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Traminer
SAVAGNIN or SAVAGNIN BLANC (not to be confused with Sauvignon blanc ) is a variety of white wine grape with green-skinned berries. It is mostly grown in the Jura region of France
France
, where it is made into Savagnin wine or the famous vin jaune and vin de paille . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Distribution and wines * 2.1 France
France
* 2.2 Germany * 2.3 Switzerland * 2.4 Australia * 3 Vine and viticulture * 4 Synonyms * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading HISTORYThe history of Savagnin is complicated and not helped by its rather unstable genome . The story starts with the ancient TRAMINER variety, a green-skinned grape recorded in the Tyrolean village of Tramin from ca. 1000 until the 16th century. (This region now lies in the Italian province of South Tyrol ). The famous ampelographer Pierre Galet thought that Traminer was identical to the green-skinned Savagnin blanc in the Jura. More recently it has been suggested that Savagnin blanc acquired slight differences in its leaf shape and geraniol content as it travelled to the other end of the Alps. Frankisch in Austria, Heida and Païen in Switzerland, Formentin in Hungary and Grumin from Bohemia are all very similar to Savagnin blanc and probably represent clones of the Traminer family, if not Traminer itself
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Grape
A GRAPE is a fruit, botanically a berry , of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis . Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine , jam , juice , jelly , grape seed extract , raisins , vinegar , and grape seed oil . Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit , generally occurring in clusters
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Vitis Vinifera
_VITIS VINIFERA_ (COMMON GRAPE VINE) is a species of _ Vitis _, native to the Mediterranean region , central Europe , and southwestern Asia , from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran . There are currently between 5,000 and 10,000 varieties of _ Vitis vinifera_ grapes though only a few are of commercial significance for wine and table grape production. It is a liana growing to 35 yards (32 m) in length, with flaky bark . The leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) long and broad. The fruit is a berry , known as a grape ; in the wild species it is 6 mm (0.24 in) diameter and ripens dark purple to blackish with a pale wax bloom; in cultivated plants it is usually much larger, up to 3 cm (1.2 in) long, and can be green, red, or purple (black). The species typically occurs in humid forests and streamsides. The wild grape is often classified as _V. vinifera_ subsp. _sylvestris_ (in some classifications considered _ Vitis sylvestris_), with _V. vinifera_ subsp. _vinifera_ restricted to cultivated forms. Domesticated vines have hermaphrodite flowers, but subsp. _sylvestris_ is dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants) and pollination is required for fruit to develop. The grape is eaten fresh, processed to make wine or juice , or dried to produce raisins
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List Of Wine-producing Regions
This LIST OF WINE-PRODUCING REGIONS catalogues significant growing regions where vineyards are planted. Wine
Wine
grapes mostly grow between the 30th and the 50th degree of latitude, in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Grapes will sometimes grow beyond this range and minor amounts of wine are made in some very unexpected places. In 2009, the five largest producers of wine in the world were, in order, Italy , France , Spain , the United States and China (see list of wine-producing countries for a complete rank)
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Sauvignon Blanc
SAUVIGNON BLANC is a green-skinned grape variety that originates from the Bordeaux
Bordeaux
region of France
France
. The grape most likely gets its name from the French words sauvage ("wild") and blanc ("white") due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in South West France
France
. It is possibly a descendant of Savagnin . Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc
is planted in many of the world's wine regions, producing a crisp, dry, and refreshing white varietal wine . The grape is also a component of the famous dessert wines from Sauternes and Barsac . Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc
is widely cultivated in France
France
, Chile
Chile
, Canada , Australia
Australia
, New Zealand
New Zealand
, South Africa
South Africa
, the states of Washington and California
California
in United States . Some New World Sauvignon blancs, particularly from California, may also be called "Fume Blanc". Depending on the climate , the flavor can range from aggressively grassy to sweetly tropical. In cooler climates, the grape has a tendency to produce wines with noticeable acidity and "green flavors" of grass, green bell peppers and nettles with some tropical fruit (such as passion fruit) and floral (such as elderflower) notes
