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Top 40
In the music industry , the TOP 40 is the current, forty most-popular songs in a particular genre . It is the best-selling or most frequently broadcast popular music . Record charts have traditionally consisted of a total of 40 songs. "Top 40" or "contemporary hit radio " is also a radio format . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Top 40 music charts and programs * 3 Further reading * 4 External links * 5 References HISTORYAccording to producer Richard Fatherley, Todd Storz was the inventor of the format, at his radio station KOWH in Omaha, Nebraska . Storz used what he saw from the repetition of plays on the jukebox to develop his platform. The format was commercially successful, and Storz and his father Robert, under the name of the Storz Broadcasting Company, subsequently acquired other stations to use the new Top 40 format. In 1989 Todd Storz was inducted into the Nebraska Broadcasters Association Hall of Fame. The term "Top 40" for a radio format appeared in 1960. The Top 40, whether surveyed by a radio station or a publication, was a list of songs that shared only the common characteristic of being newly released. Its introduction coincided with a transition from the old ten-inch 78 rpm record format for single "pop" recordings to the seven-inch vinyl 45 rpm format, introduced in 1949, which was outselling it by 1954 and soon replaced it completely in 1958
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Music Industry
The MUSIC INDUSTRY consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music , and the organizations and associations that aid and represent creators. Among the many individuals and organizations that operate in the industry are: the songwriters and composers who create new songs and musical pieces; the singers , musicians , conductors and bandleaders who perform the music; the companies and professionals who create and sell recorded music and/or sheet music (e.g., music publishers , music producers , recording studios , engineers , record labels , retail and online music stores , performance rights organizations ); and those that help organize and present live music performances (sound engineers , booking agents , promoters , music venues , road crew ). The industry also includes a range of professionals who assist singers and musicians with their music careers (talent managers , artists and repertoire managers, business managers , entertainment lawyers ); those who broadcast audio or video music content (satellite , Internet radio stations , broadcast radio and TV stations ); music journalists and music critics ; DJs ; music educators and teachers ; musical instrument manufacturers; as well as many others
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Music Genre
A MUSIC GENRE is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from _musical form _ and _musical style_, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Recently, academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways. The artistic nature of music means that these classifications are often subjective and controversial, and some genres may overlap. There are even varying academic definitions of the term _genre_ itself. In his book _Form in Tonal Music_, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between genre and form . He lists madrigal , motet , canzona , ricercar , and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of _genre_, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, and the _Agnus Dei_ from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form." Some, like Peter van der Merwe , treat the terms _genre_ and _style_ as the same, saying that _genre_ should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F
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Popular Music
POPULAR MUSIC is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry . These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training . It stands in contrast to both art music and traditional or "folk" music . Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of written music , although since the beginning of the recording industry , it is also disseminated through recordings . Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences. The original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States. Although popular music sometimes is known as "pop music", the two terms are not interchangeable. Popular music
Popular music
is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population, whereas pop music usually refers to a specific musical genre within popular music. Popular music
Popular music
songs and pieces typically have easily singable melodies . The song structure of popular music commonly involves repetition of sections, with the verse and chorus or refrain repeating throughout the song and the bridge providing a contrasting and transitional section within a piece
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Record Charts
