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Traditional Chinese Medicine
TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM; simplified Chinese : 中医; traditional Chinese : 中醫; pinyin : _Zhōngyī_) is a style of traditional medicine informed by modern medicine but built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine , acupuncture , massage (tui na) , exercise (qigong) , and dietary therapy. It is primarily used as a complementary alternative medicine approach. TCM is widely used in China and is becoming increasingly available in Europe and North America. One of the basic tenets of TCM "holds that the body's vital energy (_chi_ or _qi_) circulates through channels, called _meridians ,_ that have branches connected to bodily organs and functions." Concepts of the body and of disease used in TCM reflect its ancient origins and its emphasis on dynamic processes over material structure, similar to European humoral theory . Scientific investigation has not found histological or physiological evidence for traditional Chinese concepts such as _qi_, meridians, and acupuncture points. The TCM theory and practice are not based upon scientific knowledge , and there is disagreement between TCM practitioners on what diagnosis and treatments should be used for any given patient. The effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine remains poorly researched and documented. There are concerns over a number of potentially toxic plants, animal parts, and mineral Chinese medicinals
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Medicine In China
In China
China
, most hospitals are run by the government . Physicians were previously quasi-government employees and with little freedom in the choice of the hospital to work with. In addition, decades of planned economic policy discouraged physicians from opening their own clinics, and the practice of medicine was generally non-private. While there are private clinics in China, many of the owners of those clinics do not have a western medical education. Most of these private practitioners practice traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). They learned a lineage-based medical system from their parents (mostly from their fathers), took imperial exams to enter medical university pre-PRC , or study at TCM universities in modern China. Physicians now are encouraged to open private clinics or hospitals, and those who have been practicing medicine for five years after they received national physician licenses can open their own clinics
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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
Kangxi Dictionary
. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century (during the Southern and Northern Dynasties .) The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People\'s Republic of China
China
on Mainland China
Mainland China
in the 1950s
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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; _jiǎnhuàzì_) are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the _Table of General Standard Chinese Characters _ for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters , it is one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s in an attempt to increase literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore . Traditional Chinese characters are currently used in Hong Kong , Macau , and the Republic of China ( Taiwan ). While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups generally retain their use of Simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities generally tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name above or colloquially (简体字; _ jiǎntǐzì _). The latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms
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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words . There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely PUTONGHUA in Mainland China
China
and GUOYU in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Bopomofo for teaching). There are many characters that are identical between the two systems
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Hanyu Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China , Malaysia , Singapore , and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone (in part to make areas more English-friendly) rather than for educational and computer-input purposes. The word _Hànyǔ_ (simplified Chinese : 汉语; traditional Chinese : 漢語) means the spoken language of the Han people . _Pīnyīn_ (拼音) literally means "spelled sounds"
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Wade–giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's _Chinese–English Dictionary _ of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization
Postal Romanization
(still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan
Taiwan
implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life. Additionally, its usage can be seen in the common English names of certain individuals and locations such as Chiang Ching-kuo
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Cantonese
CANTONESE, or STANDARD CANTONESE, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within the city of Canton (Guangzhou) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue , one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China , it is the main _lingua franca _ of the province of Guangdong and some neighbouring areas such as Guangxi , being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta . It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong and Macau . Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia , as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world . While the term _Cantonese_ refers narrowly to the prestige variety , it is often used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subdivision of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages such as Taishanese . When Cantonese and the closely-related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as vital part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swathes of southeastern China , Hong Kong and Macau
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The YALE ROMANIZATION OF CANTONESE was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook _Speak Cantonese_ (1958). Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin , it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese
Cantonese
. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as _b_ in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as _p_. Because of this, the Yale romanization is easy for English speakers to pronounce without much training. Students studying Cantonese
Cantonese
at the University of Hong Kong learn the Jyutping
Jyutping
system of romanization, while those who attend The Chinese University of Hong Kong 's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught to use the Yale romanization
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Jyutping
JYUTPING (Chinese : 粵拼; Jyutping: _Jyut6ping3_; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is a romanisation system for Cantonese
Cantonese
developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993. Its formal name is _THE LINGUISTIC SOCIETY OF HONG KONG CANTONESE ROMANISATION SCHEME_. The LSHK promotes the use of this romanisation system. The name _Jyutping_ (itself the Jyutping
Jyutping
romanisation of its Chinese name, 粵拼) is a contraction consisting of the first Chinese characters of the terms _Jyut6jyu5_ (粵語, meaning "Cantonese speech") and _ping3jam1_ (拼音 "phonetic alphabet")
