transistor
(311 album) , 1997 * "Transistor" (song) , the title track by the band 311 from the album Transistor * Transistor
Transistor
(TNT album) * "Transistor," a song by Kraftwerk from the 1975 album Radio-Activity OTHER USES * Transistor
Transistor
(video game) , a 2014 video game by Supergiant GamesSEE ALSO * Transistor
Transistor
radio , a small portable radio receiver using transistor-based circuitry This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title TRANSISTOR. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Transistor_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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TO-3
In electronics, TO-3
TO-3
is a designation for a standardized metal semiconductor package used for power semiconductors, including transistors , silicon-controlled rectifiers , and, integrated circuits . TO stands for " Transistor
Transistor
Outline" and relates to a series of technical drawings produced by JEDEC
JEDEC
. The TO-3
TO-3
case has a flat surface which can be interfaced to a heatsink, normally via a thermally conductive but electrically insulating washer. TO-3
TO-3
packages usually have two leads, the case being the third connection, though devices with more leads are used. The TO-3
TO-3
case has two mounting holes. The design originated at Motorola
Motorola
around 1955. The lead spacing was originally intended to allow plugging the device into a then-common tube socket . CONTENTS * 1 Typical applications * 2 Construction * 3 Common components that use the TO-3
TO-3
package * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links TYPICAL APPLICATIONS Typical TO-3
TO-3
mounting profile, with insulator from chassis The metal package can be attached to a heat sink, making it suitable for devices dissipating several watts of heat. Thermal compound is used to improve heat transfer between the device case and the heat sink
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To-126
TO-126
TO-126
is a type of semiconductor package for devices with three pins, such as transistors . The package is rectangular with a hole in the middle to allow for easy mounting to a board or a heat sink . CONTENTS * 1 History and origin * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY AND ORIGINThe JEDEC TO-126
TO-126
descriptor is derived from the original full name for the package: Transistor
Transistor
Outline Package, Case Style 126. In the updated JEDEC outline system, the package is numbered as TO-225AA. SEE ALSO * Chip carrier Chip packaging and package types listREFERENCES * ^ BD135; BD137; BD139; NPN power transistors (PDF), Philips Semiconductors, 1999, retrieved 2013-12-09 * ^ " JEDEC TO-126
TO-126
package specification" (PDF). JEDEC . May 1968. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 18, 2017
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To-92
The TO-92
TO-92
is a widely used style of semiconductor package mainly used for transistors . The case is often made of epoxy or plastic , and offers compact size at a very low cost. CONTENTS * 1 History and origin * 2 Construction and orientation * 3 Advantages * 4 Disadvantages * 5 Voltage and current * 6 Common transistors using a TO-92
TO-92
case * 7 Additional uses of the TO-92
TO-92
case * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORY AND ORIGINThe JEDEC TO-92
TO-92
descriptor is derived from the original full name for the package: Transistor
Transistor
Outline Package, Case Style 92. CONSTRUCTION AND ORIENTATIONThe case is molded around the transistor elements in two parts; the face is flat, bearing a machine-printed part number. The back is semi-circularly-shaped. A line of moulding flash from the injection-moulding process can be seen around the case. The leads protrude from the bottom of the case. When looking at the face of the transistor, the leads are commonly configured from left-to-right as the emitter, base, and collector for 2N series (JEDEC) transistors, however, other configurations are possible, such as emitter, collector, and base commonly used for 2S series (Japanese) transistors
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Small-outline Transistor
A SMALL OUTLINE TRANSISTOR (SOT) is a small footprint, discrete surface mount transistor commonly used in consumer electronics . Many manufacturers also offer the nearly identical THIN SMALL OUTLINE TRANSISTOR (TSOT) package for use in electronic circuits where height is an important consideration. CONTENTS * 1 SOT23-3, SOT323, SOT416 * 2 SOT23-5, SOT353 * 3 SOT23-6, SOT363 * 4 SOT23-8 * 5 SOT143, SOT343 * 6 SOT490 * 7 SOT89-3 * 8 SOT89-5 * 9 SOT223 (=SOT223-4) * 10 SOT223-5 * 11 SOT223-8 * 12 See also * 13 References SOT23-3, SOT323, SOT416The SOT23-3 package is very popular and a common package for transistors, and is also used for diodes and voltage regulators
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Semiconductor Device
SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon , germanium , and gallium arsenide , as well as organic semiconductors . Semiconductor
Semiconductor
devices have replaced thermionic devices (vacuum tubes) in most applications. They use electronic conduction in the solid state as opposed to the gaseous state or thermionic emission in a high vacuum. Semiconductor