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Wine
WINE (from Latin
Latin
vinum) is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes , generally Vitis vinifera , fermented without the addition of sugars , acids , enzymes , water , or other nutrients . Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide . Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir , and the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum , cherry , pomegranate and elderberry . Wine
Wine
has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest known traces of wine are from China
China
(c. 7000 BC), Georgia (c. 6000 BC), and Iran
Iran
(c. 5000 BC). The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery Armenia
Armenia
. Wine
Wine
reached the Balkans
Balkans
by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece
Greece
, Thrace and Rome
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Jura Wine
JURA WINE is French wine produced in the Jura département . Located between Burgundy and Switzerland
Switzerland
, this cool climate wine region produces wines with some similarity to Burgundy and Swiss wine . Jura wines are distinctive and unusual wines, the most famous being vin jaune , which is made by a similar process to Sherry
Sherry
, developing under a flor -like strain of yeast . This is made from the local Savagnin grape variety. Other grape varieties include Poulsard , Trousseau , and Chardonnay
Chardonnay
. Other wine styles found in Jura includes a vin de paille made from Chardonnay, Poulsard and Savagnin, a sparkling Crémant
Crémant
du Jura made from slightly unripe Chardonnay grapes, and a vin de liqueur known as Macvin du Jura made by adding marc to halt fermentation . The French chemist Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
was born and raised in the Jura region and owned a vineyard near Arbois that is still producing wine today under the management of Jura's largest wine firms: Henri-Maire. CONTENTS * 1 Climate and geography * 2 Wine
Wine
regions * 3 Grapes
Grapes
and wine * 3.1 Vin jaune
Vin jaune
* 4 Winemaking * 5 External links * 6 References CLIMATE AND GEOGRAPHY Hillside in Jura with vineyards
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (_République française_ ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille , Lyon , Lille , Nice , Toulouse and Bordeaux . During the Iron Age , what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls , a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome , which held Gaul until 486, when the Germanic Franks conquered the region and formed the Kingdom of France
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Vin Jaune
VIN JAUNE (French for "yellow wine") is a special and characteristic type of white wine made in the Jura region in eastern France
France
. It is similar to dry fino Sherry
Sherry
and gets its character from being matured in a barrel under a film of yeast , known as the voile, on the wine's surface. Vin jaune
Vin jaune
shares many similarities with Sherry, including some aromas , but unlike Sherry, it is not a fortified wine . The wine is made from the Savagnin grape, with some of the most premium examples coming from the marl based vineyards in the Château-Chalon AOC . In other French wine regions, there has been experimentation in producing similar style wines from Chardonnay
Chardonnay
and other local grape varieties using cultured yeast such as the vin de voile wine produced in the Gaillac
Gaillac
. CONTENTS * 1 Production * 2 Wine
Wine
regions * 3 Wine
Wine
style and serving * 4 La Percée du Vin Jaune * 5 Chemical composition * 6 References * 7 External links PRODUCTION 228L barrel of vin jaune in the course of maturation at the age of three years: Note the part des anges (angel\'s share ) created by evaporation which is not topped up, permitting the formation of a voile (veil) of active yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae type bayanus on its surface
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Vin De Paille
STRAW WINE, or RAISIN WINE, is a wine made from grapes that have been dried to concentrate their juice. The result is similar to that of the ice wine process, but suitable for warmer climates. The classic method dries clusters of grapes on mats of straw in the sun, but some regions dry them under cover, on roofs, or on modern racks, while some hang up the grapes or leave them to dry on the vine. The technique dates back to pre-Roman times, and most production of these wines has been in Northern Italy, Greece, and the French Alps. However producers in other areas are now starting to experiment with the method. Straw
Straw
wines are typically sweet to very sweet white wines, similar in density and sweetness to Sauternes and capable of long life. The low yields and labour-intensive production method means that they are quite expensive. Around Verona
Verona
red grapes are dried, and are fermented in two different ways to make a dry red wine ( Amarone
