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Titin
4UOW, 1BPV, 1G1C, 1NCT, 1NCU, 1TIT, 1TIU, 1TKI, 1TNM, 1TNN, 1WAA, 1YA5, 2A38, 2BK8, 2F8V, 2ILL, 2J8H, 2J8O, 2NZI, 2RQ8, 2WP3, 2WWK, 2WWM, 2Y9R, 3KNB, 3LCY, 3LPW, 3PUC, 3Q5O, 3QP3, 4C4K, 4JNW, 4O00, 4QEG, 5BS0 IDENTIFIERS ALIASES TTN, CMD1G, CMH9, CMPD4, EOMFC, HMERF, LGMD2J, MYLK5, TMD, titin, SALMY EXTERNAL IDS MGI: 98864 HomoloGene: 130650 GeneCards: TTN GENE ONTOLOGY MOLECULAR FUNCTION • transferase activity • nucleotide binding • calcium ion binding • protein kinase activity • actinin binding • muscle alpha-actinin binding • structural molecule activity conferring elasticity • metal ion binding • telethonin binding • protease binding • protein self-association • actin filament binding • protein serine/threonine kinase activity • kinase activity • protein binding • identical protein binding • enzyme binding • protein tyrosine kinase activity • structural constituent of muscle •
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Mammalian
MAMMALS are any vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪli.ə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the biggest animals on the planet, the great whales . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Amino Acid
AMINO ACIDS are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups , along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon , hydrogen , oxygen , and nitrogen , although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids. About 500 amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code ) and can be classified in many ways. They can be classified according to the core structural functional groups' locations as alpha- (α-), beta- (β-), gamma- (γ-) or delta- (δ-) amino acids; other categories relate to polarity , pH level, and side chain group type (aliphatic , acyclic , aromatic , containing hydroxyl or sulfur , etc.). In the form of proteins , amino acid residues form the second-largest component (water is the largest) of human muscles and other tissues
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Alternative Splicing
ALTERNATIVE SPLICING, or DIFFERENTIAL SPLICING, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins . In this process, particular exons of a gene may be included within or excluded from the final, processed messenger RNA (mRNA) produced from that gene. Consequently, the proteins translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in their amino acid sequence and, often, in their biological functions (see Figure). Notably, alternative splicing allows the human genome to direct the synthesis of many more proteins than would be expected from its 20,000 protein-coding genes. Alternative splicing
Alternative splicing
occurs as a normal phenomenon in eukaryotes , where it greatly increases the biodiversity of proteins that can be encoded by the genome; in humans, ~95% of multi-exonic genes are alternatively spliced
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Reticulocyte
RETICULOCYTES are immature red blood cells , typically composing about 1% of the red blood cells in the human body. In the process of erythropoiesis (red blood cell formation), reticulocytes develop and mature in the bone marrow and then circulate for about a day in the blood stream before developing into mature red blood cells. Like mature red blood cells, in mammals reticulocytes do not have a cell nucleus . They are called reticulocytes because of a reticular (mesh-like) network of ribosomal RNA
RNA
that becomes visible under a microscope with certain stains such as new methylene blue and Romanowsky stain
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Chromosome
A CHROMOSOME (from ancient Greek : χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means color, soma means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome ) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins , bind to and condense the DNA
DNA
molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle. Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division . Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once ( S phase ), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere , resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured to the right) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends. The original chromosome and the copy are now called sister chromatids
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Peptide
PEPTIDES (from Gr. : πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are natural biological or artificially manufactured short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide ) bonds. The covalent chemical bonds are formed when the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amine group of another. The shortest peptides are dipeptides , consisting of 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond, followed by tripeptides , tetrapeptides , etc. A POLYPEPTIDE is a long, continuous, and unbranched peptide chain. Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of biological oligomers and polymers , alongside nucleic acids , oligosaccharides and polysaccharides , etc. Peptides are distinguished from proteins on the basis of size, and as an arbitrary benchmark can be understood to contain approximately 50 or fewer amino acids
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Denaturation (biochemistry)
Note 1: Modified from the definition given in ref. Note 2: Denaturation can occur when proteins and nucleic acids are subjected to elevated temperature or to extremes of pH, or to nonphysiological concentrations of salt, organic solvents, urea, or other chemical agents. Note 3: An enzyme loses its catalytic activity when it is denaturized. DENATURATION is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure , tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state , by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base , a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform ), radiation or heat . If proteins in a living cell are denatured, this results in disruption of cell activity and possibly cell death. Protein
