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Tonga
Coordinates : 20°S 175°W / 20°S 175°W / -20; -175 Kingdom of Tonga _Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga_ (Tongan ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Ko e ʻOtua mo Tonga
Tonga
ko hoku tofiʻa" "God and Tonga
Tonga
are my Inheritance" ANTHEM: _ Ko e fasi ʻo e tuʻi ʻo e ʻOtu Tonga _ _The Song of the King of the Tongan Islands_ Capital and largest city Nukuʻalofa 21°08′
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Tongan Language
TONGAN /ˈtɒŋən/ (_lea fakatonga_) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga
Tonga
. It has around 200,000 speakers and is a national language of Tonga
Tonga
. It is a VSO (verb–subject–object) language. CONTENTS * 1 Related languages * 2 Tongan alphabet * 3 Syllabification * 4 Articles * 5 Registers * 6 Pronouns * 6.1 Subjective and objective * 6.2 Cardinal pronouns * 6.3 Possessive pronouns * 6.4 Other pronouns * 7 Counting * 8 Literature * 9 Calendar * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links RELATED LANGUAGESTongan is one of the multiple languages in the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages, along with Hawaiian , Maori , Samoan and Tahitian , for example. Together with Niuean , it forms the Tongic subgroup of Polynesian. Tongan is unusual among Polynesian languages in that it has a so-called _definitive accent_. As with all Polynesian languages, Tongan has adapted the phonological system of proto-Polynesian. * Tongan has retained the original proto-Polynesian *h, but has merged it with the original *s as /h/. (The /s/ found in modern Tongan derives from *t before high front vowels). Most Polynesian languages have lost the original proto-Polynesian glottal stop /q/; however, it has been retained in Tongan and a few other languages including Rapa Nui
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Flag Of Tonga
The FLAG OF TONGA consists of a red field with a white canton charged with a red couped cross. Adopted in 1875 after being officially enshrined into the nation\'s constitution , it has been the flag of the Kingdom of Tonga
Tonga
since that year. The constitution stipulates that the national flag can never be changed. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Design * 2.1 Symbolism * 2.2 Similarities * 3 Gallery * 3.1 Historical flags * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe British first arrived in Tonga
Tonga
in the late-18th century, when Captain James Cook made three visits to the islands between 1773 and 1777. Approximately fifty years later, English Wesleyan Methodist missionaries came to Tonga
Tonga
and began converting the islanders to Christianity. In 1831, they succeeded in converting "paramount chief" Taufa'ahau Tupou, who became King George Tupou I
George Tupou I
in 1845. It was during this time (circa 1840s) that the first Tongan flag was adopted. It consisted of a white field with a cross (either red or blue in colour) at all four corners, and the letters "A" (in red) and "M" (in blue) at the centre that symbolise the king. Upon his accession to the throne, the king sought to design a new flag for the nation, one that would represent Christianity
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Coat Of Arms Of Tonga
The COAT OF ARMS OF TONGA (KO E SILA ʻO TONGA) was designed in 1875 with the creation of the constitution . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Description * 3 Royal Standard * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links HISTORYThe three swords represent the three dynasties or lines of the kings of Tonga , namely the Tuʻi Tonga , Tuʻi Haʻatakalaua and the current Tuʻi Kanokupolu ). Tonga was united under King Siaosi Tupou I , who then orchestrated the formation of the first formal government and also the coat of arms. The dove with the olive branch symbolises the wish of God's peace to reign in Tonga forever (the dove and olive branch are taken from the story of Noah and the Great Flood in the Bible). The three stars symbolise the main island groups of Tonga, which are Tongatapu , Vavaʻu and Haʻapai . The Crown symbolises the ruling monarchy, the King of Tonga. The text on the scroll at the bottom reads _Ko e ʻOtua mo Tonga ko hoku Tofiʻa_ in the Tongan language : 'God and Tonga are my inheritance'. DESCRIPTIONThere is no official specification of how exactly the arms should look. Even the shield on the front gate of the late king's palace is different from the old black/white copy used by the (ex-) government printer on all official stationery, is different from the copy on the prime minister's office webpage, etc
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Ko E Fasi ʻo E Tuʻi ʻo E ʻOtu Tonga
"KO E FASI ʻO E TUʻI ʻO E ʻOTU TONGA" is the national anthem of Tonga
Tonga
