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Tran, Bulgaria
TRAN (Bulgarian : Трън, meaning "thorn ") is a small town in Tran Municipality , Pernik Province , western Bulgaria
Bulgaria
. It is 27 kilometres from the town Breznik
Breznik
and 15 km from the border with Serbia . The town was first mentioned in 1451 as Tran; its name was also rendered as Turun, Tuin, Turan, Taran throughout the 15th–16th centuries. Under the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
it belonged to the Sanjak of Niš . One distinctive feature of the town is the specific Tran dialect of the Bulgarian language
Bulgarian language
spoken in Tran, which is part of the Transitional dialect group. The Erma River which flows from the town has formed a magnificent gorge known as Transko Zhdrelo. Tran holds the Bulgarian lowest temperature record at −38.3 °C
°C
(−36.94 °F ) registered in the winter of 1947
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°F
The FAHRENHEIT SCALE is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Amsterdam-based physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736). It uses the DEGREE FAHRENHEIT (symbol: °F) as the unit. Several accounts of how he originally defined his scale exist. The lower defining point, 0 °F, was established as the temperature of a solution of brine made from equal parts of ice and salt. Further limits were established as the melting point of ice (32 °F) and his best estimate of the average human body temperature (96 °F, about 2.6 °F less than the modern value due to a later redefinition of the scale)
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Humid Continental Climate
A HUMID CONTINENTAL CLIMATE (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. Precipitation is usually well distributed through the year. The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C (26.6 °F) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). Some climatologists prefer to use the 0 °C isotherm as it is more commonly used. In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid. The Dfb, Dwb and Dsb subtypes are also known as HEMIBOREAL
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°C
The CELSIUS SCALE, also known as the CENTIGRADE SCALE, is an SI scale and unit of measurement for temperature . As an SI derived unit , it is used by most countries in the world. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale. The DEGREE CELSIUS (symbol: °C) can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius scale as well as a unit to indicate a temperature interval , a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty . Before being renamed to honour Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, and gradus, which means steps
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Ottoman Empire
The OTTOMAN EMPIRE (/ˈɒtəmən/ ; Ottoman Turkish : دولت عليه عثمانیه‎, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye; Modern Turkish : Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also known as the TURKISH EMPIRE, or OTTOMAN TURKEY, was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia in the vicinity of Bilecik and Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman . After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe
Europe
, and with the conquest of the Balkans
Balkans
, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire (known to the Ottomans as the Roman Empire) with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
by Mehmed the Conqueror
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Serbia
Coordinates : 44°N 21°E / 44°N 21°E / 44; 21 Republic of Serbia Република Србија (Serbian ) Republika Srbija (Serbian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Боже правде / Bože pravde
Bože pravde
God of Justice Location of Serbia
Serbia
(green) and the disputed territory of Kosovo (light green) in Europe
Europe
(dark grey)
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Countries Of The World
This LIST OF SOVEREIGN STATES provides an overview of sovereign states around the world , with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty . Membership within the United Nations
United Nations
system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states , two observer states , and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states, out of which there are 6 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states). Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood . For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below
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Livingston Island
LIVINGSTON ISLAND (historical Russian name Smolensk, 62°36′S 60°30′W / 62.600°S 60.500°W / -62.600; -60.500 ) is an Antarctic
Antarctic
island in the South Shetland Islands , Western Antarctica lying between Greenwich Island
Island
and Snow Islands . This island was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, and the name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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OCLC
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
ONLINE COMPUTER LIBRARY CENTER, INCORPORATED, is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the OHIO COLLEGE LIBRARY CENTER. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat , the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world. OCLC
OCLC
is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services (around $200 million annually as of 2016 )
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Antarctica
ANTARCTICA (UK English /ænˈtɑːktɪkə/ or /ænˈtɑːtɪkə/ , US English /æntˈɑːrktɪkə/ ( listen )) is Earth
Earth
's southernmost continent . It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic
Antarctic
region of the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
, almost entirely south of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle , and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean . At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica
Antarctica
is nearly twice the size of Australia
Australia
. About 98% of Antarctica
Antarctica
is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula
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South Shetland Islands
The SOUTH SHETLAND ISLANDS are a group of Antarctic islands , lying about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula
Antarctic Peninsula
, with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres (1,424 sq mi). By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes. The islands have been claimed by the United Kingdom since 1908 and have been part of the British Antarctic Territory
British Antarctic Territory
since 1962. They are also claimed by the governments of Chile
Chile
(since 1940, as part of the Antártica Chilena province) and by Argentina
Argentina
(since 1943, as part of Argentine Antarctica
Antarctica
, Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
Province ). Several countries maintain research stations on the islands
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Thorn (botany)
In plant morphology , THORNS, SPINES, and PRICKLES, and in general SPINOSE STRUCTURES (sometimes called spinose teeth or spinose apical processes), are hard, rigid extensions or modifications of leaves , roots , stems or buds with sharp, stiff ends, and generally serve the same function: physically deterring animals from eating the plant material
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Capital City
A CAPITAL CITY (or simply