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Toronto City Hall
The Toronto
Toronto
City Hall, or New City Hall, is the seat of the municipal government of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and one of the city's most distinctive landmarks. Designed by Finnish architect Viljo Revell (with Heikki Castrén, Bengt Lundsten, and Seppo Valjus) and landscape architect Richard Strong, and engineered by Hannskarl Bandel, the building opened in 1965. It was built to replace Old City Hall, which had housed city offices since 1899.[3] The current city hall, located at Nathan Phillips Square, is the city's fourth and was built to replace its predecessor which the city outgrew shortly after its completion
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Modernism
Modernism
Modernism
is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism
Modernism
also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.[2][3] Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, philosophy, social organization, activities of daily life, and even the sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic, social, and political environment of an emerging fully industrialized world
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Georges Vanier
Major-General
Major-General
Georges-Philéas Vanier PC DSO MC CD (23 April 1888 – 5 March 1967) was a Canadian soldier and diplomat who served as Governor General of Canada, the 19th since Canadian Confederation. Vanier was born and educated in Quebec. In 1906, he was valedictorian when he graduated with a BA from Loyola College. After earning a university degree in law, served in the Canadian army during the First World War; on the European battlefields he lost a limb, but was commended for his actions with a number of decorations from the King. Subsequently, Vanier returned to Canada
Canada
and remained in the military until the early 1930s, when he was posted to diplomatic missions in Europe. With the outbreak of the Second World War, Vanier once again became active in the military, commanding troops on the home front, until the cessation of hostilities in 1945, whereupon he returned to diplomatic circles
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Parti Pris
A parti pris[1] is the chief organizing thought or decision behind an architect's design, presented in the form of a basic diagram or a simple statement.[2] It may be shortened to "parti". It is also referred to as "the big idea".[3] The term comes from 15th century French, in which "parti pris" meant "decision taken". (Later, it took on the meaning of "bias" or "prejudice".)[4] The development of the parti frequently precedes the development of plan, section, and elevation diagrams.[5] Notes[edit]^ James Stevens Curl. "parti." A Dictionary of Architecture
Architecture
and Landscape Architecture. Oxford University Press. 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2009 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O1-parti.html ^ Ching, Francis D. K. (1995). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. p. 53. ISBN 0-442-02462-2. ^ Gargus, Jacqueline. Ideas of Order: A Formal Approach to Architecture
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St. Clair Avenue
St. Clair Avenue
St. Clair Avenue
is a major east-west street in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It was laid out in the late 18th century by the British as a concession road (the Third Concession), 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of Bloor Street
Bloor Street
and 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) north of Queen Street. St. Clair Avenue
St. Clair Avenue
has two sections. The western section extends from Moore Park in the east to Scarlett Road
Scarlett Road
in the west, a distance of approximately 10 kilometres (6.2 mi). An eastern section picks up on the far side of the Don Valley at Taylor Creek Park, extending for 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) to Kingston Road. Like all streets in Toronto
Toronto
which cross Yonge Street, St. Clair is divided into separate East and West sections, each with its own street numbers beginning at Yonge Street
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International Union Of Architects
The International
International
Union of Architects (French: Union internationale des Architectes, UIA) is the only international non-governmental organization that represents the world's architects, now estimated to number some 3.2 million in all.[1] The UIA was founded in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1948. The General Secretariat is located in Paris. It is recognized as the only global architecture organisation by most United Nations
United Nations
agencies, including UNESCO, UNCHS, ESOSOC, UNIDO, and the World
World
Health Organization, as well as the WTO
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Eric Arthur
Eric Ross Arthur, CC (1 July 1898 – 1 November 1982) was a Canadian architect, writer and educator. Born in Dunedin, New Zealand
New Zealand
and educated in England, he served in World War I
World War I
with the New Zealand
New Zealand
Rifle Brigade. He emigrated to Canada in 1923 to teach architecture at the University of Toronto. During the Centennial of the City of Toronto, in 1934, Arthur was on the "Toronto's Hundred Years" Publication Committee, which published Toronto's 100 Years. Arthur was a professor until 1966, and remained a professor emeritus until his death. In 1963, he wrote the book, Toronto: No Mean City. In 1968, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada.[1] References[edit]"Building for the future New architecture gallery important addition to U of T". The Varsity Online. Archived from the original on 21 January 2005. Retrieved 30 March 2005. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada
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Eero Saarinen
Eero Saarinen
Eero Saarinen
