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Tolerance Interval A tolerance interval is a statistical interval within which, with some confidence level, a specified proportion of a sampled population falls. "More specifically, a 100×p%/100×(1−α) tolerance interval provides limits within which at least a certain proportion (p) of the population falls with a given level of confidence (1−α)."[1] "A (p, 1−α) tolerance interval (TI) based on a sample is constructed so that it would include at least a proportion p of the sampled population with confidence 1−α; such a TI is usually referred to as pcontent − (1−α) coverage TI."[2] "A (p, 1−α) upper tolerance limit (TL) is simply an 1−α upper confidence limit for the 100 p percentile of the population."[2] A tolerance interval can be seen as a statistical version of a probability interval [...More...]  "Tolerance Interval" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Lognormal Distribution In probability theory, a lognormal (or lognormal) distribution is a continuous probability distribution of a random variable whose logarithm is normally distributed. Thus, if the random variable X is lognormally distributed, then Y = ln(X) has a normal distribution. Likewise, if Y has a normal distribution, then the exponential function of Y, X = exp(Y), has a lognormal distribution. A random variable which is lognormally distributed takes only positive real values. The distribution is occasionally referred to as the Galton distribution or Galton's distribution, after Francis Galton.[1] The lognormal distribution also has been associated with other names, such as McAlister, Gibrat and Cobb–Douglas.[1] A lognormal process is the statistical realization of the multiplicative product of many independent random variables, each of which is positive. This is justified by considering the central limit theorem in the log domain [...More...]  "Lognormal Distribution" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Sample Mean The sample mean or empirical mean and the sample covariance are statistics computed from a collection (the sample) of data on one or more random variables. The sample mean and sample covariance are estimators of the population mean and population covariance, where the term population refers to the set from which the sample was taken. The sample mean is a vector each of whose elements is the sample mean of one of the random variables – that is, each of whose elements is the arithmetic average of the observed values of one of the variables. The sample covariance matrix is a square matrix whose i, j element is the sample covariance (an estimate of the population covariance) between the sets of observed values of two of the variables and whose i, i element is the sample variance of the observed values of one of the variables [...More...]  "Sample Mean" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

International Standard Book Number "ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book Book NumberA 13digit ISBN, 9783161484100, as represented by an EAN13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 9783161484100Website www.isbninternational.orgThe International Standard Book Book Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007 [...More...]  "International Standard Book Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Fuel Economy In Automobiles The fuel economy of an automobile is the relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle. Consumption can be expressed in terms of volume of fuel to travel a distance, or the distance travelled per unit volume of fuel consumed. Since fuel consumption of vehicles is a significant factor in air pollution, and since importation of motor fuel can be a large part of a nation's foreign trade, many countries impose requirements for fuel economy. Different methods are used to approximate the actual performance of the vehicle. The energy in fuel is required to overcome various losses (wind resistance, tire drag, and others) encountered while propelling the vehicle, and in providing power to vehicle systems such as ignition or air conditioning [...More...]  "Fuel Economy In Automobiles" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

United States Environmental Protection Agency The United States United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes U.S. EPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.[2] President Richard Nixon Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the President and approved by Congress. The current Administrator is Scott Pruitt [...More...]  "United States Environmental Protection Agency" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Special Special Special or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special Special (album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special [...More...]  "Special" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

JSTOR JSTOR JSTOR (/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAYstor;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides fulltext searches of almost 2,000 journals.[5] As of 2013, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in 2014.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz Aaron Swartz incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G [...More...]  "JSTOR" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

International Standard Serial Number An International Standard Serial Number International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eightdigit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.[1] The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature.[2] The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media [...More...]  "International Standard Serial Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Digital Object Identifier In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents [...More...]  "Digital Object Identifier" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Count Data In statistics, count data is a statistical data type, a type of data in which the observations can take only the nonnegative integer values 0, 1, 2, 3, ... , and where these integers arise from counting rather than ranking [...More...]  "Count Data" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Noncentral Chisquared Distribution k > 0 displaystyle k>0, degrees of freedom λ > 0 displaystyle lambda >0, noncentrality parameterSupport x ∈ [ 0 ; + ∞ ) displaystyle xin [0;+infty ), PDF 1 2 e − ( x + λ ) / 2 ( x λ ) k / 4 − 1 / 2 I k / 2 − 1 ( λ x )< [...More...]  "Noncentral Chisquared Distribution" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Normal Distribution In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or LaplaceGauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution. Normal distributions are important in statistics and are often used in the natural and social sciences to represent realvalued random variables whose distributions are not known.[1][2] A random variable with a Gaussian distribution Gaussian distribution is said to be normally distributed and is called a normal deviate. The normal distribution is useful because of the central limit theorem. In its most general form, under some conditions (which include finite variance), it states that averages of samples of observations of random variables independently drawn from independent distributions converge in distribution to the normal, that is, become normally distributed when the number of observations is sufficiently large [...More...]  "Normal Distribution" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Range (statistics) In statistics, the range of a set of data is the difference between the largest and smallest values.[1] However, in descriptive statistics, this concept of range has a more complex meaning. The range is the size of the smallest interval which contains all the data and provides an indication of statistical dispersion. It is measured in the same units as the data [...More...]  "Range (statistics)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Coefficient Of Variation In probability theory and statistics, the coefficient of variation (CV), also known as relative standard deviation (RSD), is a standardized measure of dispersion of a probability distribution or frequency distribution. It is often expressed as a percentage, and is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation σ displaystyle sigma to the mean μ displaystyle mu (or its absolute value, μ displaystyle mu ). The CV or RSD is widely used in analytical chemistry to express the precision and repeatability of an assay [...More...]  "Coefficient Of Variation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Statistical Dispersion In statistics, dispersion (also called variability, scatter, or spread) is the extent to which a distribution is stretched or squeezed.[1] Common examples of measures of statistical dispersion are the variance, standard deviation, and interquartile range. Dispersion is contrasted with location or central tendency, and together they are the most used properties of distributions.Contents1 Measures 2 Sources 3 A partial ordering of dispersion 4 See also 5 ReferencesMeasures[edit] A measure of statistical dispersion is a nonnegative real number that is zero if all the data are the same and increases as the data become more diverse. Most measures of dispersion have the same units as the quantity being measured. In other words, if the measurements are in metres or seconds, so is the measure of dispersion [...More...]  "Statistical Dispersion" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 