Semiconductor
devices are manufactured both as single discrete devices and as _integrated circuits _ (ICs), which consist of a number—from a few (as low as two) to billions—of devices manufactured and interconnected on a single semiconductor substrate , or wafer . Semiconductor
Semiconductor
materials are useful because their behavior can be easily manipulated by the addition of impurities, known as doping . Semiconductor
Semiconductor
conductivity can be controlled by the introduction of an electric or magnetic field, by exposure to light or heat, or by the mechanical deformation of a doped monocrystalline grid; thus, semiconductors can make excellent sensors. Current conduction in a semiconductor occurs via mobile or "free" _electrons _ and _holes _, collectively known as _charge carriers _
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Electronic Amplifier
An AMPLIFIER, ELECTRONIC AMPLIFIER or (informally) AMP is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current ). An amplifier uses electric power from a power supply to increase the amplitude of a signal. The amount of amplification provided by an amplifier is measured by its gain : the ratio of output to input. An amplifier is a circuit that can give a power gain greater than one. An amplifier can either be a separate piece of equipment or an electrical circuit contained within another device. Amplification is fundamental to modern electronics, and amplifiers are widely used in almost all electronic equipment. Amplifiers can be categorized in different ways. One is by the frequency of the electronic signal being amplified; audio amplifiers amplify signals in the audio (sound) range of less than 20 kHz, RF amplifiers amplify frequencies in the radio frequency range between 20 kHz and 300 GHz, and servo amplifiers and instrumentation amplifiers may work with very low frequencies down to direct current. A further distinction is whether the output is a linear or nonlinear representation of the input. Amplifiers can also be categorized by their physical placement in the signal chain ; a preamplifier may precede other signal processing stages, for example. The first practical device that could amplify was the triode vacuum tube , invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest , which led to the first amplifiers around 1912
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Switch
In electrical engineering , a SWITCH is an electrical component that can "make" or "break" an electrical circuit , interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. The mechanism of a switch removes or restores the conducting path in a circuit when it is operated. It may be operated manually, for example, a light switch or a keyboard button, may be operated by a moving object such as a door, or may be operated by some sensing element for pressure, temperature or flow. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Contacts * 2.1 Contact terminology * 2.2 Contact bounce * 2.3 Arcs and quenching * 2.4 Power switching * 2.5 Inductive loads * 2.6 Incandescent loads * 2.7 Wetting current * 3 Actuator
Actuator
* 3.1 Biased switches * 3.2 Rotary switch * 3.3 Toggle switch * 4 Special
Special
types * 4.1 Mercury tilt switch * 4.2 Knife switch * 4.3 Footswitch * 4.4 Reversing switch * 5 Light switches * 6 Electronic switches * 7 Other switches * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DESCRIPTION Electrical switches. Top, left to right: circuit breaker, mercury switch , wafer switch, DIP switch , surface mount switch, reed switch . Bottom, left to right: wall switch (U.S. style), miniature toggle switch, in‑line switch, push-button switch, rocker switch, microswitch
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Electronics
ELECTRONICS is the science of controlling electrical energy electrically, in which the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes , transistors , diodes , integrated circuits , optoelectronics , sensors etc. associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies. Commonly, electronic devices contain circuitry consisting primarily or exclusively of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; such a circuit is described as an electronic circuit . The science of electronics is also considered to be a branch of physics and electrical engineering . The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible, and electronics is widely used in information processing , telecommunication , and signal processing . The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards , electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed components into a regular working system
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Electrical Power
