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Titanium Isopropoxide
TITANIUM ISOPROPOXIDE, also commonly referred to as titanium tetraisopropoxide or TTIP, is a chemical compound with the formula Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4. This alkoxide of titanium(IV) is used in organic synthesis and materials science . It is a diamagnetic tetrahedral molecule. The structures of the titanium alkoxides are often complex. Crystalline titanium methoxide is tetrameric with the molecular formula Ti4(OCH3)16. Alkoxides derived from bulkier alcohols such as isopropanol aggregate less. Titanium
Titanium
isopropoxide is mainly a monomer in nonpolar solvents
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Transatlantic Trade And Investment Partnership
The TRANSATLANTIC TRADE AND INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIP (TTIP) is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union
European Union
and the United States , with the aim of promoting trade and multilateral economic growth. TTIP is considered a companion agreement to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) . As of January 2017 , the agreement is under ongoing negotiations. According to Karel de Gucht , European Commissioner for Trade between 2010 and 2014, the TTIP is the largest bilateral trade initiative ever negotiated, not only because it involves the two largest economies in the world but also "because of its potential global reach in setting an example for future partners and agreements". Its main three broad areas are market access, specific regulation, and broader rules and principles and modes of co-operation
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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the _Blue Book _ and the _Red Book _, respectively. A third publication, known as the _Green Book _, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the _Gold Book _, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry (the _White Book_, in association with the IUBMB ), analytical chemistry (the _Orange Book _), macromolecular chemistry (the _Purple Book_) and clinical chemistry (the _Silver Book_)
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including those described from at least 1957 through the present), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily. CONTENTS * 1 Use * 2 Format * 3 Granularity * 4 Search engines * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links USE _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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JSmol
JMOL is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions . Jmol returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool, or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry . It is written in the programming language Java , so it can run on the operating systems Windows , macOS , Linux , and Unix , if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna . A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways. For example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models , space-filling models , ribbon diagrams , etc
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ECHA InfoCard
The EUROPEAN CHEMICALS AGENCY (ECHA; /ˈɛkə/ _EK-ə_ ) is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern. It is located in Helsinki
Helsinki
, Finland . The Agency, headed by Executive Director Geert Dancet , started working on 1 June 2007
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PubChem
PUBCHEM is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine , which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface . Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be freely downloaded via FTP. PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds. More than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database. CONTENTS * 1 Databases * 2 Searching * 3 History * 4 ACS\'s concerns * 5 Database fields * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DATABASES PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL IDENTIFIER (INCHI /ˈɪntʃiː/ _IN-chee_ or /ˈɪŋkiː/ _ING-kee_ ) is a textual identifier for chemical substances , designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web. Initially developed by IUPAC and NIST from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary. The continuing development of the standard has been supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit INCHI TRUST, of which IUPAC is a member. The current version is 1.04 and was released in September 2011. Prior to 1.04, the software was freely available under the open source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC- InChI Trust License
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The SIMPLIFIED MOLECULAR-INPUT LINE-ENTRY SYSTEM (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings . SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other 'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN), ROSDAL and SLN
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Chemical Formula
A CHEMICAL FORMULA is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound , using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and _plus_ (+) and _minus_ (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name , and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula . Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances , and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called _empirical formulas _, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical _proportions_ of atoms of each type
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Molar Mass
In chemistry , the MOLAR MASS _M_ is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound ) divided by the amount of substance . The base SI unit
SI unit
for molar mass is kg /mol . However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. As an example, the molar mass of water: _M_(H2O) ≈ 6998180000000000000♠18 g/mol
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Density
The DENSITY, or more precisely, the VOLUMETRIC MASS DENSITY, of a substance is its mass per unit volume . The symbol most often used for density is _ρ_ (the lower case Greek letter rho ), although the Latin letter _D_ can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume: = m V , {displaystyle rho ={frac {m}{V}},} where _ρ_ is the density, _m_ is the mass, and _V_ is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume , although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called specific weight . For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration . Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy , purity and packaging
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Melting Point
The MELTING POINT (or, rarely, LIQUEFACTION POINT) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure . When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the FREEZING POINT or CRYSTALLIZATION POINT. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool , the freezing point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance. When the "characteristic freezing point" of a substance is determined, in fact the actual methodology is almost always "the principle of observing the disappearance rather than the formation of ice", that is, the melting point
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Boiling Point
The BOILING POINT of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure. A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure . A liquid at high pressure has a higher boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. For a given pressure, different liquids boil at different temperatures. For example, water boils at 100 °C (212 °F) at sea level, but at 93.4 °C (200.1 °F) at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) altitude. The NORMAL BOILING POINT (also called the ATMOSPHERIC BOILING POINT or the ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE BOILING POINT) of a liquid is the special case in which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the defined atmospheric pressure at sea level, 1 atmosphere
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Aqueous Solution
An AQUEOUS SOLUTION is a solution in which the solvent is water . It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula . For example, a solution of table salt , or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word _aqueous_ means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry . Substances that are _hydrophobic _ ('water-fearing') often do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are _hydrophilic _ ('water-friendly'