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Transistor
A TRANSISTOR is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power . It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits . The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices , and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926 but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time
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Voltage
VOLTAGE, ELECTRIC POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, ELECTRIC PRESSURE or ELECTRIC TENSION (formally denoted ∆V or ∆U, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm\'s or Kirchhoff\'s circuit laws ) is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge . The voltage between two points is equal to the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move the test charge between two points. This is measured in units of volts (a joule per coulomb ). Voltage
Voltage
can be caused by static electric fields, by electric current through a magnetic field , by time-varying magnetic fields, or some combination of these three. A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference) between two points in a system; often a common reference potential such as the ground of the system is used as one of the points
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Terminal (electronics)
A TERMINAL is the point at which a conductor from an electrical component, device or network comes to an end and provides a point of connection to external circuits . A terminal may simply be the end of a wire or it may be fitted with a connector or fastener. In network analysis, terminal means a point at which connections can be made to a network in theory and does not necessarily refer to any real physical object. In this context, especially in older documents, it is sometimes called a POLE. The connection may be temporary, as seen in portable equipment, may require a tool for assembly and removal, or may be a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. All electric cells have two terminals. The first is the positive terminal and the second is the negative terminal. The positive terminal looks like a metal cap and the negative terminal looks like a metal disc
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Telephony
TELEPHONY (/təˈlɛfəni/ tə-LEF-ə-nee ) is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties. The history of telephony is intimately linked to the invention and development of the telephone . Telephony is commonly referred to as the construction or operation of telephones and telephonic systems and as a system of telecommunications in which telephonic equipment is employed in the transmission of speech or other sound between points, with or without the use of wires. The term is also used frequently to refer to computer hardware, software, and computer network systems, that perform functions traditionally performed by telephone equipment. In this context the technology is specifically referred to as Internet telephony, or voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
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Electric Current
An ELECTRIC CURRENT is a flow of electric charge . In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire . It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte , or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma ). The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere , which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current
Electric current
is measured using a device called an ammeter . Electric currents cause Joule heating , which creates light in incandescent light bulbs . They also create magnetic fields , which are used in motors, inductors and generators. The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers
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Electric Power
ELECTRIC POWER is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit . The SI unit of power is the watt , one joule per second . Electric power
Electric power
is usually produced by electric generators , but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries . It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid . Electric power
Electric power
is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours. Electric utilities measure power using an electricity meter , which keeps a running total of the electric energy delivered to a customer. Electrical power provides a low entropy form of energy and can be carried long distances and converted into other forms of energy such as motion , light or heat with high energy efficiency
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List Of IEEE Milestones
For important milestones, statistics and Alexa ranking news concerning the English , see:Milestones Look up MILESTONE in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.A MILESTONE is a marker of distance along roads
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Nobel Prize In Physics
Takaaki Kajita Arthur B. McDonald (2015) NOBEL LAUREATE(S) IN PHYSICSDavid J. Thouless Duncan Haldane J. Michael Kosterlitz (2016) Wilhelm Röntgen (1845–1923), the first recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics. The NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS (Swedish : Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics
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Thermionic
THERMIONIC EMISSION is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal energy given to the carrier overcomes the work function of the material. The charge carriers can be electrons or ions , and in older literature are sometimes referred to as "thermions". After emission, a charge that is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the total charge emitted is initially left behind in the emitting region. But if the emitter is connected to a battery, the charge left behind is neutralized by charge supplied by the battery as the emitted charge carriers move away from the emitter, and finally the emitter will be in the same state as it was before emission. The classical example of thermionic emission is the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into a vacuum (also known as THERMAL ELECTRON EMISSION or the EDISON EFFECT) in a vacuum tube
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Physicist
A PHYSICIST is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics , the exploration of the interactions of matter and energy across the physical universe. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Education * 3.1 Honors and awards * 4 Careers * 5 Professional Certification * 5.1 United Kingdom * 5.2 Canada * 5.3 South Africa * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links OVERVIEWA physicist is a scientist who specializes or works in the field of physics. The field generally includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who are concerned with the observation of physical phenomena and experiments, and theoretical physicists who employ mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena
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Electrical Power
ELECTRIC POWER is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit . The SI unit of power is the watt , one joule per second . Electric power
Electric power
is usually produced by electric generators , but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries . It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid . Electric power
Electric power
is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours. Electric utilities measure power using an electricity meter , which keeps a running total of the electric energy delivered to a customer. Electrical power provides a low entropy form of energy and can be carried long distances and converted into other forms of energy such as motion , light or heat with high energy efficiency
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (French pronunciation: ​ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city in France
France
, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015). The city is a commune and department , and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de- France
France
region (colloquially known as the ' Paris
Paris
Region'), whose 2016 population of 12,142,802 represented roughly 18 percent of the population of France. Since the 17th century, Paris
Paris
has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts
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Cat's-whisker Detector
A CAT\'S-WHISKER DETECTOR (sometimes called a CRYSTAL DETECTOR) is an antique electronic component consisting of a thin wire that lightly touches a crystal of semiconducting mineral (usually galena ) to make a crude point-contact rectifier . Discovered in 1874 by Karl Ferdinand Braun , first used to detect radio waves by Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose
in 1894, and improved around 1904 by radio researchers such as Henry H. C. Dunwoody and G. W. Pickard , this device was used as the detector in early crystal radios , from the early twentieth century through World War II
World War II
, and gave this type of radio receiver its name. Crystal radios were the most popular type of radio until the mid 1920s. The cat's whisker detector was the first type of semiconductor diode , and in fact, one of the first semiconductor electronic devices (after photoconductors )
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Radar
RADAR is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft , ships , spacecraft , guided missiles , motor vehicles , weather formations , and terrain . A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna , a receiving antenna (often the same antenna is used for transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). Radio waves (pulsed or continuous) from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed. Radar
Radar
was developed secretly for military use by several nations in the period before and during World War II
World War II

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William Eccles
WILLIAM HENRY ECCLES FRS (23 August 1875 – 29 April 1966) was a British physicist and a pioneer in the development of radio communication. He was born in Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
, Lancashire
Lancashire
, England
England
. Following graduation from the Royal College of Science , London
London
, in 1898, he became an assistant to Guglielmo Marconi
Guglielmo Marconi
, the Italian radio entrepreneur. In 1901 he received his doctorate from the Royal College of Science. Eccles was an advocate of Oliver Heaviside
Oliver Heaviside
's theory that a conducting layer of the upper atmosphere could reflect radio waves around the curvature of the Earth, thus enabling their transmission over long distances
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Westinghouse Electric (1886)
The WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION was an American manufacturing company. It was founded on January 8, 1886, as WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC COMPANY and later renamed WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION by its founder George Westinghouse
George Westinghouse
(1846–1914). George Westinghouse
George Westinghouse
had previously founded the Westinghouse Air Brake Company . The corporation purchased the CBS
CBS
broadcasting company in 1995 and became the CBS
CBS
CORPORATION in 1997
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