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Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
(July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American
African-American
justice. Prior to his judicial service, he successfully argued several cases before the Supreme Court. Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Marshall graduated from the Howard University School of Law in 1933. He established a private legal practice in Baltimore
Baltimore
before founding the NAACP
NAACP
Legal Defense and Educational Fund, where he served as executive director. In that position, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Smith v. Allwright, Shelley v. Kraemer, and Brown v
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United States Constitution
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Co
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Bethesda, Maryland
Bethesda is an unincorporated, census-designated place in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, United States, located just northwest of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
It takes its name from a local church, the Bethesda Meeting House
Bethesda Meeting House
(1820, rebuilt 1849), which in turn took its name from Jerusalem's Pool of Bethesda.[2] In Aramaic, ܒܝܬ ܚܣܕܐ beth ḥesda means "House of Mercy" and in Hebrew, בית חסד‬ "beit ḥesed" means "House of Kindness"
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George H. W. Bush
Vice President of the United States1980 presidential campaign 1980 Reagan-Bush CampaignReagan assassination attempt Deregulation1984 Reagan-Bush CampaignBush-Ferraro debatePresident of the United StatesPresidencyTimeline1988 electionConvention "No new taxes"InaugurationThousand points of lightFoundationGulf War Invasion of Panama Operation Restore Hope NAFTA Environmental policy Foreign policy International presidential trips Judicial appointments Pardons 1992 electionConventionLegacyPresidential Library Medal of Freedom Bush School of Government Reagan Award USS George H.W. Bush (CVN-77)v t e George Herbert Walker
George Herbert Walker
Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States
President of the United States
from 1989 to 1993
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Racial Segregation In The United States
Racial segregation
Racial segregation
in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines
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Smith V. Allwright
Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S. 649 (1944), was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court with regard to voting rights and, by extension, racial desegregation. It overturned the Texas state law that authorized the Democratic Party to set its internal rules, including the use of white primaries. The court ruled that it was unconstitutional for the state to delegate its authority over elections to the Democratic Party in order to allow discrimination to be practiced. This ruling affected all other states where the party used the white primary rule. The Democrats had effectively excluded minority voter participation by this means, another device for legal disenfranchisement of blacks across the South beginning in the late 19th century.Contents1 Background 2 Issue 3 The decision 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBackground[edit] Lonnie E
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Bachelor Of Laws
The Bachelor of Laws
Bachelor of Laws
(Latin: Legum nrm Baccalaureus; LL.B. or B.L.) is an undergraduate degree in law (or a first professional degree in law, depending on jurisdiction) originating in England
England
and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictions—except the United States and Canada—as the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer.[1] It historically served this purpose in the U.S. as well, but was phased out in the mid-1960s in favor of the Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor
degree, and Canada followed suit. Historically, in Canada, Bachelor of Laws
Bachelor of Laws
was the name of the first degree in common law, but is also the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. Canadian common-law LL.B. programmes were, in practice, second-entry professional degrees, meaning that the vast majority of those admitted to an LL.B
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Cab Calloway
Cabell "Cab" Calloway III (December 25, 1907 – November 18, 1994) was an American jazz singer and bandleader. He was strongly associated with the Cotton Club
Cotton Club
in Harlem, New York City, where he was a regular performer. Calloway was a master of energetic scat singing and led one of the United States' most popular big bands from the start of the 1930s to the late 1940s. Calloway's band featured performers including trumpeters Dizzy Gillespie
Dizzy Gillespie
and Adolphus "Doc" Cheatham, saxophonists Ben Webster
Ben Webster
and Leon "Chu" Berry, New Orleans guitarist Danny Barker, and bassist Milt Hinton
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Rule Of Law
The rule of law is the principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by decisions of individual government officials. It primarily refers to the influence and authority of law within society, particularly as a constraint upon behaviour, including behaviour of government officials.[2] The phrase can be traced back to 16th century Britain, and in the following century the Scottish theologian Samuel Rutherford
Samuel Rutherford
used the phrase in his argument against the divine right of kings.[3] John Locke
John Locke
wrote that freedom in society means being subject only to laws made by a legislature that apply to everyone, with a person being otherwise free from both governmental and private restrictions upon liberty. The "rule of law" was further popularized in the 19th century by British jurist A. V. Dicey
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Racial Segregation
Racial segregation
Racial segregation
is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a public toilet, attending school, going to the movies, riding on a bus, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1] or of hotel rooms. Segregation is defined by the European Commission against Racism
Racism
and Intolerance as "the act by which a (natural or legal) person separates other persons on the basis of one of the enumerated grounds without an objective and reasonable justification, in conformity with the proposed definition of discrimination
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Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (GOP). Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest political party.[16] The Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party, leading to a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party and Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D

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Bachelor Of Arts
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin
Latin
baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors
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Amherst College
Amherst College
Amherst College
(/ˈæmərst/ ( listen)[5] AM-ərst) is a private liberal arts college located in Amherst, Massachusetts, United States. Founded in 1821 as an attempt to relocate Williams College
Williams College
by its president, Zephaniah Swift Moore, Amherst is the third oldest institution of higher education in Massachusetts.[6] The institution was named after the town, which in turn had been named after Lord Jeffery Amherst
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Shelley V. Kraemer
Shelley v. Kraemer, 334 US 1 (1948) is a landmark[1] United States Supreme Court case holding that the State-Action Doctrine includes the enforcement of private contracts, the Equal Protection Clause prohibits racially-restrictive housing covenants, and that such covenants are unenforceable in court.Contents1 Facts 2 Decision 3 Background 4 Solicitor General's brief 5 Literary Responses 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksFacts[edit] In 1945, an African-American family by the name of Shelley purchased a house in St. Louis, Missouri. At the time of purchase, they were unaware that a restrictive covenant had been in place on the property since 1911. The restrictive covenant prevented "people of the Negro
Negro
or Mongolian Race" from occupying the property. Louis Kraemer, who lived ten blocks away, sued to prevent the Shelleys from gaining possession of the property
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Pullman Porter
Pullman porters were men hired to work on the railroads as porters on sleeping cars.[1] Starting shortly after the American Civil War, George Pullman
George Pullman
sought out former slaves to work on his sleeper cars. Pullman porters served American railroads from the late 1860s until the Pullman Company
Pullman Company
ceased operations on December 31, 1968, though some sleeping-car porters continued working on cars operated by the railroads themselves and, beginning in 1971, Amtrak. The term "porter" has been superceded in modern American usage by "sleeping car attendant," with the former term being considered "somewhat derogatory."[2] Until the 1960s, Pullman porters were exclusively black, and have been widely credited with contributing to the development of the black middle class in America. Under the leadership of A
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Langston Hughes
James Mercer Langston Hughes
Langston Hughes
(February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist from Joplin, Missouri. He was one of the earliest innovators of the then-new literary art form called jazz poetry. Hughes is best known as a leader of the Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
in New York City
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