. The title literally means "song of the king of the Tonga Islands" in the Tongan language but is in daily life better known as FASI FAKAFONUA, which translates to "national song". The lyrics of the anthem were written by Prince Uelingatoni Ngū Tupoumalohi , with the music by Karl Gustavus Schmitt . It was first used in 1874. CONTENTS * 1 Tongan lyrics (modern spelling) * 2 English lyrics (literal translation) * 3 English lyrics * 4 Melody * 5 Tongan music notation * 6 References * 7 External links TONGAN LYRICS (MODERN SPELLING) ʻE ʻotua māfimafi ko homau ʻeiki koe ko koe ko e falalaʻanga mo ia 'ofa ki Tonga; ʻAfio hifo ʻemau lotu ʻaia ʻoku mau faí ni mo ke tali homau loto ʻo maluʻi ʻa Tupou. ENGLISH LYRICS (LITERAL TRANSLATION) Oh, almighty God! You are our Lord, It is You, the pillar And the love to Tonga. Look down on our prayer That is what we do now And may You answer our wish To protect Tupou. ENGLISH LYRICS Oh almighty God above Thou art our lord and sure defense As your people, we trust thee And our Tonga
Tonga
thou dost love Hear our prayer for thou unseen We know that thou hath blessed our land Grant our earnest supplication God save Tupou, our king
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Nukuʻalofa
NUKUʻALOFA is the capital of Tonga
Tonga
. It is located on the north coast of the island of Tongatapu , in the southernmost island group of Tonga. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 First western records of Nukuʻalofa
Nukuʻalofa
* 1.2 Capital of the Kingdom of Tonga
Tonga
(1875 and later) * 2 Government * 3 Climate * 4 Economy * 5 Transport * 6 2015 island creation * 7 Twin towns/Sister cities * 8 Endnotes * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORYFIRST WESTERN RECORDS OF NUKUʻALOFAOn 10 June 1777, British captain James Cook
James Cook
wrote of his arrival at their anchorage place. His description of the place confirmed, with his map, that this was the bay of Nukuʻalofa. At length, about two in the afternoon, we arrived at our intended station. It was a very snug place, formed by the shore of Tongataboo on the South East, and two small islands on the East and North East. Here we anchored in ten fathoms water, over a bottom of oozy sand; distant from the shore one-third of a mile ." Cook never used the name Nukualofa or any other spelling for the reports of this voyage, but he mentioned the island of Pangaimodoo (Pangaimotu ) which was to the east of his anchorage position. Captain Cook also wrote that he travelled by canoes to visit Mooa (Muʻa ) where Paulaho and other great men lived
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English . Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England , and was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible , and the start of the Great Vowel Shift . Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire , modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion). Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ambiguous terms such as nation or people . In English, it can also have the connotation of something exotic (cf. " White ethnic ", "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an area was established
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Tongans
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Tonga
Tonga
, including population density , ethnicity , education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Demographics
Demographics
of Tonga, Data of FAO , year 2005; Number of inhabitants in thousands Almost two-thirds of the population of the Kingdom of Tonga
Tonga
live on its main island, Tongatapu . Although an increasing number of Tongans have moved into the only urban and commercial center, Nukuʻalofa
Nukuʻalofa
, where European and indigenous cultural and living patterns have blended, village life and kinship ties continue to be important throughout the country. Everyday life is heavily influenced by Polynesian traditions and especially by the Christian faith; for example, all commerce and entertainment activities cease from midnight Saturday until midnight Sunday, and the constitution declares the Sabbath to be sacred, forever. Other important Christian denominations include Methodists (Free Wesleyan) and Roman Catholics . Tongans, a Polynesian group with a very small mixture of Melanesian , represent more than 98% of the inhabitants. The rest are European (the majority are British ), mixed European, and other Pacific Islanders. There also are several hundred Chinese
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Euronesian
