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Tiurakh
TIURAKH (variations : Théourakh, Thiorak or Tulrakh) is one of the demi-gods of the Serer people of Senegal
Senegal
, the Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania
Mauritania
. In the Serer religion , Tiurakh
Tiurakh
is regarded as the god of wealth or property . Like his adversary Takhar
Takhar
(the god of justice), they are both venerated and worshipped at the foot of the tallest trees in Serer country . CONTENTS* 1 Worship * 1.1 Place of worship * 2 Views of Serer religion * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography WORSHIP See also: Serer ancient history Tiurakh
Tiurakh
is worshipped by the Serer people for materialistic reasons i.e. to acquire and/or retain their wealth such as land , jewellery (usually gold and silver , see Serer ancient history ). He is also associated with success and may be evoked if one is starting a new project, for example : going through the Ndut rite , business start up , building a new home, undertaking an examination, cattle or agricultural farming, or venturing into a new contract, etc. PLACE OF WORSHIP Further information: Serer creation myth Like some Serer Pangool , it is believed that the deity Tiurakh resides in the forest , particularly the tallest trees of the forest in certain sacred places
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Serer People
Senegal (1.84 million), Gambia (31,900), Mauritania and expats. LANGUAGES Serer proper , Cangin languages , Wolof French ( Senegal and Mauritania), English (Gambia), RELIGION Senegal 2002: 90% Islam , 9% Christianity and Serer religion (ƭat Roog) RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Wolof people , Toucouleur people and Lebou people The SERER PEOPLE are a West African ethnoreligious group . They are the third largest ethnic group in Senegal making up 15% of the Senegalese population. They are also found in northern Gambia and southern Mauritania. The Serer people originated in the Senegal River valley at the border of Senegal and Mauritania, moved south in the 11th and 12th century, then again in the 15th and 16th centuries as their villages were invaded and they were subjected to religious pressures. They have had a sedentary settled culture and have been known for their farming expertise. The Serer people have been historically noted as a matrilineal ethnic group that long resisted the expansion of Islam, fought against jihads in the 19th century, then opposed the French colonial rule
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Serer Religion
The SERER RELIGION, or _A ƭAT ROOG_ ("the way of the Divine"), is the original religious beliefs, practices, and teachings of the Serer people of Senegal in western Africa . The Serer people believe in a universal supreme deity called Roog (or _Rog_). In the Cangin languages , Roog is referred to as _Koox_ (var : _Kooh_ ), Kopé Tiatie Cac , Kokh Kox , etc. The Serer people are found throughout the Senegambia region . Serer religious practices encompass ancient chants and poems, veneration of and offerings to deities as well as spirits (pangool ), astronomy , Initiation rites, medicine , cosmology and the history of the Serer people
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Roog
ROOG or ROG (KOOX in the Cangin languages ) is the Supreme God and Creator of the Serer religion of the Senegambia
Senegambia
region. CONTENTS * 1 Names and titles * 2 Beliefs * 2.1 Gender * 3 Further reading * 4 References * 5 Bibliography NAMES AND TITLESIn Serer , roog means sky or the heavens . Roog
Roog
is sometimes referred to as Roog
Roog
Sene (Rog Seen, Rog Sene, Rooh Seen, etc.) which means Roog
Roog
the Immensity, or by extension, the merciful god. Other titles which are used outside of prayers include Roog
Roog
Dangandeer Seen (" Roog
Roog
the omnipresent ", by extension it can also mean "the Omnipresent God"), Roog
Roog
o Caaci’in Seen ( Roog
Roog
our ancestor), Roog
Roog
o maak Seen ( Roog
Roog
is great), Roog
Roog
a yaal'in Seen ( Roog
Roog
our Lord), Roog
Roog
o Ndimaan Seen (Roog! The giver of the fruit ), and "The Master of the World". The name Roog
Roog
is probably a corruption of the deity Koox
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Kopé Tiatie Cac
KOPé TIATIE CAC (also KOH and KOOPE; in Ndut language , meaning god grandfather or god the grandfather) is the Supreme Creator in the Serer religion . Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
is the name used by the Ndut people to refer to the Supreme being . Among the Ndut and followers of Serer religion, Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
