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Topographic Map Of Socotra
Topography
Topography
is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). Topography
Topography
is a field of geoscience and planetary science and is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also natural and artificial features, and even local history and culture. This meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. Topography
Topography
in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms. This is also known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in digital form (DEM)
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Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing. This can be studied by considering a collection of subsets, called open sets, that satisfy certain properties, turning the given set into what is known as a topological space. Important topological properties include connectedness and compactness.[1] Topology
Topology
developed as a field of study out of geometry and set theory, through analysis of concepts such as space, dimension, and transformation.[2] Such ideas go back to Gottfried Leibniz, who in the 17th century envisioned the geometria situs (Greek-Latin for "geometry of place") and analysis situs (Greek-Latin for "picking apart of place")
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Planning
Planning
Planning
is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal. It involves the creation and maintenance of a plan, such as psychological aspects that require conceptual skills. There are even a couple of tests to measure someone’s capability of planning well. As such, planning is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior. Also, planning has a specific process and is necessary for multiple occupations (particularly in fields such as management, business, etc.). In each field there are different types of plans that help companies achieve efficiency and effectiveness. An important, albeit often ignored aspect of planning, is the relationship it holds to forecasting. Forecasting can be described as predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like for multiple scenarios
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Ancient Greek
The ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BCE), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BCE to the 4th century CE). It is antedated in the second millennium BCE by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
and succeeded by Medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage on its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Great Britain
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain
Great Britain
is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world.[5][note 1] In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java
Java
in Indonesia and Honshu
Honshu
in Japan.[7][8] The island of Ireland
Ireland
is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles
British Isles
archipelago.[9] The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons
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Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.[1] It is one of the world's largest producers of maps. Since 1 April 2015 it has operated as Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership. The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. It is also a member of the Public Data Group. The agency's name indicates its original military purpose (see ordnance and surveying), which was to map Scotland
Scotland
in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745
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War Of 1812
2,200–3,721 killed in action[4]4,505 wounded est. 15,000 died from all causes[b] 4,000 slaves freed [5] 20,000 captured[6][7] 8 frigates captured or burned 278 privateers captured 1,400 merchant ships captured British Empire: 1,160 [8]–1,960 killed[1][c] in action3,679+ wounded 10,000 died from all causes[1][d] 4 frigates captured ~1,344 merchant ships captured (373 recaptured)[4] 15,500 captured Indian allies:10,000 dead from all causes (warriors and civilians)[1][e]Unknown captured * Some militias operated in only their own regions.  † Killed in action  ‡ A locally raised coastal protection and semi-naval force on the Great Lakes vteSt
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Corps Of Topographical Engineers
The U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers, authorized on 4 July 1838, consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works such as lighthouses and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes. It included such officers as George Meade, John C. Frémont
John C. Frémont
and Stephen Long. It was merged with the United States
United States
Army Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers also assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes.[1] In the mid-19th century, Corps of Engineers' officers ran Lighthouse
Lighthouse
Districts in tandem with U.S. Naval officers. In 1841, Congress created the Lake Survey. The Survey, based in Detroit, Mich., was charged with conducting a hydrographical survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes and preparing and publishing nautical charts and other navigation aids
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U.S. Geological Survey
The United States
United States
Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people[2] and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia
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Neurology
Neurology
Neurology
(from Greek: νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology
Neurology
deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems (and their subdivisions, the autonomic and somatic nervous systems), including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle.[1] Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system. A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders.[2] Neurologists
Neurologists
may also be involved in clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research
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Coordinate System
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.[1][2] The order of the coordinates is significant, and they are sometimes identified by their position in an ordered tuple and sometimes by a letter, as in "the x-coordinate". The coordinates are taken to be real numbers in elementary mathematics, but may be complex numbers or elements of a more abstract system such as a commutative ring
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Altitude
Altitude
Altitude
or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more). As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context
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Surveying
A surveyor at work with a retroreflector used for distance measurement and orientation. Surveying
Surveying
or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, locations, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, trigonometry, regression analysis, physics, engineering, metrology, programming languages, and the law
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Civil Engineering
Civil engineering
Civil engineering
is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines and railways.[1][2] Civil engineering
Civil engineering
is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines
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Ancient Greece
History
History
of the world · Ancient maritime history Protohistory · Axial Age · Iron Age Historiography · Ancient literature Ancient warfare · Cradle of civilization Category PortalFollowed by Post-classical historyvte Ancient Greece
Greece
(Greek: Ἑλλάς, translit. Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. AD 600)
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Public Works
Public works
Public works
are a broad category of infrastructure projects, financed and constructed by the government, for recreational, employment, and health and safety uses in the greater community. They include public buildings (municipal buildings, schools, hospitals), transport infrastructure (roads, railroads, bridges, pipelines, canals, ports, airports), public spaces (public squares, parks, beaches), public services (water supply and treatment, sewage treatment, electrical grid, dams), and other, usually long-term, physical assets and facilities. Though often interchangeable with public infrastructure and public capital, public works does not necessarily carry an economic component, thereby being a broader term. Public works
Public works
has been encouraged since antiquity
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