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Toyota Camry
The Toyota
Toyota
Camry (/ˈkæmri/; Japanese: トヨタ・カムリ Toyota Kamuri) is an automobile sold internationally by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota
Toyota
since 1982, spanning multiple generations. Originally compact in size (narrow-body), later Camry models have grown to fit the mid-size classification (wide-body)—although the two sizes co-existed in the 1990s. Since the release of the wide-bodied versions, Camry has been extolled by Toyota
Toyota
as the firm's second "world car" after the Corolla. In Japan, Camry is exclusive to Toyota
Toyota
Corolla Store retail dealerships. Narrow-body cars also spawned a rebadged sibling in Japan, the Toyota
Toyota
Vista (トヨタ・ビスタ)—also introduced in 1982 and sold at Toyota Vista Store locations
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Inline-four Engine
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is a type of inline internal combustion four-cylinder engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. Where it is inclined, it is sometimes called a slant-four. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an inline-four engine is listed either as I4 or L4 (for longitudinal, to avoid confusion between the digit 1 and the letter I). The inline-four layout is in perfect primary balance and confers a degree of mechanical simplicity which makes it popular for economy cars.[1] However, despite its simplicity, it suffers from a secondary imbalance which causes minor vibrations in smaller engines
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Hebrew Language
Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית, Ivrit [ʔivˈʁit] ( listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] ( listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide.[8][9] Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites
Israelites
and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE.[10] Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family
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V6 Engine
A V6 engine
V6 engine
is a V engine
V engine
with six cylinders mounted on the crankshaft in two banks of three cylinders, usually set at either a 60 or 90 degree angle to each other. The V6 is one of the most compact engine configurations, usually ranging from 2.0 L to 4.3 L displacement (however, much larger examples have been produced for use in trucks), shorter than the inline 4 and more compact than the V8 engine
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Anglicisation
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.[1][2] It commonly refers to the respelling of foreign words, often to a more drastic degree than romanisation. One example is the word "dandelion", modified from the French dent-de-lion (“lion’s tooth”, because of the sharply indented leaves). Anglicising non-English words for use in English is just one case of the widespread domestication of foreign words that is common to many languages, sometimes involving shifts in meaning
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Phonetic Transcription
Phonetic transcription
Phonetic transcription
(also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones). The most common type of phonetic transcription uses a phonetic alphabet, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet.Contents1 Versus orthography 2 Narrow versus broad transcription 3 Types of notational systems3.1 Alphabetic3.1.1 Aspects of alphabetic transcription3.2 Iconic 3.3 Analphabetic4 Bibliography 5 See also5.1 Notational systems6 References 7 External linksVersus orthography[edit] The pronunciation of words in many languages, as distinct from their written form (orthography), has undergone significant change over time. Pronunciation
Pronunciation
can also vary greatly among dialects of a language. Standard orthography in some languages, particularly French, English, and Irish, is often irregular, and makes it difficult to predict pronunciation from spelling
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Trailing Arm
A trailing-arm suspension, sometimes referred as trailing-link is a vehicle suspension design in which one or more arms (or "links") are connected between (and perpendicular to and forward of) the axle and a pivot point (located on the chassis of a motor vehicle). It is typically used on the rear axle of a motor vehicle. A leading arm, as used on the Citroën 2CV
Citroën 2CV
and the M422 Mighty Mite, has an arm connected between (and perpendicular to, and to the rear of) the axle and the chassis
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Tiara
A tiara (from Latin: tiara, from Ancient Greek: τιάρα) is a jeweled, ornamental crown traditionally worn by women. It is worn during formal occasions, particularly if the dress code is white tie.[2]Contents1 History 2 Late 18th century-present 3 Costume jewellery tiaras3.1 Stage and screen4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]This Fayum mummy portrait shows a woman wearing a golden wreath, c. AD 100-110.Today, the word "tiara" is often used interchangeably with the word "diadem", and tiara is often translated to a word similar to diadem in other languages.[3] Both words come from head ornaments worn by ancient men and women to denote high status. As Geoffrey Munn
Geoffrey Munn
notes, "The word 'tiara' is actually Persian in origin — the name first denoted the high-peaked head-dresses of Persian kings, which were encircled by 'diadems' (bands of purple and white decoration)
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Sceptre
A sceptre (British English) or scepter (American English; see spelling differences) is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia. Figuratively, it means royal or imperial authority or sovereignty, either right or cruel. The ancient Indian work of Tirukkural
