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Traditional Chinese Medicine
TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM; simplified Chinese : 中医; traditional Chinese : 中醫; pinyin : Zhōngyī) is a style of traditional medicine informed by modern medicine but built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine , acupuncture , massage (tui na) , exercise (qigong) , and dietary therapy. It is primarily used as a complementary alternative medicine approach. TCM is widely used in China and is becoming increasingly available in Europe and North America. One of the basic tenets of TCM "holds that the body's vital energy (chi or qi) circulates through channels, called meridians , that have branches connected to bodily organs and functions." Concepts of the body and of disease used in TCM reflect its ancient origins and its emphasis on dynamic processes over material structure, similar to European humoral theory
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Orgone
ORGONE is a pseudo-scientific and spiritual concept described as an esoteric energy or hypothetical universal life force , originally proposed in the 1930s by Wilhelm Reich
Wilhelm Reich
. As developed by Reich's student Charles Kelley after Reich's death in 1957, orgone was conceived as the anti-entropic principle of the universe, a creative substratum in all of nature comparable to Mesmer
Mesmer
's animal magnetism (1779), to the Odic force
Odic force
(1845) of Carl Reichenbach and to Henri Bergson 's élan vital (1907). Orgone
Orgone
was seen as a massless, omnipresent substance, similar to luminiferous aether , but more closely associated with living energy than with inert matter
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Parapsychology
PARAPSYCHOLOGY is a field of study concerned with the investigation of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy , precognition , clairvoyance , psychokinesis , near-death experiences , reincarnation , apparitional experiences , and other paranormal claims. It is identified as pseudoscience by the overwhelming majority of mainstream scientists. Parapsychology
Parapsychology
research is largely conducted by private institutions in several countries and funded through private donations, and the subject rarely appears in mainstream science journals. Most papers about parapsychology are published in a small number of niche journals. Parapsychology
Parapsychology
has been criticised for continuing investigation despite being unable to provide convincing evidence for the existence of any psychic phenomena after more than a century of research
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Skeptical Movement
The SKEPTICAL MOVEMENT (also spelled SCEPTICAL) is a modern social movement promoting the idea of SCIENTIFIC SKEPTICISM (also called RATIONAL SKEPTICISM). Scientific skepticism is the application of skeptical philosophy , critical thinking skills, and knowledge of science and its methods to empirical claims, while remaining agnostic or neutral to non-empirical claims (except those that directly impact the practice of science). The movement has the goal of investigating claims made on fringe topics and determining if they are supported by empirical research and are reproducible , as part of a methodological norm pursuing "the extension of certified knowledge". The process followed is sometimes referred to as SKEPTICAL INQUIRY. Roots of the movement can be found in the 19th century when questions began to be publicly raised regarding the unquestioned acceptance of claims of spiritism , various widely held superstitions , and pseudoscience
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Skepticism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e SKEPTICISM ( American English
American English
) or SCEPTICISM ( British English
British English
; see spelling differences ) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief. It is often directed at domains, such as morality (moral skepticism), religion (skepticism about the existence of God), or knowledge (skepticism about the possibility of knowledge, or of certainty). Formally, skepticism as a topic occurs in the context of philosophy, particularly epistemology , although it can be applied to any topic such as politics, religion, and pseudoscience. Philosophical skepticism comes in various forms
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Antiscience
ANTISCIENCE is a position that rejects science and the scientific method . People holding antiscientific views do not accept that science is an objective method, or that it generates universal knowledge. They also contend that scientific reductionism in particular is an inherently limited means to reach understanding of the complex world we live in
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Radionics
RADIONICS is an alternative medicine that claims disease can be diagnosed and treated with a kind of energy similar to radio waves. The concept behind radionics originated in the early 1900s with Albert Abrams (1864–1924), who became a millionaire by leasing radionic machines which he designed himself. Radionics
Radionics
contradicts some principles of physics and biology and, as such, is widely considered pseudoscientific . The United States
United States
Food and Drug Administration does not recognize any legitimate medical uses for radionic devices
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Chemtrail Conspiracy Theory
The CHEMTRAIL CONSPIRACY THEORY is the claim that long-lasting trails, so-called "chemtrails", are left in the sky by high-flying aircraft and that they consist of chemical or biological agents deliberately sprayed for unknown purposes undisclosed to the general public. Believers in the theory argue that normal contrails dissipate relatively quickly and that contrails that do not dissipate must contain additional substances. These arguments have been dismissed by the scientific community: such trails are normal water-based contrails (condensation trails) that are routinely left by high-flying aircraft under certain atmospheric conditions. Although proponents have attempted to prove that the claimed chemical spraying does take place, their analyses have been flawed or based on misconceptions
