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Toronto City Hall
The TORONTO CITY HALL, or NEW CITY HALL, is the seat of the municipal government of Toronto , Ontario , Canada, and one of the city's most distinctive landmarks. Designed by Finnish architect Viljo Revell (with Heikki Castrén, Bengt Lundsten, and Seppo Valjus) and landscape architect Richard Strong , and engineered by Hannskarl Bandel , the building opened in 1965. It was built to replace Old City Hall , which was built in 1899. The current city hall, located at Nathan Phillips Square , is actually Toronto's fourth and was built in order to replace the former city hall due to a shortage of space. The area of Toronto City Hall and the civic square was formerly the location of Toronto\'s Old Chinatown , which was expropriated and bulldozed during the mid-1950s in preparation for a new civic building
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Modernism
MODERNISM is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by reactions of horror to World War I
World War I
. Modernism
Modernism
also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief. Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, philosophy, social organization, activities of daily life, and even the sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic, social, and political environment of an emerging fully industrialized world
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Toronto
TORONTO (/təˈrɒntoʊ/ ( listen ), locally /təˈrɒnoʊ/ ( listen )) is a Canadian city and the provincial capital of Ontario
Ontario
. With a city population of 2,731,571 and a metropolitan population of 5,928,040, it is the most populous city and metropolitan area in Canada. A global city , Toronto is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural cities in the world. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area now known as Toronto for thousands of years, with the city itself sitting at the southern terminus of the ancient Toronto Carrying-Place Trail . Permanent European settlement began in the 1790s, after the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase of 1787, when the Mississaugas
Mississaugas
surrendered the area to the British Crown
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Ontario
ONTARIO (/ɒnˈtɛərioʊ/ ( listen ); French pronunciation: ​ ), one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada
Canada
, is located in east-central Canada
Canada
. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for nearly 40 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario
Ontario
is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
and Nunavut
Nunavut
are included. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa , and the nation's most populous city, Toronto
Toronto
. Ontario
Ontario
is bordered by the province of Manitoba
Manitoba
to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay
James Bay
to the north, and Quebec
Quebec
to the east and northeast, and to the south by the U.S
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Canadian Dollar
The CANADIAN DOLLAR (symbol : $ ; code : CAD; French : _dollar canadien_) is the currency of Canada
Canada
. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes CAN$ or C$ to distinguish it from other dollar -denominated currencies. It is divided into 100 cents . Owing to the image of a loon on the one-dollar coin, the currency is sometimes referred to as the _loonie_ by foreign exchange traders and analysts, as it is by Canadians
Canadians
in general, or _huard_ in French . Canada's dollar is the fifth most held reserve currency in the world, accounting for approximately 2% of all global reserves, behind only the U.S. dollar , the euro , the yen and the pound sterling . The Canadian dollar
Canadian dollar
is popular with central banks because of Canada's relative economic soundness, the Canadian government's strong sovereign position, and the stability of the country's legal and political systems
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City Of Toronto
The MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT OF TORONTO, officially known as the CITY OF TORONTO, is a public corporation providing services to Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario
Ontario
, Canada
Canada
. It is administered by 44 elected councillors (representing around 55,000 people each), who along with the mayor, make up the Toronto
Toronto
City Council . Torontonians elect a new council every four years, in October
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Viljo Revell
VILJO GABRIEL REVELL (25 January 1910 – 8 November 1964) was a Finnish architect of the functionalist school. In Finland
Finland
he is best known for the design of the Lasipalatsi
Lasipalatsi
("Glass Palace") and Palace Hotel , both in Helsinki. Internationally, Revell is best known for designing the New City Hall of Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario
Ontario
, Canada
Canada
. New City Hall of Toronto
Toronto
(1966). CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Significant buildings * 3 References * 4 External links LIFE AND CAREERRevell, originally spelt Rewell, was born in Vaasa
Vaasa
in 1910, and graduated from Vaasan Lyseo in 1928. He graduated as an architect from the Helsinki
Helsinki
University of Technology in 1937
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Hannskarl Bandel
HANNSKARL BANDEL (May 3, 1925 Dessau, Germany – December 29, 1993 Aspen, Colorado
Aspen, Colorado
, United States), was a German-American
German-American
