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Tillage
Tillage
Tillage
is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning. Examples of human-powered tilling methods using hand tools include shovelling, picking, mattock work, hoeing, and raking. Examples of draft-animal-powered or mechanized work include ploughing (overturning with moldboards or chiseling with chisel shanks), rototilling, rolling with cultipackers or other rollers, harrowing, and cultivating with cultivator shanks (teeth). Small-scale gardening and farming, for household food production or small business production, tends to use the smaller-scale methods, whereas medium- to large-scale farming tends to use the larger-scale methods. There is a fluid continuum, however
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Elephant
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae
Elephantidae
and the order Proboscidea. Three species are currently recognised: the African bush elephant ( Loxodonta
Loxodonta
africana), the African forest elephant
African forest elephant
(L. cyclotis), and the Asian elephant
Asian elephant
( Elephas
Elephas
maximus). Elephants are scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia
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Dibber
A dibber or dibble or dibbler is a pointed wooden stick for making holes in the ground so that seeds, seedlings or small bulbs can be planted. Dibbers come in a variety of designs including the straight dibber, T-handled dibber, trowel dibber, and L-shaped dibber.Contents1 History 2 Straight dibber 3 T-handled dibber 4 Trowel dibber 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources and external linksHistory[edit] The dibber was first recorded in Roman times and has remained mostly unchanged since. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, farmers would use long-handled dibbers of metal or wood to plant crops. One man would walk with a dibber making holes, and a second man would plant seeds in each hole and fill it in. It was not until the Renaissance that dibbers became a manufactured item, some made of iron for penetrating harder soils and clay. Straight dibber[edit] This is the classic dibber
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Rice
Rice
Rice
is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
(Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima
Oryza glaberrima
(African rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia
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Soil Drainage
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area. The internal drainage of most agricultural soils is good enough to prevent severe waterlogging (anaerobic conditions that harm root growth), but many soils need artificial drainage to improve production or to manage water supplies.Contents1 History1.1 Early history 1.2 18th and 19th century2 Current practices2.1 Geotextiles 2.2 21st century alternatives 2.3 Drainage in the construction industry 2.4 Drainage in urban vegetation3 Reasons for artificial drainage 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Early history[edit]Remains of a drain at Lothal circa 3000 BCThe Indus Valley Civilization had advanced sewerage and drainage systems. All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had access to water and drainage facilities
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Soil Compaction
In geotechnical engineering, soil compaction is the process in which a stress applied to a soil causes densification as air is displaced from the pores between the soil grains. When stress is applied that causes densification due to water (or other liquid) being displaced from between the soil grains, then consolidation, not compaction, has occurred. Normally, compaction is the result of heavy machinery compressing the soil, but it can also occur due to the passage of (e.g.) animal feet. In soil science and agronomy, soil compaction is usually a combination of both engineering compaction and consolidation, so may occur due to a lack of water in the soil, the applied stress being internal suction due to water evaporation[1] as well as due to passage of animal feet. Affected soils become less able to absorb rainfall, thus increasing runoff and erosion
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Nutrients
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic purposes or excreted by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as hair, scales, feathers, or exoskeletons. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products (ethanol or vinegar), leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. All organisms require water. Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves
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Clydesdale
Coordinates: 55°42′00″N 3°49′59″W / 55.700°N 3.833°W / 55.700; -3.833Map of Scotland showing the historic district of Clydesdale Clydesdale
Clydesdale
(pronounced /ˈklaɪdzdeɪl/; Dail Chluaidh in Scottish Gaelic, pronounced [t̪ʰal̪ˠ xluəɣ]) is an archaic name for Lanarkshire, a county in Scotland. From 1975 to 1996 it was also the name given to one of the nineteen districts of the Strathclyde
Strathclyde
region. The district was formed by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 and was roughly conterminous to Lanarkshire. In 1996 it was abolished by the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994
Local Government etc

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Steel
Steel
Steel
is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Iron
Iron
is the base metal of steel. Iron
Iron
is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC), depending on its temperature. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube
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American Midwest
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four geographic regions defined by the United States
United States
Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States
United States
of America.[2] It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984.[3] It is located between the Northeastern U.S.
Northeastern U.S.
and the Western U.S., with Canada
Canada
to its north and the Southern U.S.
Southern U.S.
to its south. The Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north central United States: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin
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Nitrogen
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates
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Eutrophication
Eutrophication
Eutrophication
(from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"),[1] or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.[2] This process may result in oxygen depletion of the water body.[3] One example is the "bloom" or great increase of phytoplankton in a water body as a response to increased levels of nutrients. Eutrophication
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Fertilizer
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.Contents1 Mechanism 2 Classification2.1 Single nutrient ("straight") fertilizers 2.2 Multinutrient fertilizers2.2.1 Binary (NP, NK, PK) fertilizers 2.2.2 NPK fertilizers2.3 Micronutrients3 Production3.1 Nitrogen
Nitrogen
fertilizers 3.2
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Herbicide
Herbicide(s), also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.[1] Selective herbicides control specific weed species, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed, while non-selective herbicides (sometimes called "total weedkillers" in commercial products) can be used to clear waste ground, industrial and construction sites, railways and railway embankments as they kill all plant material with which they come into contact
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Prairie
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Temperate
Temperate
grassland regions include the Pampas
Pampas
of Argentina, southern Brazil
Brazil
and Uruguay
Uruguay
as well as the steppes of Eurasia. Lands typically referred to as "prairie" tend to be in North America
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Small Business
Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation. Businesses are defined as "small" in terms of being able to apply for government support and qualify for preferential tax policy varies depending on the country and industry. Small businesses range from fifteen employees under the Australian Fair Work Act 2009, fifty employees according to the definition used by the European Union, and fewer than five thousand employees, to qualify for many U.S. Small Business Administration programs
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