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Traminer
SAVAGNIN or SAVAGNIN BLANC (not to be confused with Sauvignon blanc
Sauvignon blanc
) is a variety of white wine grape with green-skinned berries. It is mostly grown in the Jura region of France
France
, where it is made into Savagnin
Savagnin
wine or the famous vin jaune and vin de paille . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Distribution and wines * 2.1 France
France
* 2.2 Germany * 2.3 Switzerland * 2.4 Australia * 3 Vine and viticulture * 4 Synonyms * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading HISTORYThe history of Savagnin
Savagnin
is complicated and not helped by its rather unstable genome . The story starts with the ancient TRAMINER variety, a green-skinned grape recorded in the Tyrolean village of Tramin from ca. 1000 until the 16th century. (This region now lies in the Italian province of South Tyrol )
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Flor
FLOR (Spanish and Portuguese for flower) is a winemaking term referring to a film of yeast on the surface of wine and which is important in the manufacture of some styles of sherry . The flor is formed naturally under certain winemaking conditions, from indigenous yeasts found in the region of Andalucía in southern Spain
Spain
. Normally in winemaking, it is essential to keep young wines away from exposure to air by sealing them in airtight barrels, to avoid contamination by bacteria and yeasts that tend to spoil it. However, in the manufacture of sherries, the slightly porous oak barrels are deliberately filled only about five-sixths full with the young wine, leaving "the space of two fists" empty to allow the flor yeast to take form and the bung is not completely sealed
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Straw Wine
STRAW WINE, or RAISIN WINE, is a wine made from grapes that have been dried to concentrate their juice. The result is similar to that of the ice wine process, but suitable for warmer climates. The classic method dries clusters of grapes on mats of straw in the sun, but some regions dry them under cover, on roofs, or on modern racks, while some hang up the grapes or leave them to dry on the vine. The technique dates back to pre-Roman times, and most production of these wines has been in Northern Italy, Greece, and the French Alps. However producers in other areas are now starting to experiment with the method. Straw wines are typically sweet to very sweet white wines, similar in density and sweetness to Sauternes and capable of long life. The low yields and labour-intensive production method means that they are quite expensive
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Dessert Wine
DESSERT WINES, sometimes called PUDDING WINES, are sweet wines typically served with dessert . There is no simple definition of a dessert wine. In the UK, a dessert wine is considered to be any sweet wine drunk with a meal, as opposed to the white fortified wines (fino and amontillado sherry) drunk before the meal, and the red fortified wines (port and madeira ) drunk after it. Thus, most fortified wines are regarded as distinct from dessert wines, but some of the less strong fortified white wines, such as Pedro Ximénez sherry and Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise , are regarded as honorary dessert wines. In the United States, by contrast, a dessert wine is legally defined as any wine over 14% alcohol by volume , which includes all fortified wines - and is taxed more highly as a result
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Visperterminen
VISPERTERMINEN (Walser German : Tärbinu) is a municipality in the district of Visp in the canton of Valais in Switzerland . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Coat of arms * 4 Demographics * 5 Heritage sites of national significance * 6 Politics * 7 Economy * 8 Religion * 9 Education * 10 Personalities * 11 References * 12 External links HISTORYVisperterminen is first mentioned in the 11th Century as Termenum. In 1221 it was mentioned as Terminum. GEOGRAPHY Gibidumsee Visperterminen has an area, as of 2011 , of 51.6 square kilometers (19.9 sq mi). Of this area, 32.1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 31.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.6% is settled (buildings or roads) and 34.7% is unproductive land. The municipality is located in the Visp district. The municipality stretches from the valley located in the hills north-west of Visp and the Nanz valley over to the Mattwald and Simelihorn
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Fino
FINO
FINO
("refined" in Spanish ) is the driest and palest of the traditional varieties of Sherry
Sherry
and Montilla-Moriles fortified wine. They are consumed comparatively young and, unlike the sweeter varieties, should be consumed soon after the bottle is opened as exposure to air can cause them to lose their flavour within hours. CONTENTS * 1 Flor
Flor
* 2 Varieties * 3 Production * 4 Storing * 5 Serving * 6 External links * 7 References FLORThe defining component of Fino
Fino
sherries is the strain of yeast known as flor that floats in a layer on top of sherry in the wine barrel . Until the mid-19th century most sherry winemakers did not understand what this yellowish foam that randomly appeared in some of their barrels was. They would mark these barrels as "sick" and relegate them to their lowest bottlings of wine
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Château-Chalon AOC
CHâTEAU-CHALON is an Appellation d\'Origine Contrôlée for wines made in the Jura wine region of France , around the village of Château-Chalon . Only white wines from the Savagnin grape made in the vin jaune ("yellow wine") style can be made using this appellation. However, the Château-Chalon wines are not explicitly labeled as vin jaune. It is bottled in the traditional bottle called clavelin that is of a peculiar shape and with a capacity of 62 cl , which is, according to local legend, the amount left of a litre of wine after aging in cask for six years and three months - the legal minimum for Chateau Chalon. Once bottled, the wine is of great longevity , and can age for several decades. CONTENTS * 1 Climate and geography * 2 Wine production * 3 Wine style * 4 References CLIMATE AND GEOGRAPHY Vineyards. Château-Chalon is located in hilly terrain in the eastern French wine region of Jura
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Karl Friedrich, Grand Duke Of Baden
CHARLES FREDERICK (22 November 1728 – 10 June 1811 ) was Margrave , Elector and later Grand Duke of Baden
Grand Duke of Baden
(initially only Margrave of Baden-Durlach) from 1738 until his death. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Marriages and children * 3 Ancestry * 4 References * 5 Further reading BIOGRAPHYBorn at Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
