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Trade Agreement
A trade agreement (also known as trade pact) is a wide ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes investment guarantees
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Quota Share
A quota share is a specified number or percentage of the allotment as a whole (quota), that is prescribed to each individual entity. For example, the United States
United States
imposes an import quota on cars from Japan. The Japanese government may see fit to impose a quota share program to determine the number of cars each Japanese car manufacturer may export to the United States. Any extra number that a manufacturer wishes to export must be negotiated with another manufacturer that did not or cannot maximize its share of the quota. Also there are quota share insurance programs. Where the benefit and the premiums are divided proportionally among the insured. For example, three companies take out a $1,000,000 fire insurance policy on a quota share basis with company A assuming 50% ($500,000), company B 30% ($300,000), and company C 20% ($200,000)
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Domestic Trade
Domestic trade, also known as internal trade or home trade, is the exchange of domestic goods within the boundaries of a country. This may be sub-divided into two categories, wholesale and retail. Wholesale
Wholesale
trade is concerned with buying goods from manufacturers or dealers or producers in large quantities and selling them in smaller quantities to others who may be retailers or even consumers. Wholesale trade is undertaken by wholesale merchants or wholesale commission agents. Retail
Retail
trade is concerned with the sale of goods in small quantities to consumers. This type of trade is taken care of by retailers
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Tariff-rate Quota
A tariff-rate quota (TRQ) is a trade policy tool used to protect a domestically-produced commodity or product from competitive imports.[1] A TRQ combines two policy instruments that nations historically have used to restrict imports: quotas and tariffs. In a TRQ, the quota component works together with a specified tariff level to provide the desired degree of import protection. Essentially, a TRQ is a two-tiered tariff. The first Q imports entering within the quota portion of a TRQ are usually subject to a lower tariff rate called the Inside tariff quota rate or ITQR
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Commercial Policy
A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a governmental policy governing economic transactions across international borders. This covers tariffs, trade subsidies, import quotas, Voluntary Export Restraints, restrictions on the establishment of foreign-owned businesses, regulation of trade in services, and other barriers to international trade. These are sometimes agreed by treaty within a customs union. In the case of the European Union, commercial policy has been governed in common since the EU was created in 1957
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World Customs Organization
The World Customs Organization
World Customs Organization
(WCO) is an intergovernmental organization headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. The WCO is noted for its work in areas covering the development of international conventions, instruments, and tools on topics such as commodity classification, valuation, rules of origin, collection of customs revenue, supply chain security, international trade facilitation, customs enforcement activities, combating counterfeiting in support of Intellectual Property Rights
Intellectual Property Rights
(IPR), drugs enforcement, illegal weapons trading, integrity promotion, and delivering sustainable capacity building to assist with customs reforms and modernization
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Non-tariff Barriers To Trade
Non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs) or sometimes called "Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs)" are trade barriers that restrict imports or exports of goods or services through mechanisms other than the simple imposition of tariffs
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Economic Nationalism
Economic nationalism
Economic nationalism
refers to an ideology that favors state interventionism in the economy, with policies that emphasize domestic control of the economy, labor, and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital. In many cases, economic nationalists oppose globalization or at least question the benefits of unrestricted free trade
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Laissez-faire
Laissez-faire (/ˌlɛseɪˈfɛər/; French: [lɛsefɛʁ] ( listen); from French: laissez faire, lit. 'let do') is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies. The phrase laissez-faire is part of a larger French phrase and basically translates to "let (it/them) do", but in this context usually means to "let go".[1]Contents1 Etymology and usage 2 Fundamentals 3 History of laissez-faire debate3.1 Europe 3.2 United States4 Raw capitalism 5 Critiques 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 Further readingEtymology and usage[edit] The term laissez faire likely originated in a meeting that took place around 1681 between powerful French Comptroller-General of Finances Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
and a group of French businessmen headed by M. Le Gendre
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Bribery
Bribery
Bribery
is the act of giving money, goods or other forms of recompense to a recipient in exchange for an alteration of their behavior (to the benefit/interest of the giver) that the recipient would otherwise not alter. Bribery
Bribery
is defined by Black's Law Dictionary
Black's Law Dictionary
as the offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty.[1] Gifts of money or other items of value which are otherwise available to everyone on an equivalent basis, and not for dishonest purposes, is not bribery. Offering a discount or a refund to all purchasers is a legal rebate and is not bribery
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Dumping (pricing Policy)
Dumping, in economics, is a kind of predatory pricing, especially in the context of international trade
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Import License
An import license is a document issued by a national government authorizing the importation of certain goods into its territory. Import licenses are considered to be non-tariff barriers to trade when used as a way to discriminate against another country's goods in order to protect a domestic industry from foreign competition. Each license specifies the volume of imports allowed, and the total volume allowed should not exceed the quota. Licenses can be sold to importing companies at a competitive price, or simply a fee. However, it is argued that this allocation methods provides incentives for political lobbying and bribery. Government may put certain restrictions on what is imported as well as the amount of imported goods and services
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Foreign Exchange Controls
Foreign exchange controls
Foreign exchange controls
are various forms of controls imposed by a government on the purchase/sale of foreign currencies by residents or on the purchase/sale of local currency by nonresidents. Common foreign exchange controls include:Banning the use of foreign currency within the country Banning locals from possessing foreign currency Restricting currency exchange to government-approved exchangers Fixed exchange rates Restrictions on the amount of currency that may be imported or exportedCountries with foreign exchange controls are also known as "Article 14 countries," after the provision in the International Monetary Fund agreement allowing exchange controls for transitional economies. Such controls used to be common in most countries, particularly poorer ones, until the 1990s when free trade and globalization started a trend towards economic liberalization
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Trade Route
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of water. Allowing goods to reach distant markets, a single trade route contains long distance arteries, which may further be connected to smaller networks of commercial and noncommercial transportation routes
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Technical Barriers To Trade
Technical barriers to trade
Technical barriers to trade
(TBTs), a category of nontariff barriers to trade, are the widely divergent measures that countries use to regulate markets, protect their consumers, or preserve their natural resources (among other objectives), but they also can be used (or perceived by foreign countries) to discriminate against imports in order to protect domestic industries. The 2012 classification of non-tariff measures (NTMs) developed by the Multi-Agency Support Team (MAST), a working group of eight international organisations, classifies TBTs as one of 16 non-tariff measures (NTMs) chapters. In this classification, TBTs are classified as chapter B and defined as "Measures referring to technical regulations, and procedures for assessment of conformity with technical regulations and standards, excluding measures covered by the SPS Agreement"
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Monetary Union
A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market). Three types of currency unions exist:Informal – unilateral adoption of foreign currency[citation needed] Formal – adoption of foreign currency by virtue of bilateral or multilateral agreement with the issuing authority, sometimes supplemented by issue of local currency in currency peg regime Formal with common policy – establishment by multiple countries of a common monetary policy and issuing authority for their common currencyThe theory of the optimal currency area addresses the question of how to determine what geographical regions should share a currency in order to maximize economic efficiency.Contents1 List of currency unions1.1 Existing 1.2 Planned 1.3 Disbanded 1.4 Never mat
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