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Toxin
A toxin (from Ancient Greek: τοξικόν, translit. toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms;[1][2] synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919).[3] Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Cone Snail
Cone snails, cone shells or cones are common names for a large group of small to large-sized extremely venomous predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs.[1] Until fairly recently, over 600 species of cone snails were all classified under one genus, Conus, in one family, the Conidae. However, in recent years, it was suggested that cone snails should occupy only a subfamily that should be split into a very large number of genera. A 2014 paper attempted to stabilize a newer classification of the group, significantly reducing the number of new genera, but keeping a fairly large number of subgenera
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Lysis
Lysis
Lysis
(/ˈlaɪsɪs/ LY-sis; Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" /ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək) mechanisms that compromise its integrity. A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a lysate
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Recombinant DNA
Recombinant DNA
DNA
(rDNA) molecules are DNA
DNA
molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA
DNA
in a living organism was first achieved in 1973 by Herbert Boyer, of the University of California
University of California
at San Francisco, and Stanley Cohen, at Stanford University, who used E. coli
E. coli
restriction enzymes to insert foreign DNA
DNA
into plasmids.[1] Recombinant DNA
DNA
is the general name for a piece of DNA
DNA
that has been created by the combination of at least two strands
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Protozoa
Protozoa
Protozoa
(also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotic organisms, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.[1][2] Historically, the protozoa were regarded as "one-celled animals," because they often possess animal-like behaviors, such as motility and predation, and lack a cell wall, as found in plants and many algae.[3][4] Although the traditional practice of grouping of protozoa with animals is no longer considered valid, the term continues to be used in a loose way to identify single-celled organisms that can move independently and feed by heterotrophy. In some systems of biological classification, Protozoa
Protozoa
is a high-level taxonomic group
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Rickettsiae
Rickettsea aeschlimannii[1] Rickettsiae africae[2] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
akari[3] Rickettsia
Rickettsia
asiatica[4] Rickettsia
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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Microorganism
A microorganism, or microbe,[a] is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures
Jain scriptures
from 6th-century-BC India and the 1st-century-BC book On Agriculture
Agriculture
by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Title 18 Of The United States Code
Title 18 of the United States Code
United States Code
is the main criminal code of the federal government of the United States.[1] It deals with federal crimes and criminal procedure.Contents1 Part I—Crimes1.1 Chapters 1–101.1.1 Chapter 1: General Provisions 1.1.2 Chapter 2: Aircraft and Motor Vehicles 1.1.3 Chapter 3: Animals, Birds, Fish, and Plants 1.1.4 Chapter 5: Arson 1.1.5 Chapter 7: Assault 1.1.6 Chapter 9: Bankruptcy 1.1.7 Chapter 10: Biological weapons1.2 Chapters 11–1232 Part II—Criminal Procedure 3 Part III—Prisons and Prisoners 4 Part IV—Correction of Youthful Offenders 5 P
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International Committee Of The Red Cross
The International Committee of the Red Cross
International Committee of the Red Cross
(ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 (Protocol I, Protocol II) and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts
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Warsaw Pact
The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance,[1] was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland
Poland
among the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
during the Cold War. The Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact was the military complement to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CoMEcon), the regional economic organization for the socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe
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Hemolysis
Hemolysis
Hemolysis
or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma). Hemolysis
Hemolysis
may occur in vivo or in vitro (inside or outside the body). Hemolysins damage the host cytoplasmic membrane, causing cell lysis and death. The activity of these toxins is most easily observed with assays involving the lysis of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Some hemolysins attack the phospholipid of the host cytoplasmic membrane. Because the phospholipid lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is often used as a substrate, these enzymes are called lecithinases or phospholipases
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Immune Response
Immune response is the body's response originating from immune system activation by antigens, including immunity to pathogenic microorganisms and its products, as well as autoimmunity to self-antigens, allergies, and graft rejections. In this process main cells involved are the T cells, B cells of lymphocytes, and macrophagea. These cells produce lymphokines that influence the other host cells activities. B cells mature to produce immunoglobulins or antibodies, that react with antigens. At the same time, macrophages are processing the antigens into immunogenic units which stimulate B lymphocites to differentiation into antibody secreting plasma cells, stimulating the T cells to realise lymphokines.[1] Complement is a group of normal serum proteins to aim immunity by becoming activated form as result of antigen-antibody interaction. The first contact with any antigen sensitize individual affected and promote the primary immune response
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NATO
"A mind unfettered in deliberation" "L'esprit libre dans la consultation"[2]Formation 4 April 1949; 69 years ago (1949-04-04)Type Military allianceHeadquarters Brussels, BelgiumMembership29 states Albania Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey United Kingdom United StatesOfficial languageEnglish French[3]Secretary GeneralJens StoltenbergChairman of the NATO
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