Tirukkural
dedicates a separate chapter each on the ethics of the right sceptre and the evils of the cruel sceptre. According to Valluvar, "it was not his spear but the sceptre which bound a king to his people."[1]Contents1 Antiquity 2 Christian era 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksAntiquity[edit]Statue of Jupiter in the Hermitage, holding the sceptre and orb.Further information: Pharaoh
Pharaoh
§ Scepters and staves The Was and other types of staffs were signs of authority in Ancient Egypt. For this reason they are often described as "sceptres", even if they are full-length staffs
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Independent Suspension
Independent suspension
Independent suspension
is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of the others. This is contrasted with a beam axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked – movement on one side affects the wheel on the other side. "Independent" refers to the motion or path of movement of the wheels or suspension. It is common for the left and right sides of the suspension to be connected with anti-roll bars or other such mechanisms. The anti-roll bar ties the left and right suspension spring rates together but does not tie their motion together. Most modern vehicles have independent front suspension (IFS). Many vehicles also have an independent rear suspension (IRS). IRS, as the name implies, has the rear wheels independently sprung
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MacPherson Strut
The MacPherson strut
MacPherson strut
is a type of automotive suspension system that uses the top of a telescopic damper as the upper steering pivot. It is widely used in the front suspension of modern vehicles and is named for American automotive engineer Earle S. MacPherson, who originally invented and developed the design.Contents1 History 2 Design 3 Advantages and disadvantages 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Earle S. MacPherson was appointed the chief engineer of Chevrolet's Light Car
Car
project in 1945, to develop new smaller cars for the immediate post-war market. This gave rise to the Chevrolet Cadet. By 1946 three prototypes of the Cadet design had been produced. These incorporated the first MacPherson strut
MacPherson strut
independent suspension both in front and rear.[1] The Cadet project was cancelled in 1947 and the disgruntled MacPherson was enticed to join Ford
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Toyota, Aichi
Toyota
Toyota
(豊田市, Toyota-shi) is a city in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. As of May 2015[update], the city had an estimated population of 420,076 and a population density of 457 persons per km². The total area was 918.32 square kilometres (354.57 sq mi). It is located about 35 minutes from Nagoya
Nagoya
by way of the Meitetsu
Meitetsu
Toyota Line. Several of Toyota
Toyota
Motor Corporation's manufacturing plants, including the Tsutsumi plant, are located here
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Grille (motor Vehicle)
In automotive engineering, a grille covers an opening in the body of a vehicle to allow air to enter. Most vehicles feature a grille at the front of the vehicle to protect the radiator and engine. Merriam-Webster describes grilles as "a grating forming a barrier or screen; especially: an ornamental one at the front end of an automobile."[2] Other common grille locations include below the front bumper, in front of the wheels (to cool the brakes), in the cowl for cabin ventilation, or on the rear deck lid (in rear engine vehicles).Contents1 Design 2 Grille types2.1 Per style 2.2 Per fastening method 2.3 History3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDesign[edit] The front fascia of a motor vehicle has an important role in attracting buyers.[3] The principal function of the grille is to admit cooling air to the car's radiator
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Front-engine, Rear-wheel-drive Layout
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century.[1] Modern designs commonly use the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout (FF).Contents1 History 2 Front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout2.1 Characteristics 2.2 Gallery3 ReferencesHistory[edit]Hyundai Genesis, a modern example of a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout sedanThe first FR car was an 1895 Panhard
Panhard
model, so this layout was known as the "Système Panhard" in the early years. The layout has the advantage of minimizing mechanical complexity, as it allows the transmission to be placed in-line with the engine output shaft, spreading weight under the vehicle
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Beam Axle
A beam axle, rigid axle or solid axle is a dependent suspension design, in which a set of wheels is connected laterally by a single beam or shaft. Beam axles were once commonly used at the rear wheels of a vehicle, but historically they have also been used as front axles in rear-wheel-drive vehicles. In most automobiles, beam axles have been replaced by front and rear independent suspensions.Contents1 Implementation 2 Live axle vs dead axle 3 Advantages 4 Disadvantages 5 See also 6 NotesImplementation[edit]Solid axle suspension characteristics: Camber change on bumps, none on rebound, large unsprung weightWith a beam axle the camber angle between the wheels is the same no matter where it is in the travel of the suspension. A beam axle's fore & aft location is constrained by either: trailing arms, semi-trailing arms, radius rods, or leaf springs. The lateral location is constrained by either: a Panhard rod, a Scott Russell linkage or a Watt's linkage
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