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Shamanism
SHAMANISM (/ˈʃɑːmən/ SHAH-men or /ˈʃeɪmən/ SHAY-mən ) is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. A SHAMAN is someone who is regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits , who typically enters into a trance state during a ritual , and practices divination and healing . The word "shaman" probably originates from the Tungusic Evenki language of North Asia . According to ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen , "the word is attested in all of the Tungusic idioms" such as Negidal, Lamut, Udehe/Orochi, Nanai, Ilcha, Orok, Manchu and Ulcha, and "nothing seems to contradict the assumption that the meaning 'shaman' also derives from Proto-Tungusic" and may have roots that extend back in time at least two millennia
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Medieval Medicine Of Western Europe
MEDIEVAL MEDICINE in Western Europe
Western Europe
was composed of a mixture of existing ideas from antiquity, spiritual influences and what Claude Lévi-Strauss identifies as the "shamanistic complex" and "social consensus." In the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire , standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere. Many simply placed their hopes in the church and God to heal all their sicknesses. Ideas about the origin and cure of disease were not purely secular , but were also based on a world view in which factors such as destiny , sin , and astral influences played as great a part as any physical cause. The efficacy of cures was similarly bound in the beliefs of patient and doctor rather than empirical evidence , so that remedia physicalia (physical remedies) were often subordinate to spiritual intervention
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Medicine In Ancient Rome
MEDICINE IN ANCIENT ROME combined various techniques using different tools, methodology, and ingredients. Roman medicine was highly influenced by Greek medicine. Greek physicians including Dioscorides and Galen
Galen
practiced medicine and recorded their discoveries in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. These two physicians had knowledge of hundreds of herbal, among other, medicines. Ancient Roman medicine was divided into specializations such as ophthalmology and urology . A variety of surgical procedures were carried out using many different instruments including forceps , scalpels and catheters
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GMO Conspiracy Theories
CONSPIRACY may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Types of conspiracies * 2 Music * 3 Film and television * 4 Games * 5 Books and comics * 6 Other uses * 7 See also TYPES OF CONSPIRACIES * Conspiracy (civil) , an agreement between people to deceive, mislead, or defraud others of their legal rights or to gain an unfair advantage * Conspiracy (criminal) , an agreement between people to break the law in the future, in some cases having committed an act to further that agreement * Conspiracy (political) , an agreement
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Pseudoscience
PSEUDOSCIENCE consists of statements, beliefs , or practices that are claimed to be scientific and factual in the absence of evidence gathered and constrained by appropriate scientific methods. Pseudoscience
Pseudoscience
is often characterized by the following: contradictory, exaggerated or unfalsifiable claims ; reliance on confirmation bias rather than rigorous attempts at refutation; lack of openness to evaluation by other experts; and absence of systematic practices when developing theories. The term pseudoscience is often considered pejorative because it suggests something is being presented as science inaccurately or even deceptively. Accordingly, those termed as practicing or advocating pseudoscience often dispute the characterization. The demarcation between science and pseudoscience has philosophical and scientific implications
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Mesmerism
ANIMAL MAGNETISM, also known as MESMERISM, was the name given by the German doctor Franz Mesmer
Franz Mesmer
in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living/animate beings (humans, animals, vegetables, etc.). He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing . He tried persistently but without success to achieve scientific recognition of his theories. The vitalist theory attracted numerous followers in Europe and the United States and was popular into the 19th century. Practitioners were often known as MAGNETIZERS, rather than MESMERISTS. For about 75 years from its beginnings in 1779 it was an important specialty in medicine, and continued to have some influence for about another 50 years. Hundreds of books were written on the subject between 1766 and 1925. Today it is almost entirely forgotten
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Wade–Giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Yale Romanization Of Cantonese
The YALE ROMANIZATION OF CANTONESE was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese
Cantonese
initially circulated in looseleaf form in 1952 but later published in 1958. Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin , it is still widely used in books and dictionaries, especially for foreign learners of Cantonese
Cantonese
. It shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin
Pinyin
in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as p. Because of this, the Yale romanization is easy for English speakers to pronounce without much training
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