is associated with death and plague (pisti). CONTENTS * 1 Ndut Cosmogony
Cosmogony
* 2 Worship * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 Further reading NDUT COSMOGONY Main article: Serer creation myth The Ndut people who adhere to the tenets of Serer religion refer to the supreme god as Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
in Cangin -Ndut. The name Kopé Tiatie Cac probably derived from the god Koox
Koox
(var : Kooh). Ndut cosmogony posits that, the first humans did not die. The human species were not meant to die following the initial creation . The dog was the first to die at that primordial time. Having witnessed the death of the animal, the Ndut people gave the animal a sacred burial at the foot of a baobab tree, and mourned its death. The women crying and wailing in sadness for the departed dog, attracted the attention of Kopé Tiatie Cac
Kopé Tiatie Cac
(or Koh) God of death
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Kokh Kox
KOKH KOX (or KOH, as pronounced in Noon ) is the creator god of the Noon people . The Noon are members of the Serer ethnic group of Senegal
Senegal
, the Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania
Mauritania
. Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
is one of the main deities in Serer religion . The Noon people refer to the supreme being as Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
rather than Roog
Roog
, the name the majority of Serers refer to the supreme being in the Serer-Sine language . The name Kokh Kox derives from the deity Koox
Koox
, the name the Saafi people regularly use to refer to the divine. CONTENTS * 1 Noon Cosmogony
Cosmogony
* 2 Worship * 3 References * 4 Bibliography NOON COSMOGONY Main article: Serer creation myth See also: Cosmogony
Cosmogony
of the Ndut The Noon cosmogony follows a similar narrative to the Ndut especially in regards to how death began on Earth. In both myths, the dog is believed to have been the first living thing to have died. WORSHIP Main article: Serer religion Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
is worshipped through intermediaries (e.g. the Pangool ). Like all the Serer group who adhere to the tenets of Serer religion , the sacred wood plays a crucial role in the religious affairs of the Noon
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Takhar
TAKHAR or TAAHKARR (in Serer and Cangin ) is a demi-god in the Serer religion worshipped by many Serers (an ethnic group found in Senegal
Senegal
, the Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania
Mauritania
). Takhar
Takhar
is the god of justice and vengeance in Serer religion and worshipped at the foot of certain trees in the forest deemed to be sacred . The Serer priestly class play a crucial role in the evokation of the demi-god and the implementation of its laws that devotees adhere to. CONTENTS* 1 Worship * 1.1 Place of worship * 1.2 Priests of Takhar
Takhar
* 2 Patronage * 3 References * 4 Bibliography WORSHIPThe Serer people worship Takhar
Takhar
in order to appeal to him against the injuries, oppression or evil magic inflicted by other. Takhar
Takhar
is worshipped at the foot of trees, and in the new moon , the atmospheric spirits of the air and night are "conjured with mysterious incarnations ". Offerings to Takhar
Takhar
are deposited at the foot of the tallest trees in the forest. Cattle
Cattle
and poultry are sacrificed and taken to the sacred sanctuary, along with millet , fruits and vegetables
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Animism
ANIMISM (from Latin _anima_, "breath , spirit , life ") is the religious belief that objects, places, and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork, and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism is the oldest known type of belief system in the world that even predates paganism . It is still practiced in a variety of forms in many traditional societies. Animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous tribal peoples , especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organized religions . Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives. The animistic perspective is so widely held and inherent to most animistic indigenous peoples that they often do not even have a word in their languages that corresponds to "animism" (or even "religion"); the term is an anthropological construct . Largely due to such ethnolinguistic and cultural discrepancies, opinion has differed on whether _animism_ refers to an ancestral mode of experience common to indigenous peoples around the world, or to a full-fledged religion in its own right
