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Transistor
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926[1] but it was not possible to actually construct a working device at that time
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Paris
Paris
(French pronunciation: ​[paʁi] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city in France, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015).[5] The city is a commune and department, and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de-
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Westinghouse Electric (1886)
The Westinghouse Electric
Electric
Corporation was an American manufacturing company. It was founded on January 8, 1886, as Westinghouse Electric Company and later renamed Westinghouse Electric
Electric
Corporation by its founder George Westinghouse
George Westinghouse
(1846–1914). George Westinghouse
George Westinghouse
had previously founded the Westinghouse Air Brake Company
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Murray Hill, New Jersey
Murray Hill is an unincorporated community located within portions of both Berkeley Heights and New Providence, located in Union County in northern New Jersey, United States.[2] It is the longtime central location of Bell Labs
Bell Labs
(part of Nokia
Nokia
as of January 2016), having relocated there in 1941 from New York City when the division was still part of Western Electric.[3] The neighborhood shares its ZIP code
ZIP code
07974[4] with the neighboring borough of New Providence.[5] Murray Hill was named and founded by Carl H. Schultz, founder of a mineral water business once located at First Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets in the Murray Hill district of Manhattan.[6] Schultz purchased a large tract of land there during the 1880s where he built a residence for his family and donated land to be used for a train station with the condition that the area be known as "Murray Hill".[7] Corporate residents[edit]C
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AT&T Corporation
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet
Internet
telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies. During its long history, AT&T was at times the world's largest telephone company, the world's largest cable television operator, and a regulated monopoly. At its peak in the 1950s and 1960s, it employed one million people and its revenue was roughly $3 billion annually. In 2005, AT&T was purchased by Baby Bell
Baby Bell
and former subsidiary SBC Communications for more than $16 billion ($20 billion in present-day terms[1])
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William Eccles
William Henry Eccles FRS[1] (23 August 1875 – 29 April 1966) was a British physicist and a pioneer in the development of radio communication. He was born in Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire, England. Following graduation from the Royal College of Science, London, in 1898, he became an assistant to Guglielmo Marconi, the Italian radio entrepreneur. In 1901 he received his doctorate from the Royal College of Science. Eccles was an advocate of Oliver Heaviside's theory that a conducting layer of the upper atmosphere could reflect radio waves around the curvature of the Earth, thus enabling their transmission over long distances. Originally known as the Kennelly–Heaviside layer, this region of the Earth's atmosphere became known as the Ionosphere
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Telephony
Telephony
Telephony
(/təˈlɛfəni/ tə-LEF-ə-nee) is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties. The history of telephony is intimately linked to the invention and development of the telephone. Telephony
Telephony
is commonly referred to as the construction or operation of telephones and telephonic systems and as a system of telecommunications in which telephonic equipment is employed in the transmission of speech or other sound between points, with or without the use of wires.[1] The term is also used frequently to refer to computer hardware, software, and computer network systems, that perform functions traditionally performed by telephone equipment
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Thermionic
Thermionic emission
Thermionic emission
is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal energy given to the carrier overcomes the work function of the material. The charge carriers can be electrons or ions, and in older literature are sometimes referred to as thermions. After emission, a charge that is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the total charge emitted is initially left behind in the emitting region. But if the emitter is connected to a battery, the charge left behind is neutralized by charge supplied by the battery as the emitted charge carriers move away from the emitter, and finally the emitter will be in the same state as it was before emission. The classical example of thermionic emission is that of electrons from a hot cathode into a vacuum (also known as thermal electron emission or the Edison effect) in a vacuum tube
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Electrical Power
Electric power
Electric power
is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second. Electric power
Electric power
is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries. It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid. Electric power
Electric power
is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours
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Nobel Prize In Physics
The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics
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Terminal (electronics)
A terminal is the point at which a conductor from an electrical component, device or network comes to an end and provides a point of connection to external circuits. A terminal may simply be the end of a wire or it may be fitted with a connector or fastener. In network analysis, terminal means a point at which connections can be made to a network in theory and does not necessarily refer to any real physical object. In this context, especially in older documents, it is sometimes called a pole. The connection may be temporary, as seen in portable equipment, may require a tool for assembly and removal, or may be a permanent electrical joint between two wires or devices. All electric cells have two terminals. The first is the positive terminal and the second is the negative terminal. The positive terminal looks like a metal cap and the negative terminal looks like a metal disc
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Voltage
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted ∆V or ∆U, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points. The voltage between two points is equal to the work done per unit of charge against a static electric field to move a test charge between two points
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Electric Current
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.[1]:2 In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma).[2] The SI unit
SI unit
for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current
Electric current
is measured using a device called an ammeter.[3] Electric currents cause Joule
Joule
heating, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs. They also create magnetic fields, which are used in motors, inductors and generators. The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers. In metals, one or more electrons from each atom are loosely bound to the atom, and can move freely about within the metal
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Electric Power
Electric power
Electric power
is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second. Electric power
Electric power
is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries. It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid. Electric power
Electric power
is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours
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Physicist
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. [1][2] Physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, to molecular length scales of chemical and biological interest, to cosmological length scales encompassing the Universe
Universe
as a whole
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Julius Edgar Lilienfeld
Julius Edgar Lilienfeld (April 18, 1882 – August 28, 1963) was a Jewish Austro-Hungarian-born German-American physicist and electronic engineer, credited with the first patents on the field-effect transistor (FET) (1925) and electrolytic capacitor (1931). Because of his failure to publish articles in learned journals and because high-purity semiconductor materials were not available yet, his FET patent never achieved fame, causing confusion for later inventors.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Education 3 Career 4 Personal life 5 Lilienfeld's patents 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEarly life[edit] Lilienfeld was born in Lemberg in Austria-Hungary (now called Lviv in Ukraine). Education[edit] Between 1900 and 1904 Lilienfeld studied at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität (renamed Humboldt University in 1949), in Berlin, where he received his Ph.D. on February 18, 1905
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