(Finnish pronunciation: [ˈeːro ˈsɑːrinen]) (August 20, 1910 – September 1, 1961) was a Finnish American architect and industrial designer noted for his neo-futuristic style. Saarinen is known for designing the Washington Dulles International Airport outside Washington, D.C., the TWA Flight Center
TWA Flight Center
in New York City, and the Gateway Arch
Gateway Arch
in St
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William Holford, Baron Holford
Clarendon House, Oxford buildings for Eton CollegeProjectsCanberra, Australia Paternoster Square, LondonWilliam Graham Holford, Baron Holford RA (22 March 1907 – 17 October 1975) was a British architect and town planner.Contents1 Biography 2 Works2.1 Cambridge - the Holford-Wright Report 2.2 Clarendon House 2.3 Eton College 2.4 Berinsfield 2.5 Piccadilly Circus 2.6 Paternoster Square 2.7 Brasília
Brasília
and Durban 2.8 Canberra3 References 4 Sources and further reading 5 External linksBiography[edit] Holford was educated at Diocesan College, Cape Town
Cape Town
and returned to Johannesburg. From 1925–30 he studied architecture at the University of Liverpool, where he won the British Prix de Rome
British Prix de Rome
in Architecture to the British School at Rome
British School at Rome
in 1930
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Governor General Of Canada
Provincial and territorial executive councilsPremiersLegislative (Queen-in-Parliament) Federal parliamentSenateSpeaker of the Senate Government Leader in the Senate Opposition Leader in the Senate Senate divisionsHouse of CommonsSpeaker of the house Government Leader in the house Opposition Leader in the house Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition Leader of the Opposition Shadow cabinetProvincial and territorial parliamentsJudicial (Queen-on-the-Bench) Court systemSupreme courtFederal chief justice (Richard Wagner)Provincial and territorial courtsProvincial chief justicesConstitutionBritish North America
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Great Lakes
The Great Lakes
Great Lakes
(French: les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes[1] and the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
through the Saint Lawrence River
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Walter Gropius
Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
School,[1] who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier
Le Corbusier
and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture.Contents1 Family and early life 2 Early career (1908–14) 3 Bauhaus
Bauhaus
period (1919–28) 4 Post Bauhaus
Bauhaus
(1933–45) 5 Death 6 Legacy 7 Quotes 8 Selected buildings 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External linksFamily and early life[edit] Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
was the third child of Walter Adolph Gropius and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber (1855–1933), daughter of the Prussian politician Georg Schwarnweber (1816-1814)
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Marble
Marble
Marble
is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Marble
Marble
may be foliated. In geology the term "marble" refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone.[1] Marble
Marble
is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.Contents1 Etymology 2 Physical origins 3 Types 4 Uses4.1 Sculpture 4.2 Construction
Construction
marble5 Production5.1 Occupational safety5.1.1 United States6 Microbial degradation 7 Cultural associations 8 Artificial marble 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksEtymologyCarlo Franzoni's sculptural marble chariot clock depicting Clio, the Greek muse of history. Marble
Marble
wall of Ruskeala
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Reflecting Pool
A reflecting pool or reflection pool is a water feature found in gardens, parks, and at memorial sites. It usually consists of a shallow pool of water, undisturbed by fountain jets, for a reflective surface.Contents1 Design 2 List of notable pools 3 Gallery 4 ReferencesDesign[edit] Reflecting pools are often designed with the outer basin floor at the rim slightly deeper than the central area to suppress wave formation. They can be as small as a bird bath to as large as a major civic element
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Speaker Of Toronto City Council
The Speaker of Toronto City Council
Toronto City Council
and Deputy Speaker of Toronto
Toronto
City Council serve as the presiding officers at meetings of Toronto
Toronto
City Council in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, as of December 1, 2006. The two positions were recommended by the Council appointed a three-member volunteer advisory panel and their report "The City We Want - the Government We Need" in 2005. Before 2005 the Mayor of Toronto
Toronto
was the presiding officer during council meetings. The two positions are chosen by ballot by city council from among their members. The mayor retains his or her right to chair city council meetings and can take the chair at any time
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Municipal Clerk
A clerk is a senior official of many municipal governments in the English-speaking world. In some communities, including most in the United States, the position is elected, but in many others, the clerk is appointed to their post. In almost all cases, the actual title of the clerk reflects the type of municipality he or she works for, thus, instead of simply being known as the clerk, the position is generally referred to as the town clerk, township clerk, city clerk, village clerk, borough clerk, board secretary, or county clerk. Other titles also exist. The office has existed for centuries, though in some places it is now being merged with other positions. The duties of a municipal clerk vary even more than their titles. Particularly in the United States, it is difficult to fully describe a clerk's duties, because there are hundreds of different jobs a clerk may fulfill. In some U.S
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