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Baol
The KINGDOM OF BAOL or BAWOL in central Senegal
Senegal
was one of the kingdoms that arose from the split-up of the Empire of Jolof (Diolof) in 1555. The ruler (Teigne or Teen ) reigned from a capital in Diourbel . The Kingdom encompassed a strip of land extending east from the ocean to the capital city and included the cities of Touba and MBacke. It was directly south of the Kingdom of Cayor
Cayor
and north of the Kingdom of Sine . The first King of Baol
Baol
is Ji the Great. Baol
Baol
was famous for its horses. It has special breeds, which were faster and stronger than most of the horses on the plain. Baol citizens are good riders. Baol
Baol
was ethnically a Wolof kingdom, but it included communities of Serer-Safen and other Serer groups. The social and political systems were basically the same as those of Cayor. In fact, the kingdoms merged from time to time for mutual defense. The French conquest of Baol
Baol
began in 1859. Most of Baol
Baol
was conquered by the French in 1874, however complete control of the former kingdom was not gained by France until 1895. It was one of many campaigns of Governor Louis Faidherbe
Louis Faidherbe
who oversaw the conquest of Cayor
Cayor
in 1886
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Cekeen Tumulus
The TUMULI OF CEKEEN are located in the Diourbel Department of the Diourbel Region . The Diourbel Region and the city of Diourbel were part of the precolonial Kingdom of Baol , now part of present-day Senegal
Senegal
. CONTENTS * 1 Purpose * 2 World Heritage
World Heritage
Status * 3 See also * 4 References PURPOSEIn this area, a tumulus was used as a burial mound for chiefs. A deceased chief would be joined by other members of his court along with important objects such as furniture and other implements. In this case, he and his escort would be situated in the chief's hut, whereupon the hut was buried with soil and rocks. Thousands of such tumuli exist in Senegal, but it is in Cekeen that the biggest and most densely scattered occur. WORLD HERITAGE STATUSThis site was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage
World Heritage
Tentative List on November 18, 2005 in the Cultural category
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Fandène
FANDèNE (Serer : FANđAN, or FANDANE or MBEL FANDANE) is a small village in Senegal
Senegal
about 7 km from Thiès . It is inhabited by the Serer people . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Population * 3 Geography * 4 Activities * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links HISTORY Fandène
Fandène
or Fandane was one of the villages of the precolonial Serer Kingdom of Sine . On 18 July 1867 at the Battle of Fandane- Thiouthioune (commonly known as the Battle of Somb), a war took place there at the stream of Fandane between the Serer people (followers of Serer religion ) led by their King Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof and his army and the Muslim
Muslim
Marabouts of Senegambia
Senegambia
led by Maba Diakhou Bâ and his army. The Serer forces defeated the Muslim
Muslim
Marabouts when they tried to launch a jihad and conquer Sine. Maba Diakhou Bâ was killed in that battle. POPULATIONAbout 5000 inhabitants GEOGRAPHYThe closest localities are Thies
Thies
, Lalane, Somb
Somb
, Mont-rolland, Peykouk, Keur Dembaand Keur Diour, Thiouthioune . ACTIVITIESA traditional market is held there every Wednesday
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Fatick
FATICK is a town in Senegal
Senegal
, located between M\'bour and Kaolack
Kaolack
and inhabited by the Serer people . Its 2005 population was estimated at 24,243. It is the capital of the Fatick Region
Fatick Region
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Administration * 3 Geography * 4 Climate * 5 Population * 6 Economy * 7 Notable people from Fatick
Fatick
* 8 References HISTORY Main articles: Serer ancient history and Serer religion The city has several ancient sites classified as historical monuments and added to the World heritage
World heritage
list. There is also the site of Mind Ngo Mindiss where libations and offerings are made, located in the Sine River . These holy sites including Ndiobaye where traditional ceremonies takes place; Ndeb Jab, which houses a sacred tree at Ndiaye-Ndiaye etc., are all sacred places in Serer religion . The Xoy ceremony (or Khoy) performed by the Serer high priests and priestesses (the Saltigues ) takes place at Fatick
Fatick
once a year. ADMINISTRATIONIt is the capital of the Fatick Region
