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Tigranes The Great
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Armenian: Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets;[2] Ancient Greek: Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Latin: Tigranes Magnus)[3] (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia
Armenia
under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.[4] He was a member of the Artaxiad Royal House
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Pontic Alps
The Pontic Mountains
Pontic Mountains
or Pontic Alps (Turkish: Kuzey Anadolu Dağları, meaning North Anatolian Mountains) form a mountain range in northern Anatolia, Turkey. They are also known as the Parhar Mountains in the local Turkish and Pontic Greek languages. The term Parhar originates from a Hittite word meaning "high" or "summit".[1] In ancient Greek , the mountains were called the Paryadres[2] or Parihedri Mountains.[3] Geography[edit]Panoramic view of the Pontic Mountains
Pontic Mountains
in 2007The range runs roughly east-west, parallel and close to the southern coast of the Black Sea. It extends northeast into Georgia, and west into the Sea of Marmara, with the northwestern spur of the Küre Mountains (and their western extension the Akçakoca Mountains) and the Bolu Mountains, following the coast. The highest peak in the range is Kaçkar Dağı, which rises to 3,937 m (12,917 ft)
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Nineveh
Nineveh
Nineveh
(/ˈnɪnɪvə/; Akkadian: 𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua) ; Syriac: ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ‎ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul
Mosul
in modern-day northern Iraq. It is located on the eastern bank of the Tigris
Tigris
River, and was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Nowadays it is a common name for the half of Mosul
Mosul
which lies on the eastern bank of the Tigris. It was the largest city in the world for some fifty years[1] until the year 612 BC when, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria, it was sacked by a coalition of its former subject peoples, the Babylonians, Medes, Chaldeans, Persians, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians. Its ruins are across the river from the modern-day major city of Mosul, in the Ninawa Governorate
Ninawa Governorate
of Iraq
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Tetradrachm
The tetradrachm (Greek: τετράδραχμον, tetrádrakhmon) was an Ancient Greek silver coin equivalent to four drachmae.[1] In Athens it replaced the earlier "heraldic" type of didrachms and it was in wide circulation from c. 510 to c. 38 BC.[2]Contents1 Early history and Athens 2 In other polities 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEarly history and Athens[edit] The transition from didrachms to tetradrachms occurred during c. 525–510 BC; the abandonment of the "heraldic"-type didrachms and the Archaic tetradrachms (early "owls") of the polis of Athens apparently took place shortly after the Battle of Salamis, 480 BC
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Zariadres
Zariadres (Armenian: Զարեհ Zareh) was a King of Sophene. Strabo
Strabo
cites Sophene
Sophene
being taken over by a "general" of king Antiochus III by 200 BC, called Zariadres.[1] Following the defeat of Antiochus III by the Romans at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC, Zariadres and Artaxias revolted and with Roman consent began to reign as kings under the terms of the Treaty of Apamea in 188 BC-- Zariadres over Sophene
Sophene
and Artaxias over Armenia. It is possible that Zariadres (Dsariadres) was the father of Abdissares, although the scant historical records have Abdissares ruling before Zariadres. The name written as Dsariadris might be a Greek corruption of the name Bagdassar
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Asia (Roman Province)
The Roman province
Roman province
of Asia or Asiana (Greek: Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. It was a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul. The arrangement was unchanged in the reorganization of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 211.Contents1 Background 2 Geography 3 Annexation 4 Taxation 5 Mithridates and Sulla 6 Military presence 7 Augustus 8 Emperor worship 9 Decline 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksBackground[edit] The word "Asia" comes from the Greek word, Ἀσία, originally only applied to the eastern shore of the Aegean Sea,[1] known to the Lydians
Lydians
who occupied it as Assuwa. It came to be used by the Greeks for all of Lydia
Lydia
(the northwestern part of what is today Turkey), that shore being the closest part of Lydia
Lydia
to Greece
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Asiatic Vespers
