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Tower 42
TOWER 42 is the third tallest skyscraper in the City of London
City of London
and the eighth tallest in Greater London
London
. Its original name was the NATWEST TOWER (or NATIONAL WESTMINSTER TOWER), having been built to house NatWest 's international headquarters. It is still commonly referred to as the NatWest Tower. Seen from above, the shape of the tower resembles that of the NatWest logo (three chevrons in a hexagonal arrangement). The tower, designed by Richard Seifert and engineered by Pell Frischmann , is located at 25 Old Broad Street. It was built by John Mowlem "> The tower's shape has been compared to that of the logo for NatWest, although its architect Richard Seifert always denied the similarity. Simplified plan and dimetric projection showing the shape of the top of Tower 42. The National Westminster Tower's status as the first skyscraper in the City was a coup for NatWest, but was extremely controversial at the time, as it was a major departure from the previous restrictions on tall buildings in London. The original concept dates back to the early 1960s, predating the formation of the National Westminster Bank. The site was then the headquarters of the National Provincial Bank
National Provincial Bank
, with offices in Old Broad Street backing onto its flagship branch at 15 Bishopsgate
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103 Colmore Row
103 COLMORE ROW formerly known as NATIONAL WESTMINSTER HOUSE was a building on Colmore Row
Colmore Row
, Birmingham
Birmingham
, England. The original building was designed by John Madin and was completed in October 1975 as offices and a banking hall for National Westminster Bank
National Westminster Bank
. After National Westminster Bank
National Westminster Bank
vacated the building it passed through several ownerships but failed to lease its offices. In 2008 a plan by then owners British Land
British Land
to demolish the tower and replace with a taller modern equivalent was approved. This plan never progressed and the building is now owned by the developer Sterling Property Ventures who successfully applied to have the building demolished and a new tower constructed in 2015. Demolition began in July 2015 and was completed in January 2017. CONTENTS * 1 Original building * 2 Approved replacement * 3 New ownership * 4 Demolition * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ORIGINAL BUILDING The abstract doors to the Banking hall at the base of the building. The original building was a 23-storey structure with entrances on Colmore Row
Colmore Row
and Newhall Street
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City Of London
The CITY OF LONDON is a city and county that contains the historic centre and central business district of London
London
. It constituted most of London
London
from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages , but the agglomeration has since grown far beyond the City's borders. The City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London
London
, though it remains a notable part of central London
London
. Administratively, it forms one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London
London
; however, the City of London
London
is not a London
London
borough , a status reserved for the other 32 districts (including London's only other city, the City of Westminster ). The City of London
London
is widely referred to simply as THE CITY (differentiated from the phrase "the city of London" by capitalising _City_) and is also colloquially known as the SQUARE MILE, as it is 1.12 sq mi (2.90 km2) in area. Both of these terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's trading and financial services industries, which continue a notable history of being largely based in the City. The name _London_ is now ordinarily used for a far wider area than just the City
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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EC Postcode Area
A POSTAL CODE (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a POSTCODE, POST CODE, EIRCODE, PIN CODE or ZIP CODE) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail . In February 2005, 117 of the 190 member countries of the Universal Postal Union had postal code systems. Although postal codes are usually assigned to geographical areas, special codes are sometimes assigned to individual addresses or to institutions that receive large volumes of mail, such as government agencies and large commercial companies. One example is the French CEDEX system
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Richard Seifert
RICHARD SEIFERT (born REUBIN SEIFERT, 25 November 1910 – 26 October 2001) was a Swiss-British architect, best known for designing the Centrepoint tower and Tower 42 (previously the NatWest Tower), once the tallest building in the City of London
City of London
. His eponymously named practice – R. Seifert and Partners (later the R. Seifert Co-Partnership) was at its most prolific in the 1960s and 1970s, responsible for many major office buildings in Central London as well as large urban regeneration projects in other major British cities. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 List of works * 2.1 London and suburbs * 2.2 Elsewhere * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYSeifert was born to a Swiss family and came to London when young. He attended the Central Foundation Boys\' School and subsequently obtained a scholarship to the Bartlett School of Architecture , graduating in 1933. Seifert served in the Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