, he was the son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Baden-Durlach
Baden-Durlach
and Amalia of Nassau-Dietz (13 October 1710 – 17 September 1777), the daughter of Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz . He succeeded his grandfather as Margrave of Baden-Durlach
Baden-Durlach
in 1738 and ruled personally from 1746 until 1771, when he inherited Baden-Baden from the Bernhard Line. Upon inheriting the latter margraviate, the original land of Baden was reunited
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Chiavenna
CHIAVENNA (Lombard : Ciavèna, Latin and Romansh : Clavenna (help ·info ) or Claven, archaic German : Cläven or Kleven) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Sondrio
Province of Sondrio
in the Italian region of Lombardy
Lombardy
. It is the centre of the Alpine Valchiavenna region. The historic town is a member of the Cittaslow movement. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Demographic evolution * 4 Notable people * 5 References * 6 External links GEOGRAPHY Chiavenna
Chiavenna
is located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) north of Milan
Milan
and about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Sondrio
Sondrio
. The town is situated on the right bank of the river Mera about 16 kilometres (10 mi) north of Lake Como
Lake Como

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Grape
A GRAPE is a fruit, botanically a berry , of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis . Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine , jam , juice , jelly , grape seed extract , raisins , vinegar , and grape seed oil . Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit , generally occurring in clusters
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Valais
The CANTON OF VALAIS (French pronunciation: ​ ; German : Wallis, German pronunciation: ( listen )) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland
Switzerland
, situated in the southwestern part of the country , around the valley of the Rhône
Rhône
from its headwaters to Lake Geneva , separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps . The canton is simultaneously one of the driest regions of Switzerland
Switzerland
in its central Rhône
Rhône
valley and among the wettest, having large amounts of snow and rain up on the highest peaks found in Switzerland. The canton of Valais
Valais
is widely known for the Matterhorn
Matterhorn
and resort towns such as Crans-Montana , Saas Fee and Zermatt
Zermatt

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Albarino
ALBARIñO (Galician pronunciation: ) or ALVARINHO (Portuguese: ) is a variety of white wine grape grown in Galicia (northwest Spain), Monção and Melgaço (northwest Portugal
Portugal
), where it is used to make varietal white wines. Albariño is the Galician name for the grape; in Portugal
Portugal
it is known as Alvarinho, and sometimes as CAINHO BRANCO. It was presumably brought to Iberia by Cluny
Cluny
monks in the twelfth century. In Galician, its name "Albariño" comes from albar, and this from albo, both meaning "white, whitish" (and in Portuguese "Alvarinho" from alvar and alvo), and those from Latin albus, "white"
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Annual Growth Cycle Of Grapevines
The ANNUAL GROWTH CYCLE OF GRAPEVINES is the process that takes place in the vineyard each year, beginning with bud break in the spring and culminating in leaf fall in autumn followed by winter dormancy . From a winemaking perspective, each step in the process plays a vital role in the development of grapes with ideal characteristics for making wine . Viticulturalists and vineyard managers monitor the effect of climate, vine disease and pests in facilitating or impeding the vines progression from bud break, flowering , fruit set, veraison , harvesting , leaf fall and dormancy-reacting if need be with the use of viticultural practices like canopy management , irrigation , vine training and the use of agrochemicals . The stages of the annual growth cycle usually become observable within the first year of a vine's life
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Aroma Of Wine
It is through the AROMAS OF WINE that wine is smelled. The human tongue is limited to the primary tastes perceived by taste receptors on the tongue-sourness , bitterness , saltiness , sweetness and savoriness . The wide array of fruit, earthy, floral, herbal, mineral and woodsy flavor present in wine are derived from aroma notes sensed by the olfactory bulb . In wine tasting, wine is sometimes smelled before being drunk in order to identify some components of the wine that may be present. Different terms are used to describe what is being smelled. The most basic term is AROMA which generally refers to a "pleasant" smell as opposed to ODOR which refers to an unpleasant smell or possible wine fault . The term aroma may be further distinguished from BOUQUET which generally refers to the smells that arise from the chemical reactions of fermentation and aging of the wine . CONTENTS * 1 Aroma vs
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Alternative Wine Closure
ALTERNATIVE WINE CLOSURES are substitute closures used in the wine industry for sealing wine bottles in place of traditional cork closures. The emergence of these alternatives has grown in response to quality control efforts by winemakers to protect against "cork taint " caused by the presence of the chemical trichloroanisole (TCA). The closures debate, chiefly between supporters of screw caps and natural corks, has increased the awareness of post-bottling wine chemistry , and the concept of winemaking has grown to continue after the bottling process, because closures with different oxygen transmission rates may lead to wines that taste different when they reach consumers. The cork-industry group APCOR cites a study showing a 0.7-1.2% taint rate. In a 2005 study of 2800 bottles tasted at the Wine
Wine
Spectator blind-tasting facilities in Napa, California, 7% of the bottles were found to be tainted
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Aging Of Wine
The AGING OF WINE (American spelling) or AGEING OF WINE (British spelling) is potentially able to improve the quality of wine . This distinguishes wine from most other consumable goods. While wine is perishable and capable of deteriorating, complex chemical reactions involving a wine's sugars , acids and phenolic compounds (such as tannins ) can alter the aroma , color , mouthfeel and taste of the wine in a way that may be more pleasing to the taster. The ability of a wine to age is influenced by many factors including grape variety , vintage , viticultural practices, wine region and winemaking style. The condition that the wine is kept in after bottling can also influence how well a wine ages and may require significant time and financial investment
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