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Southern Min
SOUTHERN MIN, or MINNAN (simplified Chinese : 闽南语; traditional Chinese : 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in certain parts of China
China
including southern Fujian
Fujian
(the Minnan region
Minnan region
), eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, Hainan
Hainan
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, and in Taiwan
Taiwan
. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora , most notably the Philippines
Philippines
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
. In common parlance, Southern Min
Southern Min
usually refers to Hokkien
Hokkien
, including Amoy and Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
; both are combinations of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou speeches. The Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group also includes Teochew , though Teochew has limited mutual intelligibility with Hokkien
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Taiwanese Romanization System
The TAIWANESE ROMANIZATION SYSTEM (Taiwanese Romanization: _Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn_, Chinese : 臺灣閩南語羅馬字拼音方案; pinyin : _Táiwān Mǐnnányǔ Luómǎzì Pīnyīn Fāng'àn_; Pe̍h-ōe-jī : _Tâi-ôan Lô-má-jī Pheng-im Hong-àn_; often referred to as TâI-Lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
. It is derived from Pe̍h-ōe-jī and since 2006 has been officially promoted by Taiwan
Taiwan
's Ministry of Education . It is nearly identical to Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet (TLPA) Romanization for Hakka apart from using _ts tsh j_ instead of _c ch j_ for the fricatives /ts tsʰ dz/. Taiwanese Romanization System CONTENTS * 1 Alphabet * 2 Values * 2.1 Consonants * 2.2 Vowels & Rhymes * 2.3 Tones * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links ALPHABET Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones
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Alternative Medicine
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE – or FRINGE MEDICINE – includes practices claimed to have the healing effects of medicine but which are disproven, unproven, impossible to prove, or are excessively harmful in relation to their effect; and where the scientific consensus is that the therapy does not, or can not, work because the known laws of nature are violated by its basic claims; or where it is considered so much worse than conventional treatment that it would be unethical to offer as treatment. Alternative therapies or diagnoses are not part of medicine or science-based healthcare systems. Alternative medicine consists of a wide variety of practices, products, and therapies – ranging from those that are biologically plausible but not well tested, to those with known harmful and toxic effects. Contrary to popular belief, significant expense is paid to test alternative medicine, including over $2.5 billion spent by the United States government. Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment . Perceived effects of alternative medicine may be caused by placebo ; decreased effect of functional treatment (and therefore potentially decreased side effects ); and regression toward the mean where improvement that would have occurred anyway is credited to alternative therapies; or any combination of the above. Alternative treatments are neither the same as experimental medicine , nor traditional medicine – although the latter, when used today may be considered alternative
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Pseudomedicine
PSEUDOMEDICINE is medicine which claims to be effective for diagnosing or treating specific medical conditions, but which has been disproven or which is unproven and the mainstream scientific opinion is that it will not be proven to be effective. It is distinct from experimental medicine , which is medicine that has not yet been proven but which is undergoing the process of either being proven and becoming accepted, or being disproven and being discarded. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Sociology * 3 List of fields characterized as pseudomedicine * 4 See also * 5 References DEFINITION Pseudomedicine refers to "treatments that claim to be working concepts of medicine that have no objectively verifiable benefit or are incompatible with the current state of knowledge in the field of science-based medicine." Historically, the term was used in the early 20th century by the American Medical Association when, as part of the effort to gain establishment status, it combated what it called quackery and pseudomedicine, thus differentiating itself as a professional organization of experts distinct from charlatan practitioners. SOCIOLOGYThe National Council Against Health Fraud has said that the existence of pseudomedicine results from the effect of market forces : on the one hand a desire for quick fixes rooted in alienation from mainstream medicine, and on the other hand businessmen only too willing to meet that demand
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Quackery
QUACKERY is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices . A QUACK is a "fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skill" or "a person who pretends, professionally or publicly, to have skill, knowledge, or qualifications he or she does not possess; a charlatan or snake oil salesman". The term quack is a clipped form of the archaic term quacksalver, from Dutch : kwakzalver a "hawker of salve". In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the term quack meant "shouting". The quacksalvers sold their wares on the market shouting in a loud voice. Common elements of general quackery include questionable diagnoses using questionable diagnostic tests , as well as untested or refuted treatments, especially for serious diseases such as cancer . Quackery is often described as "health fraud" with the salient characteristic of aggressive promotion
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History Of Alternative Medicine
The HISTORY OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE refers to the history of a group of diverse medical practices that were collectively promoted as "alternative medicine " beginning in the 1970s, to the collection of individual histories of members of that group, or to the history of western medical practices that were labeled "irregular practices" by the western medical establishment. It includes the histories of complementary medicine and of integrative medicine . "Alternative medicine" is a loosely defined and very diverse set of products, practices, and theories that are perceived by its users to have the healing effects of medicine , but do not originate from evidence gathered using the scientific method , :Ch 14E, p. 1 are not part of biomedicine , or are contradicted by scientific evidence or established science. "Biomedicine" is that part of medical science that applies principles of anatomy , physics , chemistry , biology , physiology , and other natural sciences to clinical practice , using scientific methods to establish the effectiveness of that practice. Much of what is now categorized as alternative medicine was developed as independent, complete medical systems, was developed long before biomedicine and use of scientific methods, and was developed in relatively isolated regions of the world where there was little or no medical contact with pre-scientific western medicine, or with each other's systems
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