United States 125,628 French Polynesia 44,000 New Caledonia 25,000 Samoa 18,000 Solomon Islands 18,000 Fiji 16,000 Papua New Guinea 5,100 American Samoa 4,700 Kiribati 1,100 Cook Islands 1,000 Norfolk Island 80 Smaller populations in Pitcairn Islands , New Zealand and Australia . LANGUAGES English , French , Polynesian languages, others. RELIGION Protestantism , Roman Catholicism RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Māori , Fijians , Polynesians , English people , French people , Spaniards , Pākehā , People of the U.S.A. EURONESIAN refers to any person of mixed European and Polynesian , Melanesian or Micronesian descent. It is most commonly used in Samoa . Most Euronesians are descended from British or French people and with some from Spaniards and Polynesians in Isla de Pascua and from Spaniards and Micronesians in Guam , Northern Marianas , Marshall Islands , Caroline Islands , and Palau . SEE ALSO * Austronesian peoples REFERENCES * ^ _A_ _B_ Bridging 1990 and 2000 census race data: Fractional assignment of multiracial populations. * ^ _Pacific Islands Year Book and Who\'s who_. 1971. p. 84
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Ethnic Groups In Europe
The ETHNIC GROUPS IN EUROPE are the focus of European ethnology , the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe
Europe
. According to German monograph _Minderheitenrechte in Europa_ co-edited by Pan and Pfeil (2002) there are 87 distinct PEOPLES OF EUROPE, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities . The total number of national minority populations in Europe
Europe
is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. There is no precise or universally accepted definition of the terms "ethnic group" or "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms _ethnic group_, _people_ (without nation state), _nationality _, _national minority_, _ethnic minority_, _linguistic community_, _linguistic group_, _linguistic minority _ and genetic _haplogroup _ are used as mostly synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe
Europe

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East Asian
EAST ASIA is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. Geographically and geopolitically, it includes China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, Korea (North and South), Japan and Taiwan; it covers about 12,000,000 km2 (4,600,000 sq mi), or about 28% of the Asian continent . The East Asian people comprise more than 1.5 billion people. About 38% of the population of Asia and 22%, or over one fifth, of all the people in the world live in East Asia. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China , both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state . The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi). Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere , and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script
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Free Wesleyan Church Of Tonga
The FREE WESLEYAN CHURCH (FWC; Tongan : Siasi Uesiliana Tau‘ataina ‘o Tonga
Tonga
) is the largest Methodist
Methodist
denomination in Tonga
Tonga
, and also the state church . It is the world's only state church in the Methodist
Methodist
tradition. The royal family of the country are prominent members, and the late king was a lay preacher. In 1924, Sālote Tupou III wanted to combine the official state church of Tonga
Tonga
(Free Church of Tonga
Tonga
), established by her great grandfather George Tupou I
George Tupou I
, with the Methodist
Methodist
church (governed by the Methodist
Methodist
body in Australia). However being unsuccessful, the Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga
Tonga
is now the official state church of Tonga. The Free Wesleyan Church
Free Wesleyan Church
of Tonga
Tonga
(Siasi Uesiliana Tau'ataina 'o Tonga) was founded as a sovereign nation, in the process of promoting its sovereignty abroad by means of bilateral treaties with Western nations should have an independent (Wesleyan) Church. Preachers in the FWC system must be ordained ministers, a process that takes between three and five years, and can involve many stages of approval and apprenticeship
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος _dẽmos_ "people, tribe", ὄνομα _ónoma_ "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously _GENTILIC_ was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ and _Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary_. Examples of demonyms include a _ Pakistani _ for a person from Pakistan , _Swahili _ for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial _Kiwi _ for a person from New Zealand , and a _Cochabambino_ for a person from the city of Cochabamba . Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region. Thus a _Thai_ may be any resident or citizen of Thailand of any ethnic group, or more narrowly a member of the Thai people . Conversely, some groups of people may be associated with multiple demonyms. For example, a native of the United Kingdom may be called a _ British person _, a _Briton_ or, informally, a _Brit_. In some languages, when a parallel demonym does not exist, a demonym is borrowed from another language as a nickname or descriptive adjective of a group of people
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