during World War II
World War II
. Seifert is widely recognized for having influenced 1960s and 1970s London architecture. Other examples of his work in London include Euston Station , Drapers Gardens and the King\'s Reach Tower , as well as numerous commercial buildings – principally hotels and office blocks – in and around London
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Pell Frischmann
PELL FRISCHMANN (PF) is a multi-disciplinary engineering consultancy based in London
London
that provides structural and civil engineering, planning, design, and consulting services. Pell Frischmann
Pell Frischmann
employs over 1000 staff worldwide with 8 offices across the UK and international offices in India, the Middle East, Turkey and Romania. The original company was founded by Cecil Pell in the 1920s who entered partnership with Wilem W Frischmann in the early 70s forming Pell Frischmann
Pell Frischmann
and Partners. In 2003 the umbrella company became Pell Frischmann Consulting Engineers. Major subsidiaries of the company include Frischmann Prabhu operating in the Asia-Pacific region and Conseco operating in the Middle East. Key areas of business include buildings, building Services, land development and regeneration, traffic and transportation, highways and bridges, railways, environment and process technology, water and wastewater, power, fire engineering and IT and telecommunications. In April 2015, Pell Frischmann
Pell Frischmann
received The Queen\'s Award for International Trade
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Mowlem
MOWLEM was one of the largest construction and civil engineering companies in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Carillion bought the firm in 2006. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Major Projects * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources HISTORYThe firm was founded by John Mowlem in 1822, and was continued as a partnership by successive generations of the Mowlem
Mowlem
and Burt families, including George Burt , and Sir John Mowlem Burt . The company was awarded a Royal Warrant in 1902 and went public on the London
London
Stock Exchange in 1924. A long-standing national contractor, Mowlem
Mowlem
developed a network of regional contracting businesses including Rattee and Kett of Cambridge (bought in 1926); E. Thomas of the west country (bought in 1965); Ernest Ireland of Bath; and the formation of a northern region in 1970. During the Second World War the company was one of the contractors engaged in building the Mulberry harbour units. Mowlem
Mowlem
acquired SGB Group, a supplier of scaffolding, in 1986. Mowlem
Mowlem
also bought Unit Construction
Construction
in 1986, giving the firm a substantial presence in private housebuilding - within two years, sales were up to an annual rate of 1,200
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Skyscraper
A SKYSCRAPER is a tall, continuously habitable building having multiple floors . When the term was originally used in the 1880s it described a building of 10 to 20 floors but now describes one of at least 40–50 floors. Mostly designed for office, commercial and residential uses, a skyscraper can also be called a high-rise , but the term "skyscraper" is often used for buildings higher than 100 m (328 ft). For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term "supertall" can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as "megatall". One common feature of skyscrapers is having a steel framework that supports curtain walls . These curtain walls either bear on the framework below or are suspended from the framework above, rather than resting on load-bearing walls of conventional construction. Some early skyscrapers have a steel frame that enables the construction of load-bearing walls taller than of those made of reinforced concrete . Modern skyscrapers' walls are not load-bearing, and most skyscrapers are characterized by large surface areas of windows made possible by steel frames and curtain walls. However, skyscrapers can have curtain walls that mimic conventional walls with a small surface area of windows. Modern skyscrapers often have a tubular structure , and are designed to act like a hollow cylinder to resist wind, seismic, and other lateral loads
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Greater London
LONDON, or GREATER LONDON, is a county and region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London . It is organised into 33 local government districts : the 32 London boroughs (which makes up the ceremonial county of Greater London) and the City of London (which is a separate county but still part of the region). The Greater London Authority , based in Southwark , is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963 . Administratively, Greater London was first established as a _sui generis _ council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000. The region covers 1,572 km2 (607 sq mi) and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232. The Greater London Built-up Area —used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region
