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Toluca
MexicoRegion TolucaMetro area Greater TolucaMunicipal Status December 13, 1812[1]Municipal Seat Toluca
Toluca
de LerdoGovernment • Type Ayuntamiento • Municipal President Fernando Zamora MoralesArea • Municipality 452.37 km2 (174.66 sq mi) • Water 7.30 km2 (2.82 sq mi)Elevation (of seat) 2,660 m (8,730 ft)Population (2010 Census)  • Municipality 819,561Time zone Central (US Central) (UTC-6) • S
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Crown Of Castile
The Crown of Castile[nb 1] was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees
Nueva Planta decrees
by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries
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Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca
Oaxaca
(Spanish pronunciation: [erˈnaŋ korˈtes ðe monˈroj i piˈθaro]; 1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire
Aztec Empire
and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico
Mexico
under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Born in Medellín, Spain, to a family of lesser nobility, Cortés chose to pursue adventure and riches in the New World. He went to Hispaniola
Hispaniola
and later to Cuba, where he received an encomienda (the right to the labor of certain subjects)
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Mexica
The Mexica
Mexica
(Nahuatl: Mēxihcah, Nahuatl pronunciation: [meːˈʃiʔkaʔ] ( listen);[1] the singular is Mēxihcatl [meːˈʃiʔkat͡ɬ][1]) or Mexicas were a Nahuatl-speaking indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico, known today coloquially as the rulers of the Aztec
Aztec
Empire. This group was also known as the Culhua- Mexica
Mexica
in recognition of its kinship alliance with the neighboring Culhua, descendants of the revered Toltecs, who occupied the famous city of Tula from the tenth through twelfth centuries. The Mexica
Mexica
were additionally referred to as the “Tenochca,” a term associated with the name of their altepetl (city-state), Tenochtitlan, and Tenochtitlan’s founding leader, Tenoch[2]. According to Berdan the name Aztec
Aztec
was coined by Alexander von Humboldt
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Spanish Conquest Of The Aztec Empire
Annexation of the Aztec
Aztec
Empire, Tarascans and others by Spanish EmpireBelligerents Spanish Empire Confederacy of Tlaxcala Cempoalasupport or casual alliance:Otomis Mixquic Iztapalapa Xochimilco Texcoco Aztec Triple Alliance
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Gonzalo De Sandoval
Gonzalo de Sandoval
Gonzalo de Sandoval
(1497, Medellín, Spain
Medellín, Spain
– late in 1528, Palos de la Frontera, Spain) was a Spanish conquistador in New Spain (Mexico)[1]:50 and briefly co-governor of the colony while Hernán Cortés was away from the capital (March 2, 1527 to August 22, 1527).Contents1 Arrival in New Spain 2 Siege of Tenochtitlan 3 After the fall of Tenochtitlan 4 Founding of Colima 5 Honduras 6 Return to Spain 7 Evaluation 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksArrival in New Spain[edit] Sandoval was the youngest of the lieutenants of Cortés. They arrived together in New Spain
New Spain
in 1519
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Mexican War Of Independence
Mexican independence First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire
gains independence from Spain Signing of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican EmpireTerritorial changes Spain
Spain
loses the continental area of Viceroyalty of New SpainBelligerents Insurgents Army of the Three Guarantees
Army of the Three Guarantees
(1821) Spanish Empire Mexican royalistsCommanders and leaders Miguel Hidalgo  (1810–11) Ignacio Allende  (1810–11) Ignacio López R. † (1810–11) José María Morelos  (1810–15) Vicente Guerrero
Vicente Guerrero
(1810–21) Mariano Matamoros  (1811–14) Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria
(1812–21) Francisco Xavier Mina  (1817) Agustín de Iturbide (1821) Ferdinand VII Francisco Venegas (1810–13) Félix María Calleja (1813–16) Juan Ruiz de A
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Matlatzinca Language
The Matlatzincan languages are two closely related Oto-Manguean language of the Oto-Pamean spoken in Central Mexico: Tlahuica/Ocuiltec and Matlatzinca. The name of the language in the language itself is pjiekak'joo.[3][4] The Matlatzincan language group consists of two mutually unintelligible languages: one called Ocuiltec[5] or Tlahuica, the other called Matlatzinca proper.[6] While originally one language they are now so removed that they considered separate languages both by linguists and by the speakers themselves. In 2000 Matlatzinca was spoken by around 650 persons in San Francisco Oxtotilpa, and in 2011 Ocuiltec/Tlahuica was spoken by around 100 persons in the municipality of Ocuilan de Arteaga in the villages San Juan Atzingo and Santa Lucía del Progreso.[7] Because of the extremely small population and the unfavourable age structure, the Matlatzincan languages are considered to be highly endangered