The Asiatic Vespers (also known as the Asian Vespers, Ephesian Vespers, or the Vespers of 88 BC) refers to an infamous episode during the First Mithridatic War. In response to increasing Roman power in Anatolia, the king of Pontus, Mithridates the Great, tapped into local discontent with the Romans and their taxes to orchestrate the execution of all Roman and Italian citizens in Asia Minor.[1] The massacre was planned scrupulously to take place on the same day in several towns scattered over Asia Minor: Ephesus, Pergamon, Adramyttion, Caunus, Tralles, Nysa, and the island of Chios.[2] Estimates of the number of men, women, and children killed range from 80,000[3] to 150,000.[4] Slaves who helped to kill their Roman masters and those who spoke languages other than Latin were spared
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Ancient Rome
In historiography, ancient Rome
Rome
is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome
Rome
in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the fall of the western empire.[1] The term is sometimes used to just refer to the kingdom and republic periods, excluding the subsequent empire.[2] The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian peninsula, dating from the 8th century BC, that grew into the city of Rome
Rome
and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed
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Scythian
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe
Steppe
culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast
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Erbil
Erbil, locally called Hawler (Kurdish: ھەولێر‎ Hewlêr; Arabic: أربيل‎, Arbīl; Syriac: ܐܲܪܒܝܠ‎, Arbela), also spelt Arbil or Irbil, is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
and the largest city in northern Iraq. It is located approximately 350 kilometres (220 miles) north of Baghdad. It has about 850,000 inhabitants,[1] and its governorate had a permanent population of 2,009,367 as of 2015[update].[2] Human settlement at Erbil
Erbil
can be dated back to possibly 5000 BC, and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited areas in the world.[3] At the heart of the city is the ancient Citadel of Arbil. The earliest historical reference to the region dates to the Ur III
Ur III
dynasty of Sumer, when king Shulgi
Shulgi
mentioned the city of Urbilum
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Great King
Great King
King
and the equivalent in many languages is a semantic title for historical titles of Monarchs, suggesting an elevated status among the host of Kings and Princes. This title is most usually associated with the shahanshah (Shah of shahs, i.e. king of kings, indeed translated in Greek Basileus tōn basileōn, later adopted by the Byzantine emperors) of Persia
Persia
under the Achaemenid dynasty
Achaemenid dynasty
whose vast empire in Asia
Asia
lasted for 200 years up to the year 330 BC, and later adopted by successors of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
empire whose monarchial names were also succeeded by "the Great"
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Tigris
The Tigris
Tigris
(/ˈtaɪɡrɪs/; Sumerian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idiqlat; Arabic: دجلة‎ Dijlah [didʒlah]; Syriac: ܕܹܩܠܵܬ‎ Deqlaṯ; Armenian: Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ; Hebrew: Ḥîddeqel חידקל‎, biblical Hiddekel; Turkish: Dicle; Kurdish: Dîcle, Dîjla دیجلە‎) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates
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Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is a historical region in West Asia
West Asia
situated within the Tigris– Euphrates
Euphrates
river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran– Iraq
Iraq
borders.[1] The Sumerians and Akkadians
Akkadians
(including Assyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the beginning of written history (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
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Euphrates
The Euphrates
Euphrates
(/juːˈfreɪtiːz/ ( listen); Sumerian: 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Buranuna, Akkadian: 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu, Arabic: الفرات‎ al-Furāt, Syriac: ̇ܦܪܬ‎ Pǝrāt, Armenian: Եփրատ: Yeprat, Hebrew: פרת‎ Perat, Turkish: Fırat, Kurdish: Firat‎) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia
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Antioch
Antioch
Antioch
on the Orontes (/ˈæntiˌɒk/; Greek: Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, also Syrian Antioch)[note 1] was an ancient Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
city[1] on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey, and lends the modern city its name. Antioch
Antioch
was founded near the end of the 4th century
4th century
BC by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals. The city's geographical, military, and economic location benefited its occupants, particularly such features as the spice trade, the Silk Road, and the Persian Royal Road. It eventually rivaled Alexandria
Alexandria
as the chief city of the Near East. It was also the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple
Second Temple
period
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Cilicia
In antiquity, Cilicia
Cilicia
(/sɪˈlɪʃiə/)[2][note 1] was the south coastal region of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
during the late Byzantine Empire
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