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National Westminster Bank
NATIONAL WESTMINSTER BANK, commonly known as NATWEST, is a large retail and commercial bank in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1968 by the merger of National Provincial Bank (established 1833 as National Provincial Bank of England) and Westminster Bank
Westminster Bank
(established 1834 as London County and Westminster Bank). Since 2000 it has been part of the Royal Bank of Scotland Group . Following "ring-fencing" of the Group's core domestic business, the bank is a direct subsidiary of NatWest Holdings . NatWest Markets comprises its investment banking arm. Traditionally considered one of the Big Four clearing banks , it has a large network of over 960 branches and 3,400 cash machines across Great Britain and offers 24-hour Actionline telephone and online banking services. Today it has more than 7.5 million personal customers and 850,000 small business accounts. In Ireland it operates through its Ulster Bank subsidiary. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Expansion * 1.2 Controversy * 1.3 Takeover * 1.4 Attempted divestment * 1.5 Recent developments * 2 Structure * 3 Services * 4 Litigation * 5 Computer failures * 6 Sponsorship * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY For more details on this topic, see National Provincial Bank , Westminster Bank
Westminster Bank
, and District Bank
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Chevron (insignia)
Heraldry portal * v * t * e A CHEVRON (also spelled CHEVERON, especially in older documents) is an inverted V-shaped mark. The word is usually used in reference to a kind of fret in architecture , or to a badge or insignia used in military or police uniforms to indicate rank or length of service, or in heraldry and the designs of flags (see flag terminology ). CONTENTS * 1 Ancient history * 2 Heraldry * 3 Rank insignia * 3.1 Examples * 4 Other uses as insignia * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ANCIENT HISTORYThe chevron occurs in early art including designs on pottery and rock carvings. Examples can be found approximately 1800 BC in archaeological recovery of pottery designs from the palace of Knossos on Crete in the modern day country of Greece . Sparta (Lacedaemonia (Λακεδαιμονία)) used a capital lambda (Λ) on their shields. HERALDRYA chevron is one of the ordinaries in heraldry , one of the simple geometrical figures which are the chief images in many coat of arms . It can be subject to a number of modifications including inversion. When the ends are cut off in a way that looks like the splintered ends of a broken piece of wood, with an irregular zig-zag pattern, it is called éclaté. When shown as a smaller size than standard, it is a diminutive called a CHEVRONEL
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Elizabeth II
ELIZABETH II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926 ) has been Queen of the United Kingdom , Canada , Australia , and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Additionally, she is Head of the Commonwealth and Queen of 12 countries that have become independent since her accession: Jamaica , Barbados , the Bahamas , Grenada , Papua New Guinea , Solomon Islands , Tuvalu , Saint Lucia , Saint Vincent and the Grenadines , Belize , Antigua and Barbuda , and Saint Kitts and Nevis . Elizabeth was born in London as the elder child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth , and she was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive . She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War , serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service . In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh , a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales ; Anne, Princess Royal ; Prince Andrew, Duke of York ; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
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Topping Out
In building construction , TOPPING OUT (sometimes referred to as TOPPING OFF) is a builders\' rite traditionally held when the last beam (or its equivalent) is placed atop a structure during its construction. Nowadays, the ceremony is often parlayed into a media event for public relations purposes. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe practice of "topping out" a new building can be traced to the ancient Scandinavian religious rite of placing a tree atop a new building to appease the tree-dwelling spirits displaced in its construction. Long an important component of timber frame building, it migrated initially to England and Northern Europe, thence to the Americas. A tree or leafy branch is placed on the topmost wood or iron beam, often with flags and streamers tied to it. A toast is usually drunk and sometimes workers are treated to a meal. In masonry construction the rite celebrates the bedding of the last block or brick. In some cases a topping out event is held at an intermediate point, such as when the roof is dried in
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One Canada Square
ONE CANADA SQUARE, sometimes called CANARY WHARF TOWER or simply CANARY WHARF , is a skyscraper in Canary Wharf , London . I