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Timur Kuran
TIMUR KURAN is a Turkish American
Turkish American
economist, Professor
Professor
of Economics and Political Science , and Gorter Family Professor
Professor
in Islamic Studies at Duke University
Duke University
. His work spans economics, political science, history, and legal studies
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Collective Hysteria
In sociology and psychology , MASS HYSTERIA (also known as COLLECTIVE HYSTERIA, GROUP HYSTERIA, or COLLECTIVE OBSESSIONAL BEHAVIOR) is a phenomenon that transmits collective illusions of threats, whether real or imaginary, through a population in society as a result of rumors and fear (memory acknowledgement). In medicine , the term is used to describe the spontaneous manifestation (production of chemicals in the body) of the same or similar hysterical physical symptoms by more than one person. A common type of mass hysteria occurs when a group of people believe they are suffering from a similar disease or ailment, sometimes referred to as mass psychogenic illness or epidemic hysteria
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Caste
CASTE is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy , hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, and customary social interaction and exclusion. Although caste systems exist in various regions, its paradigmatic ethnographic example is the division of Indian society into rigid social groups, with roots in India's ancient history and persisting until today. However, the economic significance of the caste system in India has been declining as a result of urbanization and affirmative action programs. A subject of much scholarship by sociologists and anthropologists, the Indian caste system is sometimes used as an analogical basis for the study of caste-like social divisions existing outside India. The term is also applied to non-human populations like ants and bees
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Eastern Europe
EASTERN EUROPE is the eastern part of the European continent . There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical , geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct ". One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Byzantine
Byzantine
, Eastern Orthodox , and some Ottoman influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War
Cold War
and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Iranian Revolution
Imperial State of Iran
Iran
* Regency Council * Resurgence Party * Imperial Iranian Army * Imperial Guard * SAVAK
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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
MOHAMMAD REZA PAHLAVI (Persian : محمدرضا پهلوی‎, translit. Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi‎, pronounced ; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), known as MOHAMMAD REZA SHAH (Persian : محمدرضا شاه‎, translit. Mohammad Rezā Šāh‎), was the Shah
Shah
of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah
Reza Shah
took the title Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings") on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi
House of Pahlavi
of the Iranian monarchy. Mohammad Reza Shah
Reza Shah
Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Āryāmehr (Light of the Aryans ) and Bozorg Arteshtārān (Head of the Warriors). His dream of the Great Civilization in Iran
Iran
led to a rapid industrial and military expansion as well as economic and social reforms
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Secret Ballot
The SECRET BALLOT is a voting method in which a voter 's choices in an election or a referendum is anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation , blackmailing, and potential vote buying . The system is one means of achieving the goal of political privacy. Secret ballots are used in conjunction with various voting systems . The most basic form of secret ballot utilizes blank pieces of paper, upon which each voter writes his or her choice. Without revealing the votes to anyone, the voter would fold the ballot paper and place it in a sealed box, which is emptied later for counting. An aspect of secret voting is the provision of a voting booth to enable the voter to write on the ballot paper without others being able to see what is being written
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Form Of Government
A GOVERNMENT is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislators , administrators , and arbitrators . Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy . While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth
Earth
, as well as subsidiary organizations. Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy , timocracy , oligarchy , democracy and tyranny
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Islamic Philosophy
In the religion of ISLAM, two words are sometimes translated as PHILOSOPHY -- falsafa (literally "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics and physics); and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a kind of philosophy based on interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
. Islamic philosophy has also been described as the systematic investigation of problems connected with life , the universe , ethics , society , and so on as conducted in the Muslim world
Muslim world
. Early Islamic philosophy began in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE ) and lasted until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE)
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Institute For Advanced Study
The INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey , in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner
Abraham Flexner
, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld . The IAS is perhaps best known as the academic home of Albert Einstein , Hermann Weyl , John von Neumann
John von Neumann
and Kurt Gödel
Kurt Gödel
, after their immigration to the United States. Although it is close to and collaborates with Princeton University
Princeton University
, Rutgers University
Rutgers University
, and other nearby institutions, it is independent and does not charge tuition or fees. Flexner's guiding principle in founding the Institute was the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake
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University Of Chicago
Urban 217 acres (87.8 ha) (Main Campus) 42 acres (17.0 ha) (Warren Woods Ecological Field Station, Warren Woods State Park ) 30 acres (12.1 ha) ( Yerkes Observatory ) COLORS Maroon and White ATHLETICS NCAA Division III – UAA NICKNAME Maroons AFFILIATIONS AAU NAICU URA MASCOT Phoenix WEBSITE www.uchicago.eduTHE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO (U OF C, CHICAGO, or UCHICAGO) is a private research university in Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois
Illinois
established in 1890. It holds top-ten positions in numerous national and international rankings. The university is composed of the College
College
, various graduate programs, and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions and seven professional schools
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Professor
PROFESSOR (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Literally, professor derives from Latin
Latin
as a "person who professes" being usually an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. In much of the world, the unqualified word "professor" is used formally to indicate the highest academic rank, informally known as "full professor". In some countries, the word professor is only used in this sense, whereas in other countries, the word professor is also used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor . Professors conduct original research and commonly teach undergraduate , graduate , or professional courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation
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Ruhollah Khomeini
SAYYID RUHOLLAH MūSAVI KHOMEINI (Persian : سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی‎‎, ( listen ), 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world
Western world
as AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI, was an Iranian Shia Muslim
Muslim
religious leader, philosopher, revolutionary, and politician. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the Pahlavi monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
, the last Shah
Shah
of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini
Khomeini
became the country's Supreme Leader , a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death
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Russian Revolution (1917)
The RUSSIAN REVOLUTION was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
and led to the rise of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
; the older Julian calendar
Julian calendar
was in use in Russia at the time). Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies (called 'soviets ') which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the soviets
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Socialist Federal Republic Of Yugoslavia
The SOCIALIST FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SFR YUGOSLAVIA or SFRY) was the Yugoslav state in southeastern Europe
Europe
that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II