ELECTRIC POWER is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit . The SI unit of power is the watt , one joule per second . Electric power is usually produced by electric generators , but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries . It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid . Electric power is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours. Electric utilities measure power using an electricity meter , which keeps a running total of the electric energy delivered to a customer. Electrical power provides a low entropy form of energy and can be carried long distances and converted into other forms of energy such as motion , light or heat with high energy efficiency . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Explanation * 2.1 Passive sign convention * 2.2 Resistive circuits * 2.3 Alternating current * 2.4 Electromagnetic fields * 3 Generation * 4 Electric power industry * 5 Use * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links DEFINITIONElectric power, like mechanical power , is the rate of doing work , measured in watts , and represented by the letter _P_
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Semiconductor
A SEMICONDUCTOR material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor , such as copper, and an insulator , such as glass. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to that of a metal. Their conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping ") into the crystal structure . Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons , ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes , transistors and all modern electronics. Semiconductor
Semiconductor
devices can display a range of useful properties such as passing current more easily in one direction than the other, showing variable resistance, and sensitivity to light or heat. Because the electrical properties of a semiconductor material can be modified by doping, or by the application of electrical fields or light, devices made from semiconductors can be used for amplification, switching, and energy conversion . The modern understanding of the properties of a semiconductor relies on quantum physics to explain the movement of charge carriers in a crystal lattice . Doping greatly increases the number of charge carriers within the crystal
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Terminal (electronics)
A TERMINAL is the point at which a conductor from an electrical component, device or network comes to an end and provides a point of connection to external circuits . A terminal may simply be the end of a wire or it may be fitted with a connector or fastener. In network analysis, terminal means a point at which connections can be made to a network in theory and does not necessarily refer to any real physical object. In this context, especially in older documents, it is sometimes called a POLE. The connection may be temporary, as seen in portable equipment, may require a tool for assembly and removal, or may be a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. All electric cells have two terminals. The first is the positive terminal and the second is the negative terminal. The positive terminal looks like a metal cap and the negative terminal looks like a metal disc. The current flows from the positive terminal, and out through the negative terminal, replicative of current flow (positive (+) to negative (-) flow). TYPES OF TERMINALS * Splices * Cups * Hooks * Solder Lugs * Tongue Crimp terminals (ring terminals) * Turrets * Test probes (pogo terminals) * Clips * Screw terminals * Tab terminals (quick-connect, quick-disconnect) * Wire nuts Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Terminal_(electronics) additional terms may apply
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Voltage
VOLTAGE, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, ELECTRIC PRESSURE or ELECTRIC TENSION (formally denoted ∆_V_ or ∆_U_, but more often simply as _V_ or _U_, for instance in the context of Ohm\'s or Kirchhoff\'s circuit laws ) is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge . The voltage between two points is equal to the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move the test charge between two points. This is measured in units of _volts _ (a joule per coulomb ). Voltage
Voltage
can be caused by static electric fields, by electric current through a magnetic field , by time-varying magnetic fields, or some combination of these three. A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference) between two points in a system; often a common reference potential such as the ground of the system is used as one of the points. A voltage may represent either a source of energy (electromotive force ) or lost, used, or stored energy (potential drop ). CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Volt
Volt
* 3 Hydraulic analogy * 4 Applications * 4.1 Addition of voltages * 5 Measuring instruments * 6 Typical voltages * 7 Galvani potential vs
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Electric Current
An ELECTRIC CURRENT is a flow of electric charge . In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire . It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte , or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma ). The SI unit
SI unit
for measuring an electric current is the ampere , which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current
Electric current
is measured using a device called an ammeter . Electric currents cause