A RECORD CHART also called a MUSIC CHART is a ranking of recorded music according to popularity during a given period of time. Examples of music charts are the Hit parade , the Billboard Hot 100 or Top 40 . Many different criteria are used in different charts, including sales of records , cassettes and compact discs , the amount of radio airplay, and since the introduction of digital technology, the number of downloads and the amount of streaming activity. Some charts are specific to a particular musical genre and most to a particular geographical location (although download charts are not easily pinned down in this way). The most common period of time covered by a chart is one week with the chart being printed or broadcast at the end of this time. Summary charts for years and decades are then calculated from their component weekly charts. Component charts have become an increasingly important way to measure the commercial success of individual songs. CONTENTS * 1 Chart hit * 2 Other terminology * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References CHART HITA chart hit is an extremely popular recording, identified by its inclusion in a chart that uses sales or other criteria to rank popular releases. Chart-topper and related terms (like number one, No. 1 hit, top of the charts, chart hit, and so forth) are widely used in common conversation and in marketing, and are loosely defined
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Contemporary Hit Radio
CONTEMPORARY HIT RADIO (also known as CHR, CONTEMPORARY HITS, HIT LIST, CURRENT HITS, HIT MUSIC, TOP 40, or POP RADIO) is a radio format that is common in the United States, United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Singapore, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, and the Philippines, that focuses on playing current and recurrent popular music as determined by the top 40 music charts. There are several subcategories, dominantly focusing on rock , pop , or urban music . Used alone, CHR most often refers to the CHR-pop format. The term contemporary hit radio was coined in the early 1980s by Radio TOP 30; TOP 20; TOP 10; HOT 100 (each with its number of songs) and HOT HITS radio formats, but carrying more or less the same meaning and having the same creative point of origin with Todd Storz as further refined by Gordon McLendon as well as Bill Drake . The format became especially popular in the sixties as radio stations constrained disc jockeys to numbered play lists in the wake of the payola scandal
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Radio Format
A RADIO FORMAT or PROGRAMMING FORMAT (not to be confused with broadcast programming ) describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station . In countries where radio spectrum use is legally regulated (such as by OFCOM in the UK), formats may have a legal status where stations are licensed to transmit only specific formats. Radio formats are frequently employed as a marketing tool, and are subject to frequent change. Music radio , old time radio , all-news radio , sports radio , talk radio and weather radio describe the operation of different genres of radio format and each format can often be sub-divided into many specialty formats. CONTENTS* 1 List of formats * 1.1 Music-oriented formats * 1.1.1 Pop/Adult Contemporary * 1.1.2 Rock/Alternative/Indie * 1.1.3 Country * 1.1.4 Urban/Rhythmic * 1.1.5 Dance/Electronic * 1.1.6 Jazz/Blues/Standards * 1.1.7 Easy Listening/New Age * 1.1.8 Folk/Singer-Songwriters * 1.1.9 Latin * 1.1.10 International * 1.1.11 Christian/Gospel * 1.1.12 Classical * 1.1.13 Seasonal/Holiday/Happening * 1.1.14 Miscellanies * 1.2 Spoken word formats * 2 Regulation * 3 See also * 4 References LIST OF FORMATSFormats constantly evolve and each format can often be sub-divided into many specialty formats. Some of the following formats are available only regionally or through specialized venues such as satellite radio or Internet radio
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Todd Storz
ROBERT TODD STORZ (May 8, 1924 – April 13, 1964) headed a very successful chain of American radio broadcasting stations and is generally credited with being the foremost innovator of the Top 40 radio format . CONTENTS * 1 Contents * 2 Early Years * 3 Station Acquisitions and A New Sound * 4 The Unraveling * 5 The Sell-Off * 6 References * 7 External links * 8 See also CONTENTS1. Early Years 2. Station Acquisitions and A New Sound 3. The Unraveling 4. The Sell-off EARLY YEARSRobert Todd Storz (known as Todd to avoid confusion with his father) was the grandson of Omaha brewer Gottlieb Storz . His father, Robert H. Storz, positioned himself as a “mover and shaker” in Omaha, Nebraska . He joined his eldest brother Adolph in running the Storz Brewing Company, and became active in local associations and activities. Indeed, Robert Storz played a role in getting the U.S. Air Force’s Strategic Air Command (SAC) headquarters to relocate to Omaha in 1957. SAC’s huge and growing payroll portended good business for Storz beer. Having no interest in the beer business, however, young Todd Storz was far more attracted to the potential of broadcast radio. He built a crude AM radio crystal receiver when he was only eight, and from then on, was “hooked” on radio
