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Time Zone
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Time
Time
zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time
Time
(UTC) by a whole number of hours ( UTC−12
UTC−12
to UTC+14), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (e.g. Newfoundland Standard Time is UTC−03:30, Nepal
Nepal
Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Time
Time
is UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour
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Royal Observatory, Greenwich
The Royal Observatory, Greenwich
Greenwich
(ROG;[1] known as the Old Royal Observatory
Observatory
from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich
Greenwich
to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich
Greenwich
Park, overlooking the River Thames. It played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, and is best known as the location of the prime meridian, and thereby gave its name to Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time. The ROG has the IAU observatory code of 000, the first in the list.[2] ROG, the National Maritime Museum, the Queen's House
Queen's House
and Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
are collectively designated Royal Museums Greenwich.[1] The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August
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Standard Time Act
The Standard Time Act
Standard Time Act
of 1918, also known as the Calder Act, was the first United States
United States
federal law implementing Standard time and Daylight saving time in the United States.[2] It authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission
Interstate Commerce Commission
to define each time zone. The section concerning daylight saving time was repealed by the act titled An Act For the repeal of the daylight-saving law, Pub.L. 66–40, 41 Stat. 280, enacted August 20, 1919, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. Section 264 of the act mistakenly placed most of the state of Idaho (south of Salmon River (Idaho)) in UTC−06:00 CST Central Standard Time, but was amended in 2007 by Congress to UTC−07:00 MST Mountain Standard Time.[3] MST was observed prior to the correction. References[edit]^ The Uniform Time Act
Uniform Time Act
of 1966. Pub.L
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Great Western Railway
The Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway
(GWR) was a British railway company that linked London
London
with the south-west and west of England, the Midlands, and most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament on 31 August 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838. It was engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who chose a broad gauge of 7 ft (2,134 mm)—later slightly widened to 7 ft 1⁄4 in (2,140 mm)—but, from 1854, a series of amalgamations saw it also operate 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard-gauge trains; the last broad-gauge services were operated in 1892
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United States Congress
535 voting members100 senators 435 representatives6 non-voting membersSenate political groups     Republican (51)      Democratic (47)      Independent (2) (caucusing with Democrats)House of Representatives political groups     Republican (238)      Democratic (193)      Vacant (4)ElectionsSenate last electionNovember 8, 2016House of Representatives last electionNovember 8, 2016Meeting place United States
United States
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Temperate
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth
Earth
occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions.[1] These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small. In the Koppen climate classification, a climate is termed "temperate" when the coldest month has a mean temperature above -3 C (26.6 F) but below 18 C (64.4 F)
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History Of Rail Transport In Great Britain
The railway system of Great Britain, the principal territory of the United Kingdom, is the oldest in the world. It was started with the building of local isolated wooden wagonways starting in 1560s. The system was later built as a patchwork of local rail links operated by small private railway companies in late 18th century. These isolated links developed during the railway boom of the 1840s into a national network, although still run by dozens of competing companies. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries, these amalgamated or were bought by competitors until only a handful of larger companies remained (see railway mania). The entire network was brought under government control during the First World War and a number of advantages of amalgamation and planning were revealed. However, the government resisted calls for the nationalisation of the network
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75th Meridian West
The meridian 75° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, South America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole. The mean solar time of this meridian is the base for the Eastern Time Zone (UTC-5 during standard time). Stations belonging to the US National Weather Service begin submitting weather reports when the mean solar time of this meridian is 8:00 am. Report collection ends 30–40 minutes later and the data is used to create the day's weather forecast.[1] The 75th meridian west forms a great circle with the 105th meridian east. From Pole to Pole[edit] Starting at the North Pole and heading south to the South Pole, the 75th meridian west passes through:Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes90°0′N 75°0′W / 90.000°N 75.000°W / 90.000; -75.000 (Arctic Ocean) Arctic Ocean83°3′N 75°0′W /
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Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
(/ˌæpəˈlæʃɪn, -ˈleɪtʃɪn/ ( listen);[note 1] French: les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period. They once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps
Alps
and the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
before experiencing natural erosion.[3][4] The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east-west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians
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Orbital Eccentricity
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptic orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, and greater than 1 is a hyperbola. The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every Kepler orbit
Kepler orbit
is a conic section. It is normally used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a Klemperer rosette
Klemperer rosette
orbit through the galaxy.Contents1 Definition 2 Etymology 3 Calculation 4 Examples 5 Mean eccentricity 6 Climatic effect 7 Exoplanets 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 External linksDefinition[edit]e=0e=0.5Orbits in a two-body system for two values of the eccentricity, e.In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit
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Telegraph
Telegraphy
Telegraphy
(from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not. Telegraphy
Telegraphy
requires that the method used for encoding the message be known to both sender and receiver. Many methods are designed according to the limits of the signalling medium used. The use of smoke signals, beacons, reflected light signals, and flag semaphore signals are early examples. In the 19th century, the harnessing of electricity led to the invention of electrical telegraphy. The advent of radio in the early 20th century brought about radiotelegraphy and other forms of wireless telegraphy
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Communication
Communication
Communication
(from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share"[1]) is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: [2]The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message
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Country
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography. A country may be an independent sovereign state or one that is occupied by another state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics
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Social
Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.Contents1 Etymology 2 Definition 3 Social
Social
theorists 4 In socialism 5 Modern uses 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEtymology[edit] The word "Social" derives from the Latin word socii ("allies")
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Commerce
Commerce
Commerce
is "related to the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale".[1] Commerce
Commerce
includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that are in operation in any country or internationally.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesEtymology[edit] Commerce
Commerce
is derived from the Latin
Latin
commercium, from cum and merx, merchandise.[2] History[edit]The caduceus has been used today as the symbol of commerce[3] with which Mercury has traditionally been associated.Some commentators trace the origins of commerce to the very start of transaction in prehistoric times
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Legal
Law
Law
is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.[2] Law
Law
is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein
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