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Toponymical List Of Counties Of The United Kingdom
This toponymical list of counties of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is a list of the origins of the names of counties of the United Kingdom. For England
England
and Wales
Wales
it includes ancient and contemporary counties.Contents1 Background 2 England 3 Northern Ireland 4 Scotland 5 Wales 6 References 7 See alsoBackground[edit] Throughout the histories of the four countries of the United Kingdom, a variety of languages have been used to name places. These languages were often used in parallel with each other. As a result, it is often difficult to assess the genuine etymology of a placename, hence some of the entries below are assigned more than one meaning, depending on which language was used to originally give the place its name. One of the most common words used in county names in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the suffix shire
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Counties Of The United Kingdom
The counties of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are subnational divisions of the United Kingdom, used for the purposes of administrative, geographical and political demarcation. By the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
counties had become established as a unit of local government, at least in England.[1] By the early 17th century, all of England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland had been separated into countries. The older term shire was historically equivalent to "county". In Scotland
Scotland
shire was the only term used until after the Act of Union 1707. Since the early 19th century, counties have been adapted to meet new administrative and political requirements, and the word county (often with a qualifier) has been used in different senses for different purposes. In some areas of England
England
and Wales, counties still perform the functions of modern local government
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Celt
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle Dnieper Bronze
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Cornwall
Cornwall
Cornwall
(/ˈkɔːrnwɔːl, -wəl/;[1] Cornish: Kernow [ˈkɛrnɔʊ]) is a county in South West England
England
in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea,[2] to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar
River Tamar
which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain. The furthest southwestern point of the island is Land's End; the southernmost point is Lizard Point. Cornwall
Cornwall
has a population of 556,000 and covers an area of 3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi).[3][4][5][6] The county has been administered since 2009 by the unitary authority, Cornwall
Cornwall
Council
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Cornovii (Cornish)
The Cornovii
Cornovii
is a hypothetical name for a tribe who would have been part of the Dumnonii,[1] a Celtic tribe
Celtic tribe
inhabiting the South West peninsula of Great Britain, during some part of the Iron Age, Roman and post-Roman periods. [2] The Cornovii
Cornovii
would have lived at the western end of the peninsula, in the area now known as Cornwall, and the tribal name would be the ultimate source of the name of that present-day county.[1][3][4] The existence of this sub-tribe, clan, or sept is not mentioned in Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography, as are many of the other Iron Age tribes in Britain. It has been inferred solely on the basis of a place-name listed in the Ravenna Cosmography
Ravenna Cosmography
of c
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Cumberland, England
Cumberland
Cumberland
(/ˈkʌmbərlənd/ KUM-bər-lənd; locally /ˈkʊmbələnd/ KUUM-bə-lənd) is a historic county of North West England
North West England
that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974. It was bordered by Northumberland
Northumberland
to the east, County Durham
County Durham
to the southeast, Westmorland
Westmorland
and Lancashire
Lancashire
to the south, and the Scottish counties of Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire
and Roxburghshire
Roxburghshire
to the north
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Cumbria
Cumbria
Cumbria
(English: /ˈkʌmbriə/ KUM-bree-ə; locally [ˈkʊmbɾiə] KUUM-bree-ə) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria
Cumbria
County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, and the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness
Barrow-in-Furness
on the southwestern tip of the county. The county of Cumbria
Cumbria
consists of six districts (Allerdale, Barrow-in-Furness, Carlisle, Copeland, Eden and South Lakeland), and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million
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Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Latin
was the form of Latin
Latin
used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity[dubious – discuss] and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin
Latin
should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin
Latin
ends and medieval Latin
Latin
begins
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Derbyshire
Derbyshire
Derbyshire
(/ˈdɑːrbɪʃər, -ʃɪər/) is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire, containing the southern extremity of the Pennine range of hills which extend into the north of the county. The county contains part of the National Forest, and borders on Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
to the northwest, West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
to the north, South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire
to the northeast, Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
to the east, Leicestershire
Leicestershire
to the southeast, Staffordshire
Staffordshire
to the west and southwest and Cheshire
Cheshire
also to the west
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Old Norse Language
Old Norse
Old Norse
was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language
Proto-Norse language
developed into Old Norse
Old Norse
by the 8th century, and Old Norse
Old Norse
began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse
Old Norse
is found well into the 15th century.[2] Old Norse
Old Norse
was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them
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Derby
Derby
Derby
(/ˈdɑːrbi/ ( listen) DAR-bee) is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, of which it was traditionally the county town.[nb 1] At the 2011 census, the population was 248,700. Derby
Derby
gained city status in 1977. Derby
Derby
was settled by Romans – who established the town of Derventio – Saxons and Vikings, who made Derby
Derby
one of the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw. Initially a market town, Derby
Derby
grew rapidly in the industrial era. Home to Lombe's Mill, an early British factory, Derby
Derby
has a claim to be one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution
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Old Norse
Old Norse
Old Norse
was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language
Proto-Norse language
developed into Old Norse
Old Norse
by the 8th century, and Old Norse
Old Norse
began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse
Old Norse
is found well into the 15th century.[2] Old Norse
Old Norse
was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them
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Devon
Devon
Devon
(/ˈdɛvən/), also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
in the north to the English Channel
English Channel
in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall
Cornwall
to the west, Somerset
Somerset
to the northeast, and Dorset
Dorset
to the east
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Dumnonii
The Dumnonii
Dumnonii
or Dumnones were a British tribe who inhabited Dumnonia, the area now known as Devon
Devon
and Cornwall
Cornwall
(and some areas of present-day Dorset
Dorset
and Somerset) in the further parts of the South West peninsula of Britain, from at least the Iron Age
Iron Age
up to the early Saxon period
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Welsh Language
All UK speakers: 700,000+ (2012)[1]Wales: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales),[2] (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users[3] England: 110,000–150,000 (estimated) Argentina: 1,500-5,000[4][5](data not from 2011 census) Canada: L1,<3,885,[6] United States: ~2,235 (2009-2013) (2017)Language familyIndo-EuropeanCelticInsular CelticBrittonicWesternWelshEarly formsCommon BrittonicOld WelshMiddle WelshWriting systemLatin (Welsh alphabet) Welsh BrailleOfficial statusOfficial language inWalesRecognised minority language in United Kingdom
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