Protein
denaturation is also a consequence of cell death
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Protein Folding
PROTEIN FOLDING is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner. It is the physical process by which a polypeptide folds into its characteristic and functional three-dimensional structure from random coil . Each protein exists as an unfolded polypeptide or random coil when translated from a sequence of m RNA
RNA
to a linear chain of amino acids . This polypeptide lacks any stable (long-lasting) three-dimensional structure (the left hand side of the first figure). As the polypeptide chain is being synthesized by the ribosome, the linear chain begins to fold into its three dimensional structure. Folding begins to occur even during translation of the polypeptide chain
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Exon
An EXON is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA
RNA
produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA
RNA
splicing . The term exon refers to both the DNA sequence within a gene and to the corresponding sequence in RNA
RNA
transcripts. In RNA splicing, introns are removed and exons are covalently joined to one another as part of generating the mature messenger RNA
RNA
. Just as the entire set of genes for a species constitutes the genome , the entire set of exons constitutes the exome
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Gel Electrophoresis
GEL ELECTROPHORESIS is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules ( DNA
DNA
, RNA
RNA
and proteins ) and their fragments, based on their size and charge. It is used in clinical chemistry to separate proteins by charge and/or size (IEF agarose, essentially size independent) and in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate a mixed population of DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
fragments by length, to estimate the size of DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
fragments or to separate proteins by charge. Nucleic acid
Nucleic acid
molecules are separated by applying an electric field to move the negatively charged molecules through a matrix of agarose or other substances. Shorter molecules move faster and migrate farther than longer ones because shorter molecules migrate more easily through the pores of the gel. This phenomenon is called sieving
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Isoelectric Point
The ISOELECTRIC POINT (PI, PH(I), IEP), is the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge in the statistical mean . The standard nomenclature to represent the isoelectric point is pH(I), although pI is also commonly seen, and is used in this article for brevity. The net charge on the molecule is affected by pH of its surrounding environment and can become more positively or negatively charged due to the gain or loss, respectively, of protons (H+). Surfaces naturally charge to form a double layer . In the common case when the surface charge-determining ions are H+/OH−, the net surface charge is affected by the pH of the liquid in which the solid is submerged. The pI value can affect the solubility of a molecule at a given pH. Such molecules have minimum solubility in water or salt solutions at the pH that corresponds to their PI and often precipitate out of solution
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Chemical Formula
A CHEMICAL FORMULA is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name , and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula . Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances , and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas , which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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Instability Index
The INSTABILITY INDEX is a measure of proteins , used to determine whether it will be stable in a test tube . If the index is less than 40, then it is probably stable in the test tube. If it is greater (for example, enaptin ) then it is probably not stable. REFERENCES * Guruprasad K, Reddy BV, Pandit MW (1990). "Correlation between stability of a protein and its dipeptide composition: a novel approach for predicting in vivo stability of a protein from its primary sequence". Protein
Protein
Eng. 4 (2): 155–61. doi :10.1093/protein/4.2.155 . PMID 2075190
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Half-life
HALF-LIFE (symbol T1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics to describe how quickly unstable atoms undergo, or how long stable atoms survive, radioactive decay . The term is also used more generally to characterize any type of exponential or non-exponential decay. For example, the medical sciences refer to the biological half-life of drugs and other chemicals in the human body. The converse of half-life is doubling time . The original term, half-life period, dating to Ernest Rutherford 's discovery of the principle in 1907, was shortened to half-life in the early 1950s. Rutherford applied the principle of a radioactive element\'s half-life to studies of age determination of rocks by measuring the decay period of radium to lead-206
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Molecular Weight
MOLECULAR MASS or MOLECULAR WEIGHT is the mass of a molecule . It is calculated as the sum of the atomic weights of each constituent element multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in the molecular formula . The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, determines stoichiometry . For large molecules such as proteins , methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic data are not available. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 Determination * 2.1 Mass spectrometry * 2.2 Hydrodynamic methods * 2.3 Static light scattering * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DEFINITIONSBoth atomic and molecular masses are usually obtained relative to the mass of the isotope 12C (carbon 12), which by definition is equal to 12
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