Fatick Region
and the Fatick Department . GEOGRAPHYThe nearest towns are Nerane, Pourham, Mbirk Pourham and Tok. Dakar
Dakar
, the capital of Senegal
Senegal
is located 155 km away
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Saloum
The KINGDOM OF SALOUM ( Serer language : _Saluum_ or _Saalum_) was a Serer /Wolof kingdom in present-day Senegal . Its kings may have been of Mandinka / Kaabu origin. The capital of Saloum was the city of Kahone . It was a sister kingdom of Sine . Their history, geography and culture were intricately linked and it was common to refer to them as the Sine-Saloum . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 People and language * 3 Commerce and geography * 4 Notes * 5 References HISTORY _ Apartment of the Maad Saloum (king of Saloum) in 1821. Carte des peuplades du Sénégal de l'abbé Boilat (1853)_: an ethnic map of Senegal at the time of French colonialism. The pre-colonial states of Baol, Sine and Saloum are arrayed along the southwest coast, with the inland areas marked "_Peuple Sérère_". Further information: Serer ancient history , Serer history (medieval era to present) , and Timeline of Serer history Saloum, just like its sister kingdom (the Kingdom of Sine ), is known for its many ancient burial mounds or "tumuli " containing the graves of kings and others. The kingdom has numerous mysterious stone circles whose functions and history were unknown until recently. Historian Donald R
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Senegambian Stone Circles
The SENEGAMBIAN STONE CIRCLES lie in The Gambia
Gambia
north of Janjanbureh and in central Senegal
Senegal
. Approximate area: 30,000 km². They are sometimes divided into the Wassu (Gambian) and Sine-Saloum (Senegalese) circles, but this is purely a national division. CONTENTS* 1 Location * 1.1 Wassu * 1.2 Kerbatch * 1.3 Wanar * 2 Sine Ngayene * 3 Locations * 4 Additional stone circles in Senegambia * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links * 8 References LOCATIONThe stone circles and other megaliths found in Senegal
Senegal
and Gambia
Gambia
are sometimes divided into four large sites: Sine Ngayene and Wanar in Senegal, and Wassu and Kerbatch in the Central River Region in Gambia. Researchers are not certain when these monuments were built, but the generally accepted range is between the third century B.C. and the sixteenth century AD. Archaeologists have also found pottery sherds, human burials, and some grave goods and metals around the megalithic circles. A small collection of these can be found in the British Museum 's study collection that was donated by the colonial administrator Sir Richmond Palmer . They include an iron bracelet and two spears. Among these four main areas, there are approximately 29,000 stones, 17,000 monuments, and 2,000 individual sites
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Kingdom Of Sine
KINGDOM commonly refers to: * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by a king or queen regnant * Kingdom (biology) , a category in biological taxonomy * Kingdom of God , a foundational concept in the three Abrahamic religionsKINGDOM may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Popular culture * 2.1 Music * 3 Other * 4 See also PEOPLE * Kingdom (director) (born 1975), Japanese adult video director * Park Yong-Wook
Park Yong-Wook
, also known as "Kingdom", a professional Korean StarCraft player * Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
(1806–1859), English engineerPOPULAR CULTURE * _Kingdoms_ (board game) , a board game by Reiner Knizia * _Kingdom_ (comics) , a comic series by Dan Abnett and Richard Elson published in the weekly _2000 AD_ * _Kingdom_ (manga) , a 2006 Japanese manga * _Kingdom_ (UK TV series) , a 2007 British television drama starring Stephen Fry * _Kingdom_ (U.S
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Somb
SOMB (in Serer , also Som or Sombe) is a town in Senegal
Senegal
situated in the west of the country. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Administration * 3 Geography * 4 Famous people born in Somb
Somb
* 5 Notes * 6 External links HISTORY Somb
Somb
figure prominently in Serer religious affairs for a long part of its history. It takes its name from the Somb
Somb
tree (Latin : prosopis africana a species of prosopis ) the symbol of immortality in the Serer creation myth . The Somb
Somb
tree was used for burial purposes. The wood is very strong and resistant to rot. It is the wood found in many of the Serer tumuli which are still intact after a thousand years. The Battle of Fandane-