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To Be
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated cop) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin
Latin
noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.[1] A copula is often a verb or a verb-like word, though this is not universally the case.[2] A verb that is a copula is sometimes called a copulative or copular verb. In English primary education grammar courses, a copula is often called a linking verb. In other languages, copulas show more resemblances to pronouns, as in Classical Chinese and Guarani, or may take the form of suffixes attached to a noun, as in Beja and Inuit languages. Most languages have one main copula, although some (such as Spanish, Portuguese and Thai) have more than one, and some have none. In the case of English, this is the verb to be
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Linguistics
Linguistics
Linguistics
is the scientific[1] study of language,[2] and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.[3] The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini,[4][5] who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.[6] Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.[7] Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties
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Agreement (linguistics)
Agreement or concord (abbreviated agr) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.[2] It is an instance of inflection, and usually involves making the value of some grammatical category (such as gender or person) "agree" between varied words or parts of the sentence. For example, in Standard English, one may say I am or he is, but not "I is" or "he am". This is because the grammar of the language requires that the verb and its subject agree in person. The pronouns I and he are first and third person respectively, as are the verb forms am and is
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Subject-verb-object
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–obj (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third. Languages may be classified according to the dominant sequence of these elements in unmarked sentences (i.e. sentences in which an unusual word order is not used for emphasis). The label is often used for ergative languages which do not have subjects, but have an agent–verb–object order. SVO is used in the active voice. SVO is the second-most common order by number of known languages, after SOV
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Subject–auxiliary Inversion
Subject–auxiliary inversion (also called subject–operator inversion) is a frequently occurring type of inversion in English, whereby a finite auxiliary verb – taken here to include finite forms of the copula be – appears to "invert" (change places) with the subject.[1] The word order is therefore Aux-S (auxiliary–subject), which is the opposite of the canonical SV (subject–verb) order of declarative clauses in English
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Inverse Copular Constructions
In linguistics, inverse copular constructions, named after Moro (1997), are a type of inversion in English where canonical SCP word order (subject-copula-predicative expression, e.g. Fred is the plumber) is reversed in a sense, so that one appears to have the order PCS instead (predicative expression-copula-subject, e.g. The plumber is Fred). The verb in these constructions is always the copula be (am, are, is, was, were). Inverse copular constructions are intriguing because they render the distinction between subject and predicative expression difficult to maintain
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Null-subject Language
In linguistic typology, a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject; such a clause is then said to have a null subject. Typically, null-subject languages express person, number, and/or gender agreement with the referent on the verb, rendering a subject noun phrase redundant. In the principles and parameters framework, the null subject is controlled by the pro-drop parameter, which is either on or off for a particular language. For example, in Italian the subject "she" can be either explicit or implicit:Maria non vuole mangiare. lit. Maria not wants [to-]eat, "Maria does not want to eat". Non vuole mangiare. lit
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Non-finite Clause
In linguistics, a non-finite clause is a dependent or embedded clause whose verbal chain is non-finite;[1] for example, using Priscian's categories for Latin verb forms, in many languages we find texts with non-finite clauses containing infinitives, participles and gerunds. According to non-functionalists, a non-finite clause serves a grammatical role – commonly that of a noun, adjective, or adverb – in a greater clause that contains it.[2] According to functionalists, a dependent non-finite clause either represents a circumstance for some process that is going on (a place, a time, a cause, an effect, a condition, and so on) whereas an embedded one represents a qualification for something that is being represented as in I'm on a street (called Bellevue Avenue) and (playing videogames) is fun, which are more typical alternatives to I'm on a street (that is called Bellevue Avenue) and the activity of (playing videogames) is fun.[3]Contents1 Structure 2 Use 3 Different t
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Participial Phrase
A participle (glossing abbreviation PTCP) is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.[1] It is one of the types of nonfinite verb forms. Its name comes from the Latin
Latin
participium,[2] a calque of Greek metochḗ "partaking" or "sharing";[3] it is so named because the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Latin participles "share" some of the categories of the adjective or noun (gender, number, case) and some of those of the verb (tense and voice). Like other parts of the verb, participles can be either active (e.g. breaking) or passive (e.g. broken). Participles are also often associated with certain verbal aspects or tenses
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Infinitive Phrase
Infinitive (abbreviated INF) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs. As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition applicable to all languages. The word is derived from Late Latin
Late Latin
[modus] infinitivus, a derivative of infinitus meaning "unlimited". In traditional descriptions of English, the infinitive is the basic dictionary form of a verb when used non-finitely, with or without the particle to. Thus to go is an infinitive, as is go in a sentence like "I must go there" (but not in "I go there", where it is a finite verb)
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Ellipsis (grammar)
In linguistics, ellipsis (from the Greek: ἔλλειψις, élleipsis, "omission") or elliptical construction refers to the omission, from a clause, of one or more words that are nevertheless understood in the context of the remaining elements. There are numerous distinct types of ellipsis acknowledged in theoretical syntax. This article provides an overview of them
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Verb Phrase Ellipsis
In linguistics, verb phrase ellipsis (VP-ellipsis or VPE) is an elliptical construction in which a non-finite verb phrase has been left out (elided), e.g. She will sell sea shells, and he will sell sea shells too. VP-ellipsis is a well-studied kind of ellipsis,[1] particularly with regard to its occurrence in English,[2] although certain types can be found in other languages as well.[3]Contents1 Features of verb phrase ellipsis in English 2 The direction of ellipsis 3 Antecedent-contained ellipsis 4 Argument contained ellipsis 5 See also 6 Notes 7 ReferencesFeatures of verb phrase ellipsis in English[edit] In the types of VP-ellipsis considered here, which are features of English grammar, the elided VP must be a non-finite VP; it cannot be a finite VP
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Referent
A referent (/ˈrɛfərənt/) is a person or thing to which a name – a linguistic expression or other symbol – refers. For example, in the sentence Mary saw me, the referent of the word Mary is the particular person called Mary who is being spoken of, while the referent of the word me is the person uttering the sentence. Two expressions which have the same referent are said to be co-referential
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Adjective
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated adj) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.[1] Adjectives are one of the English parts of speech, although historically they were classed together with the nouns.[2] Certain words that were traditionally considered to be adjectives, including the, this, my, etc., are today usually classed separately, as determiners.Contents1 Etymology 2 Types of use 3 Distribution 4 Adverbs 5 Determiners 6 Adjective phrases 7 Other modifiers of nouns 8 Order 9 Comparison 10 Restrictiveness 11 Agreement 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External linksEtymology[edit] See also:
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Subset
In mathematics, especially in set theory, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion or sometimes containment
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Mixtec Language
The Mixtec
Mixtec
/ˈmiːstɛk/, /ˈmiːʃtɛk/[3] languages belong to the Otomanguean
Otomanguean
language family of Mexico, and are closely related to the Trique and Cuicatec languages. They are spoken by over half a million people.[4] Identifying how many Mixtec
Mixtec
languages there are in this complex dialect continuum poses challenges at the level of linguistic theory
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