structural engineer . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Major Works * 3 Other Work * 4 Death * 5 In popular culture * 6 References EARLY LIFEHannskarl Bandel's father was an architect who owned a construction firm, and his mother came from the Brechtel family, which owned the well-known German construction company of the same name, founded in 1883 by Johannes Brechtel. This may have been a contributing factor in his choice of profession and study: he took a doctorate in engineering at the Technical University of Berlin . After working in the German steel industry , he came to the United States after World War II with no money and two suitcases full of books, hoping to build suspension bridges
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Ontario Association Of Architects
The ONTARIO ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS (OAA) is the regulatory body responsible for registering and licensing all architects legally entitled to practice the scope of architecture in the Province of Ontario
Ontario
, Canada
Canada
. It was founded in 1889. REFERENCES * ^ " Ontario
Ontario
Association of Architects". Canadian Architect and Builder. 2 (4): 40. April 1889
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Bruce Kuwabara
BRUCE BUNJI KUWABARA, (O.C., B.Arch , OAA , FRAIC , RAIC, AIA, RIBA) is a Canadian architect and a founding partner of the firm KPMB Architects (formed in 1987). He is an invested Officer of the Order of Canada and recipient of the RAIC Gold Medal. He is Board Chair of the Canadian Centre for Architecture
Canadian Centre for Architecture
in Montreal. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Honours * 3 Sustainable design * 4 Architecture and education * 5 Selected work * 5.1 Work in progress * 6 Publications * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links LIFEBorn in Hamilton, Ontario
Hamilton, Ontario
, Bruce Kuwabara studied architecture at the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
and graduated in 1972. Upon graduation, Kuwabara joined the teaching studio of George Baird , an architect and architectural theorist
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Ontario Heritage Act
The ONTARIO HERITAGE ACT, first enacted on March 5, 1975, allows municipalities and the provincial government to designate individual properties and districts in the Province
Province
of Ontario
Ontario
, Canada
Canada
, as being of cultural heritage value or interest. CONTENTS * 1 Designation under the Ontario
Ontario
Heritage Act * 2 Amendments to the legislation * 3 Implementation and Issues * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DESIGNATION UNDER THE ONTARIO HERITAGE ACTOnce a property has been designated under Part IV of the Act, a property owner must apply to the local municipality for a permit to undertake alterations to any of the identified heritage elements of the property or to demolish any buildings or structures on the property. Part V of the Act allows for the designation of heritage conservation districts
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Municipal Government Of Toronto
The MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT OF TORONTO, officially known as the CITY OF TORONTO, is a public corporation providing services to Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario
Ontario
, Canada
Canada
. It is administered by 44 elected councillors (representing around 55,000 people each), who along with the mayor, make up the Toronto
Toronto
City Council . Torontonians elect a new council every four years, in October
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Finland
FINLAND (/ˈfɪnlənd/ (_ listen ); Finnish : Suomi_ (_ listen ); Swedish : Finland_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF FINLAND, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe . A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland. Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia , which also includes Scandinavia . Finland's population is 5.5 million (2014), and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish , a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages; the second major group are the Finland-Swedes (5.3%)
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Forrec
FORREC Ltd. (customarily styled FORREC) is a Toronto
Toronto
-based entertainment design firm that designs and plans theme parks , water parks , resorts , retail and mixed use developments and visitor attractions around the world. FORREC’s global client base includes high-profile brands like Universal Studios
Universal Studios
, LEGOLAND , Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon
, BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
and Six Flags
Six Flags
, as well as, international companies like China's Wanda Group
Wanda Group
and Chimelong Group
Chimelong Group
, Dubai Holdings , Dubai Parks & Resorts , Meraas Leisure and Entertainment LLC, Singapore Tourism Board and Khazanah Nasional
Khazanah Nasional
Berhad . FORREC began as a landscape architecture firm in Canada in 1984 and has since added architecture, creative, interior design and graphics disciplines
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Old City Hall (Toronto)
The OLD CITY HALL is a Romanesque civic building and court house in Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario
Ontario
, Canada. It was the home of the Toronto
Toronto
City Council from 1899 to 1966 and remains one of the city's most prominent structures. The building is located at the corner of Queen and Bay Streets, across Bay Street
Bay Street
from Nathan Phillips Square
Nathan Phillips Square
and the present City Hall in the Downtown Toronto
Toronto
. The heritage landmark has a distinctive clock tower which heads the length of Bay Street
Bay Street
from Front Street to Queen Street as a terminating vista . Old City Hall was designated a National Historic Site in 1984
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