Amarone
) and a sweet red wine (Recioto della Valpolicella
Valpolicella
)
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Genome
In modern molecular biology and genetics , a GENOME is the GENETIC MATERIAL of an organism. It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses ). The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions ), the noncoding DNA and the genetic material of the mitochondria and chloroplasts . CONTENTS * 1 Origin of term * 2 Overview * 3 Sequencing and mapping * 4 Genome compositions * 4.1 Genome size * 4.2 Proportion of non-repetitive DNA * 4.3 Proportion of repetitive DNA * 4.3.1 Tandem repeats * 4.3.2 Interspersed repeats * 4.3.2.1 Retrotransposons * 4.3.2.2 DNA transposons * 5 Genome evolution * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links ORIGIN OF TERMThe term _genome_ was created in 1920 by Hans Winkler , professor of botany at the University of Hamburg , Germany . The Oxford Dictionary suggests the name is a blend of the words _gene _ and _chromosome _. However, see omics for a more thorough discussion. A few related _-ome_ words already existed—such as _biome _, _rhizome _, forming a vocabulary into which _genome_ fits systematically. OVERVIEWSome organisms have multiple copies of chromosomes : diploid , triploid , tetraploid and so on
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State Of Tyrol
TYROL (/tɪˈroʊl, taɪ-, ˈtaɪroʊl/ ; German : Tirol, pronounced ( listen ); Italian : Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria . It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol . It is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino (together with South Tyrol and Trentino in Italy ). The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Towns * 4 Transport * 5 Administrative divisions * 6 References GEOGRAPHYThe state of Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide (4.3 mi) strip. The larger territory is called North Tyrol (Nordtirol) and the smaller area is called East Tyrol (Osttirol). The neighbouring Austrian state of Salzburg stands to the east, while on the south Tyrol has a border with the Italian province of South Tyrol which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War . With a land area of 12,683.85 km2 (4,897.26 sq mi), Tyrol is the third-largest state in Austria. Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Salzburg in the east and Vorarlberg in the west
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Tramin
TRAMIN AN DER WEINSTRAßE (German pronunciation: ; Italian : Termeno sulla Strada del Vino ), often abbreviated to TRAMIN or TERMENO, is a comune (municipality) in South Tyrol , northern Italy
Italy
, located about 20 kilometres (12 miles) southwest of the city of Bolzano . The name of the grape variety Gewürztraminer
Gewürztraminer
has its origins in Tramin. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 2.1 Coat-of-arms * 3 Society * 3.1 Linguistic distribution * 3.2 Demographic evolution * 4 Twin cities * 5 References * 6 External links GEOGRAPHYAs of November 30, 2010, Tramin had a population of 3,296 and an area of 19.4 square kilometres (7.5 sq mi). The municipality of Tramin contains the frazioni (subdivisions, mainly villages and hamlets) Rungg (Ronchi) and Söll (Sella). Tramin borders the following municipalities: Amblar , Kaltern , Coredo , Kurtatsch , Neumarkt , Montan
Montan
, Auer , Sfruz and Vadena . HISTORYCOAT-OF-ARMSThe emblem represents a six points star of or surmounted by an or overturned crescent on azure background. The origin of the coat is not known but derives from that of Lords of Eppan . The arms were granted in 1929. SOCIETYLINGUISTIC DISTRIBUTIONAccording to the 2011 census, 96.37% of the population speak German, 3.44% Italian and 0.20% Ladin as first language
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Italy
Coordinates : 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12 Italian Republic _Repubblica Italiana_ (Italian ) _ Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Il Canto degli Italiani _ (Italian ) "The Song of the Italians" Location of Italy (dark green) – in Europe (light green "> (light green) – Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483 Official language and national language Italian a RELIGION * 83.3% Christians * 12.4% Irreligious * 3.7% Muslims * 0.2% Buddhists * 0.1% Hindus * 0.3% Other religions DEMONYM Italian GOV
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Alto Adige
ALTO ADIGE (in French Haute Adige) is the name of an alpine region that was first created by the Napoleonic French in order to distinguish this Italian-speaking area (at the start of the XIX century) from the Austrian empire's Tyrol (located directly north). CONTENTS * 1 Name\'s etymology * 2 Napoleon\'s Alto Adige
Alto Adige
* 3 Notes * 4 Bibliography * 5 See also NAME\'S ETYMOLOGYThe name "Alto Adige" was coined (created) in the late eighteenth century by Napoleon
Napoleon
, when he occupied the territory of northern Italy near the