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Thuringothyris
Thuringothyris is an extinct genus of Early Permian
Early Permian
eureptiles known from the Thuringian Forest
Thuringian Forest
in central Germany.[1][2] Description[edit] Thuringothyris is known from the holotype MNG 7729, articulated well-preserved skull and partial postcranial skeleton, and from the referred specimens MNG 10652, poorly preserved skull and partial vertebral column, MNG 10647, disarticulated cranial and postcranial remains of at least four individuals, MNG 10183, slightly crushed skull and partial postcranial skeleton and MNG 11191, poorly preserved skull and partial limbs. All specimens were collected from the Tambach-Sandstein Member, the uppermost part of the Tambach Formation, dating to the Artinskian stage of the Late Cisuralian
Cisuralian
Series (or alternatively upper Rotliegend), about 284-279.5 million years ago
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Early Permian
The Permian
Permian
is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era; the following Triassic
Triassic
period belongs to the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea
Pangaea
and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s).[1] A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus. In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name
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Postcrania
Postcrania (postcranium, adjective: postcranial) in zoology and vertebrate paleontology refers to all or part of the skeleton apart from the skull. Frequently, fossil remains, e.g. of dinosaurs or other extinct tetrapods, consist of partial or isolated skeletal elements; these are referred to as "postcrania". Sometimes, there is disagreement over whether the skull and skeleton belong to the same or different animals. One example is the case of a Cretaceous
Cretaceous
sauropod skull of Nemegtosaurus
Nemegtosaurus
found in association with the postcranial skeleton Opisthocoelicaudia. In Paleoanthropological studies, reconstruction of relationship between various species/remains is considered to be better supported by cranial characters rather than postcranial characters. However, this assumption is largely untested. Notes[edit]This vertebrate anatomy-related article is a stub
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Skeleton
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism. There are several different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body, the hydroskeleton, and the cytoskeleton. The term comes from Greek σκελετός(skeletós), meaning 'dried up'.[1])Contents1 Types of skeletons1.1 Exoskeleton 1.2 Endoskeleton 1.3 Pliant skeletons 1.4 Rigid skeletons 1.5 Cytoskeleton 1.6 Fluid skeletons1.6.1 Hydrostatic skeleton (hydroskeleton)2 Organisms with skeletons2.1 Invertebrates2.1.1 Sponges 2.1.2 Echinoderms2.2 Vertebrates2.2.1 Fish 2.2.2 Birds 2.2.3 Marine mammals 2.2.4 Humans3 Bones and cartilage3.1 Bone 3.2 Cartilage4 In popular culture 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksTypes of skeletons[edit] There are two major types of skeletons: solid and fluid
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Cranium
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.[1] The skull is composed of two parts: the cranium and the mandible. In the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth.[2] In humans these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. Functions of the skull include protection of the brain, fixing the distance between the eyes to allow stereoscopic vision, and fixing the position of the ears to enable sound localisation of the direction and distance of sounds
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Artinskian
In the geologic timescale, the Artinskian
Artinskian
is an age or stage of the Permian. It is a subdivision of the Cisuralian
Cisuralian
epoch or series. The Artinskian
Artinskian
lasted between 290.1 and 283.5 million years ago (Ma). It was preceded by the Sakmarian and followed by the Kungurian.[2]Contents1 Stratigraphy 2 Palaeontology2.1 Amphibians 2.2 Arthropods 2.3 Synapsids3 References 4 External linksStratigraphy[edit]Jimbacrinus bostocki Artinskian
Artinskian
of Australia. (Found near Jimba Jimba Station )The Artinskian
Artinskian
is named after the small Russian city of Arti (formerly Artinsk), situated in the southern Ural mountains, about 200 km southwest of Yekaterinburg
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Cisuralian
The Permian
Permian
is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era; the following Triassic
Triassic
period belongs to the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea
Pangaea
and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa
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Series (stratigraphy)
Series are subdivisions of rock layers based on the age of the rock and formally defined by international conventions of the geological timescale. A series is therefore a sequence of strata defining a chronostratigraphic unit
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Rotliegend
The Rotliegend, Rotliegend Group or Rotliegendes (German: the underlying red) is a lithostratigraphic unit (a sequence of rock strata) of latest Carboniferous
Carboniferous
to Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(middle Permian) age that is found in the subsurface of large areas in western and central Europe. The Rotliegend mainly consists of sandstone layers. It is usually covered by the Zechstein
Zechstein
and lies on top of regionally different formations of late Carboniferous
Carboniferous
age. The name Rotliegend has in the past not only been used to address the rock strata themselves, but also the time span in which they were formed (in which case the Rotliegend was considered a series or subsystem of the Permian)
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Mya (unit)
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Tambach-Dietharz
Tambach-Dietharz
Tambach-Dietharz
is a town in the district of Gotha, in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated in the Thuringian Forest, 19 km south of Gotha.Contents1 Mayor 2 Places of interest 3 Notable people 4 ReferencesMayor[edit] Since 2012, Marco Schütz (independent) is the mayor. His predecessor was the former lieutenant from the German Army (Bundeswehr) Harald Wrona (FDP).[1] Places of interest[edit]The Falkenstein is a 96 m high, free standing porphyry rock. It is a natural monument and hiking destination. The mountain rescue hut at its foot is managed. The route from Schmalkalden
Schmalkalden
to Tambach-Dietharz
Tambach-Dietharz
is signposted as Martin-Luther-Weg and is a walking route. In the autumn of 1989, a monument to the Swiss Theologian, and protagonist of the Bekennenden Kirche, Karl Barth
Karl Barth
was raised in front of the Haus Tannenberg
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Name Of A Biological Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by change in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. The current year is 2019. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions, several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian calendar, or modern calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Thuringia
The Free State of Thuringia
Thuringia
(English: /θəˈrɪndʒiə/; German: Freistaat Thüringen, pronounced [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈtyːʁɪŋən]) is a federal state in central Germany. It has an area of 16,171 square kilometres (6,244 sq mi) and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states. Most of Thuringia
Thuringia
is within the watershed of the Saale, a left tributary of the Elbe. The capital is Erfurt. Thuringia
Thuringia
has been known as "the green heart of Germany" (das grüne Herz Deutschlands) from the late 19th century,[3] due to the dense forest covering the land. It is home to the Rennsteig, Germany's most well-known hiking trail, and the winter resort of Oberhof making it a well known winter sports destination
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Specific Name (zoology)
In zoological nomenclature, the specific name (also specific epithet or species epithet) is the second part (the second name) within the scientific name of a species (a binomen). The first part of the name of a species is the name of the genus or the generic name. The rules and regulations governing the giving of a new species name are explained in the article species description.Example The scientific name for humans is Homo sapiens, which is the species name, consisting of two names: Homo is the "generic name" (the name of the genus) and sapiens is the "specific name".The grammar of species names[edit] Grammatically, a binomen (and a trinomen, also) must be treated as if it were a Latin
Latin
phrase, no matter which language the words were originally taken from
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