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Toyota RAV4 EV
The RAV4 EV is an all-electric version of the popular RAV4 SUV produced by Toyota. Two generations of the EV model were sold in California, and to fleets elsewhere in the USA, with a gap of almost ten years between them. The first generation was leased from 1997 to 2003, and at the lessees' request, many units were sold after the vehicle was discontinued.[1] A total of 1,484 were leased and/or sold in California to meet the state’s mandate for zero-emissions vehicle.[2] A small number were sold or leased in fleet sales in other states
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Fremont, California
Fremont (/ˈfriːmɒnt/ FREE-mont) is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. It was incorporated on January 23, 1956, from the annexation of Centerville, Niles, Irvington, Mission San José, and Warm Springs.[14] The city is named after John C. Frémont, an American explorer and former US Senator from California, Governor from Arizona, Major General in the Union Army, and the first Republican presidential candidate, in 1856. Located in the southeast San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
and straddling both the East Bay and South Bay regions, Fremont has a rapidly-growing population of around 230,000.[11] It is one of the largest cities by land area and the fourth most populous city in the San Francisco Bay Area, behind San Jose, San Francisco, and Oakland. It directly borders and is the closest East Bay city to Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
as formally defined, and is thus often associated with it
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International Court Of Arbitration
The International Court of Arbitration is an institution for the resolution of international commercial disputes. The International Court of Arbitration is part of the International Chamber of Commerce. The court comprises more than 100 members from about 90 countries.[1] ICC headquarters is in Paris, France. There are an increasing number of cases being brought before the International Court of Arbitration. There have been more than 500 cases a year handled by the International Court of Arbitration since 1999. Background[edit] The Court was founded in 1923 under the leadership of the ICC's first president Étienne Clémentel, a former French Minister of Finance.[2] References[edit]^ " International Court of Arbitration - Dispute Resolution Services - Organization - About ICC - ICC - International Chamber of Commerce". iccwbo.org
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FTP-75
The EPA
EPA
Federal Test Procedure, commonly known as FTP-75
FTP-75
for the city driving cycle, are a series of tests defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to measure tailpipe emissions and fuel economy of passenger cars (excluding
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Wheelbase
In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles (e.g. some trucks), the wheelbase is the distance between the steering (front) axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles. Wheelbase
Wheelbase
(measured between rotational centers of wheels) Contents1 Vehicles1.1 Varying wheelbases within nameplate 1.2 Bikes 1.3 Skateboards2 Rail 3 See also 4 ReferencesVehicles[edit] The wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its front and rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero
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Curb Weight
Curb weight (American English) or kerb weight (British English) is the total mass of a vehicle with standard equipment and all necessary operating consumables such as motor oil, transmission oil, coolant, air conditioning refrigerant, and sometimes a full tank of fuel, while not loaded with either passengers or cargo. This definition may differ from definitions used by governmental regulatory agencies or other organizations
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Internal Combustion Engine
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle
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Gag Order
A gag order (also known as a gagging order or suppression order) is an order, typically a legal order by a court or government, restricting information or comment from being made public or passed onto any unauthorized third party. The phrase may sometimes be used of a private order by an employer or other institution. Gag orders may be used, for example, to keep legitimate trade secrets of a company, to protect the integrity of ongoing police or military operations, or to protect the privacy of victims or minors. Conversely, as their downside, they may be abused as a useful tool for those of financial means to intimidate witnesses and prevent release of information, using the legal system rather than other methods of intimidation
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KWh
The kilowatt hour (symbol kW⋅h, kWh, or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules. If energy is transmitted or used at a constant rate (power) over a period of time, the total energy in kilowatt hours is equal to the power in kilowatts multiplied by the time in hours. The kilowatt hour is commonly used as a billing unit for energy delivered to consumers by electric utilities.Contents1 Definition 2 Examples 3 Symbol and abbreviations for kilowatt hour 4 Conversions 5 Watt
Watt
hour multiples and billing units 6 Confusion of kilowatt hours (energy) and kilowatts (power) 7 Misuse of watts per hour 8 Other use 9 Other energy-related units 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksDefinition[edit] The kilowatt hour (symbolized kW⋅h as per SI) is a composite unit of energy equivalent to one kilowatt (1 kW) of power sustained for one hour. One watt is equal to 1 J/s
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Brakes
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.[1] It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its motion, most often accomplished by means of friction.[2]Contents1 Background 2 Types2.1 Frictional 2.2 Pumping 2.3 Electromagnetic3 Characteristics3.1 Foundation components 3.2 Brake
Brake
boost4 Noise 5 Fires 6 Inefficiency 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksBackground[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Most brakes commonly use friction between two surfaces pressed together to convert the kinetic energy of the moving object into heat, though other methods of energy conversion may be employed
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Yazaki
JPY 1,662.3 billion (FY 2014) (US$ 13.8 billion) (FY 2014)Number of employees279,800 people (as of March 31, 2015)Website Official websiteFootnotes / references [1][2]/ar.html[3] Yazaki Corporation
Yazaki Corporation
(矢崎総業株式会社, Yazaki
Yazaki
Sōgyō Kabushiki Kaisha) is a global automotive parts supplier with a focus on wire harnesses, instruments and components such as connectors and terminals. The company's origin and headquarters are in Japan, but in 2011, roughly 90% of its employees are outside the home country. Yazaki
Yazaki
ranks among the largest worldwide automotive suppliers, ranked 13th by the industry journal Automotive
Automotive
News in 2015.[4] The company's product lineup includes electrical cables, meter and auto instruments, gas equipment, air-conditioning, and solar-powered systems
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Power Steering
In motor vehicles, a power steering system helps drivers steer the vehicle by augmenting steering effort needed to turn the steering wheel, making it easier for the driver to turn. Hydraulic or electric actuators add controlled energy to the steering mechanism, so the driver can provide less effort to turn the steered wheels when driving at typical speeds, and reduce considerably the physical effort necessary to turn the wheels when a vehicle is stopped or moving slowly. Power steering
Power steering
can also be engineered to provide some artificial feedback of forces acting on the steered wheels. Hydraulic power steering systems for cars augment steering effort via an actuator, a hydraulic cylinder that is part of a servo system. These systems have a direct mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the linkage that steers the wheels
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Rolling Resistance
Rolling resistance, sometimes called rolling friction or rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body (such as a ball, tire, or wheel) rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is, not all the energy needed for deformation (or movement) of the wheel, roadbed, etc. is recovered when the pressure is removed. Two forms of this are hysteresis losses (see below), and permanent (plastic) deformation of the object or the surface (e.g. soil). Another cause of rolling resistance lies in the slippage between the wheel and the surface, which dissipates energy. Note that only the last of these effects involves friction, therefore the name "rolling friction" is to an extent a misnomer. In analogy with sliding friction, rolling resistance is often expressed as a coefficient times the normal force
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Drag (physics)
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.[1] This can exist between two fluid layers (or surfaces) or a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, drag forces depend on velocity.[2][3] Drag force is proportional to the velocity for a laminar flow and the squared velocity for a turbulent flow
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United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an independent agency of the United States
United States
federal government for environmental protection.[3] President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970[4] and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the President and approved by Congress. The current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R
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Economies Of Scale
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale. At the basis of economies of scale there may be technical, statistical, organizational or related factors to the degree of market control. Economies of scale
Economies of scale
apply to a variety of organizational and business situations and at various levels, such as a production, plant or an entire enterprise
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