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Municipality
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate
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Mexican President
The President of the United Mexican States (Spanish: Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos),[2] commonly shortened to President of Mexico, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Enrique Peña Nieto, who took office on December 1, 2012. Currently, the office of the President is considered to be revolutionary, in that the powers of office are derived from the Revolutionary Constitution of 1917. Another legacy of the Revolution is its ban on re-election. Mexican presidents are limited to a single six-year term, called a sexenio. No one who has held the post, even on a caretaker basis, is allowed to run or serve again
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Volcano
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Codex
A codex (/ˈkoʊdɛks/) (from the Latin
Latin
caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices (/ˈkɒdɪsiːz/), is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials. The term is now usually only used of manuscript books, with hand-written contents,[1] but describes the format that is now near-universal for printed books in the Western world. The book is usually bound by stacking the pages and fixing one edge, and using a cover thicker than the sheets. Some codices are continuously folded like a concertina. The alternative to paged codex format for a long document is the continuous scroll. Examples of folded codices include the Maya codices. Sometimes people use the term for a book-style format, including modern printed books but excluding folded books. The Romans developed the form from wooden writing tablets
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Carlos IV
Charles IV (Spanish: Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego; 11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819) was King of Spain
King of Spain
from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808.Contents1 Early life 2 Reign2.1 Abdications of Bayonne3 Later life and death 4 Character 5 Marriage and children 6 Ancestors 7 Titles and styles 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Charles was the second son of Charles III and his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony. He was born in Naples
Naples
(11 November 1748), while his father was King of Naples
Naples
and Sicily. His elder brother, Don Felipe, was passed over for both thrones, due to his learning disabilities and epilepsy
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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V (Spanish: Carlos; German: Karl; Italian: Carlo; Latin: Carolus; Dutch: Karel; French: Charles, [a] 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
as Charles I from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as Charles V from 1519, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556. Through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western, central, and southern Europe, and the Spanish viceroyalties in the Americas and Asia
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of Spain Reino de España  (Spanish)6 other official names[a][b]Aragonese: Reino d'EspanyaAsturian: Reinu d'EspañaBasque: Espainiako ErresumaCatalan: Regne d'EspanyaGalician: Reino de EspañaOccitan: Reiaume d'EspanhaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Plus Ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March"Location of  Spain  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Madrid 40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national language Spanish[c]Co-official languages in certain autonomous communities Catalan Galician Basque OccitanEthnic groups (2015)89.9% Spanish 10.1% othersReligi
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Valley Of Mexico
The Valley of Mexico
Mexico
(Spanish: Valle de México; Nahuatl languages: Tepētzallāntli Mēxihco) is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with present-day Mexico
Mexico
City and the eastern half of the State of Mexico. Surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, the Valley of Mexico
Mexico
was a centre for several pre-Columbian civilizations, including Teotihuacan, the Toltec, and the Aztec. The ancient Aztec term Anahuac (Land Between the Waters) and the phrase Basin of Mexico are both used at times to refer to the Valley of Mexico
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