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KCRO
KCRO (660 AM) is an Omaha, Nebraska area Salem Communications
Salem Communications
-owned Christian radio station. KCRO's studios are located on Burt Street (near North 120th Street and Dodge Road in West Omaha), while its transmitter is located behind Roncalli Catholic High School near Sorensen Parkway in Northwest Omaha. KCRO airs national programs such as Focus on the Family
Focus on the Family
, Jay Sekulow Live , Family Life Today , Insight For Living , Turning Point , and Hope for the Heart . It also airs local programs from people such as Dr. Kathy Walk , Gary Hutchins , and Tara Rye . KCRO 660 also airs local gospel music shows run by Minister Jon Lucas. Other local programs include Heartland Viewpoint with Dave Clark and KCRO Today. The general manager of KCRO is Greg Vogt. The station played an important role in radio history: as KOWH, the station was the first top-40 station in the United States, operated by radio pioneer Todd Storz
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Omaha, Nebraska
OMAHA (/ˈoʊməhɑː/ OH-mə-hah ) is the largest city in the state of Nebraska
Nebraska
and the county seat of Douglas County . Omaha
Omaha
is located in the Midwestern United States
United States
on the Missouri River
Missouri River
, about 10 miles (15 km) north of the mouth of the Platte River
Platte River
. Omaha
Omaha
is the anchor of the Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitan area , which includes Council Bluffs, Iowa , across the Missouri River
Missouri River
from Omaha. According to the 2010 census , Omaha's population was 408,958, making it the nation\'s 43rd-largest city ; this had increased to 446,599 as of a 2014 estimate. Including its suburbs, Omaha
Omaha
formed the 60th-largest metropolitan area in the United States
United States
in 2013, with an estimated population of 895,151 residing in eight counties . The Omaha-Council Bluffs-Fremont, Nebraska-IA Combined Statistical Area is 931,667, according to the U.S. Census
Census
Bureau's 2013 estimate. There are nearly 1.3 million residents within the Greater Omaha
Omaha
area, comprising a 50-mile (80 km) radius of Downtown Omaha , the city's center
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American Top 40
_AMERICAN TOP 40_ (commonly abbreviated to _AT40_) is an internationally syndicated , independent song countdown radio program created by Casey Kasem, Don Bustany, Tom Roundsand Ron Jacobs . The program is currently hosted by Ryan Seacrest
Ryan Seacrest
and presented as an adjunct to his weekday radio program, _On Air with Ryan Seacrest
Ryan Seacrest
_. Originally a production of Watermark Inc.(later a division of ABC Radio known as ABC Watermark, now Cumulus Media Networks
Cumulus Media Networks
), _AT40_ is now distributed by Premiere Networksin the United States, Canada, Australia, the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
, Singapore, China, India
India
, Sri Lanka, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Oman
Oman
and several other territories worldwide. It can also be heard on both the iHeartRadio application and the AT40 Mobile application on mobile smartphones and tablets as well as on Xbox 360
Xbox 360
, Xbox One
Xbox One
consoles and the Armed Forces Network. Co-creator Casey Kasemhosted the original _AT40_ from its inauguration on July 4, 1970 until August 6, 1988. Shadoe Stevenstook over the program on August 13, 1988 and hosted until January 28, 1995 when the original program came to an end
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Billboard Hot 100
The _BILLBOARD_ HOT 100 is the music industry standard record chart in the United States for singles , published weekly by _Billboard _ magazine. Chart rankings are based on sales (physical and digital ), radio play , and online streaming . The weekly sales period was originally Monday to Sunday, when Nielsen started tracking sales in 1991, but was changed to Friday to Thursday in July 2015. Radio airplay, which, unlike sales figures and streaming data, is readily available on a real-time basis, and is tracked on a Monday to Sunday cycle (previously Wednesday to Tuesday). A new chart is compiled and officially released to the public by _Billboard_ on Tuesdays. Example: * Friday, January 1 – sales tracking-week begins, streaming tracking-week begins * Monday, January 4 – airplay tracking-week begins * Thursday, January 7 – sales tracking-week ends, streaming tracking-week ends * Sunday, January 10 – airplay tracking-week ends * Tuesday, January 12 – new chart released, with issue post-dated Saturday, January 23The first number one song of the Hot 100 was " Poor Little Fool " by Ricky Nelson , on August 4, 1958. As of the issue for the week ending on August 5, 2017, the Hot 100 has had 1,065 different number one hits. The current number one song is " Despacito " by Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee featuring Justin Bieber
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Cassette Single
A CASSETTE SINGLE (CS, also known by the trademark "CASSINGLE" or capitalized as the trademark "CASSETTE SINGLE") is a music single in the form of a Compact Cassette . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Packaging * 3 Popularity * 4 References HISTORY Bow Wow Wow 's " C·30 C·60 C·90 Go " was the first cassette single, released in the U.K. in 1980, and I.R.S. Records released the first cassette single in the U.S. with the Go-Go\'s "Vacation " in 1982. The ZTT label made good use of the format by 1984, with singles by Frankie Goes to Hollywood , Art of Noise and Propaganda being issued in unique versions on cassette. American record companies began releasing cassette singles on a large scale in 1987, when vinyl record album sales were declining in favor of cassette recordings; the cassette single was meant to replace the 45 record in a similar way. The format was used as a promotion in the 1990s, with Disney
Disney
giving a "cassingle" to attendees of Hercules promotional events. PACKAGING A relatively modern cassette single (by Tatu ) in an O case packaging. This single is sold only in the O case and does not have an insert Originally, most cassette singles were released in a cardboard sleeve that slipped over the outside of the release. This was then usually shrink wrapped in plastic
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CD Single
A CD SINGLE (sometimes abbreviated to CDS) is a music single in the form of a standard size compact disc . It is not to be confused with the Mini CD single , which uses a smaller form factor and has also been referred to as just a CD Single on some occasions. The format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased. Commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs (an A side and B side, in the tradition of 7" 45rpm records) up to six songs like an EP . Some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs (known as remixes ), in the tradition of 12" vinyl singles , and in some cases, they may also contain a music video for the single itself as well as a collectible poster . Depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Demise of the CD single
CD single
in the United Kingdom * 2 See also * 3 References HISTORY Dire Straits ' "Brothers in Arms " (1985) is reported to be the world's first CD single, issued in the UK in two separate singles as a promotional item, one distinguished with a logo for the tour, Live in '85, and a second to commemorate the Australian leg of the tour marked Live in '86. Containing four tracks, it had a very limited print run
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Disc Jockey
A DISC JOCKEY (DJ) is a person who mixes different sources of pre-existing recorded music as it is playing, usually for a live audience in a nightclub or dance club or via broadcasting. Originally, the "disc" in "disc jockey" referred to gramophone records , but now "DJ" is used as an all-encompassing term to describe someone who mixes recorded music from any sources, including cassettes , CDs , or digital audio files on a CDJ or laptop . DJs typically perform for a live audience in a nightclub or dance club or a TV, radio broadcast audience, or in the 2010s, an online radio audience. DJs also create mixes, remixes and tracks that are recorded for later sale and distribution. In hip hop music , DJs may create beats, using percussion breaks , basslines and other musical content sampled from pre-existing records. In hip hop, rappers and MCs use these beats to rap over. DJs use equipment that can play at least two sources of recorded music simultaneously and mix them together . This allows the DJ to create seamless transitions between recordings and develop unique mixes of songs. Often, this involves aligning the beats of the music sources so their rhythms do not clash when they are played together, either so two records can be played at the same time, or to enable the DJ to make a smooth transition from one song to another
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Payola
PAYOLA, in the music industry , is the illegal practice of payment or other inducement by record companies for the broadcast of recordings on commercial radio in which the song is presented as being part of the normal day's broadcast. Under U.S. law, a radio station can play a specific song in exchange for money, but this must be disclosed on the air as being sponsored airtime, and that play of the song should not be counted as a "regular airplay ". The term has come to refer to any secret payment made to cast a product in a favorable light (such as obtaining positive reviews). Some radio stations report spins of the newest and most popular songs to industry publications. The number of times the songs are played can influence the perceived popularity of a song. The term payola is a combination of "pay" and "-ola" a common suffix of product names in the early 20th century, such as Pianola , Victrola , Amberola ,