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Fuel Efficiency
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio of effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work. Overall fuel efficiency may vary per device, which in turn may vary per application, and this spectrum of variance is often illustrated as a continuous energy profile. Non-transportation applications, such as industry, benefit from increased fuel efficiency, especially fossil fuel power plants or industries dealing with combustion, such as ammonia production during the Haber process. In the context of transport, fuel economy is the energy efficiency of a particular vehicle, given as a ratio of distance traveled per unit of fuel consumed. It is dependent on several factors including engine efficiency, transmission design, and tire design
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GE CF6
The General Electric CF6, US military designation F103, is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation. Based on the TF39, the first high-power high-bypass jet engine, the CF6 powers a wide variety of civilian airliners. The basic engine core also powers the LM2500, LM5000, and LM6000 marine and power generation turboshafts. It is gradually being replaced by the newer GEnx family.[2] After developing the TF39 for the C-5 Galaxy in the late 1960s, GE offered a more powerful variant for civilian use, the CF6, and quickly found interest in two designs being offered for a recent Eastern Airlines contract, the Lockheed L-1011 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. Lockheed eventually selected the Rolls-Royce RB211, but Douglas stuck with the CF6 and the DC-10 entered service in 1971. It was also selected for versions of the Boeing 747
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PW2000
The Pratt & Whitney PW2000, also known by the military designation F117 and initially referred to as the JT10D, is a series of high-bypass turbofan aero engines with a thrust range from 37,000 to 43,000 lbf (160 to 190 kN). Built by Pratt & Whitney, they were designed for the Boeing 757. As a 757 powerplant, these engines compete with the Rolls-Royce RB211.[2] Pratt & Whitney began working on the JT10D in October 1971 intended for the McDonnell Douglas YC-15 into the Advanced Medium STOL Transport project and the Boeing 767 then code named 7X7, which first ran in August 1974.[1] In December 1980, Pratt & Whitney changed to a new naming system for its engines and the JT10D became the PW2037. The PW2000 is a dual-spool, axial air flow, annular combustion, high bypass turbofan with a dual-channel Full authority digital engine control (FADEC) system
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PS-90
The Aviadvigatel PS-90 is a Russian high-bypass commercial turbofan rated at 16000 kgf (157 kN, 35,300 lbf) thrust. It powers Russian airliners such as the Ilyushin Il-96 and the Tupolev Tu-204/Tu-214 series and transport aircraft such as the Ilyushin Il-76. It is made by the Russian aircraft engine company Aviadvigatel, which is the successor of the Soviet Soloviev Design Bureau. "PS" are the initials of Pavel Soloviev (Russian: Павел Алеќсандрович Соловьёв). With the advent of new generation of Russian airliners, Aviadvigatel developed the PS-90 to satisfy the demands of economy, performance and exhaust emissions. It represented a huge advance over previous generations of 1960s era Soviet engines
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CFM56

The CFM International CFM56 (U.S. military designation F108) series is a French-American family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines made by CFM International (CFMI), with a thrust range of 18,500 to 34,000 lbf (82 to 150 kN). CFMI is a 50–50 joint-owned company of Safran Aircraft Engines (formerly known as Snecma) of France, and GE Aviation (GE) of the United States. Both companies are responsible for producing components and each has its own final assembly line. GE produces the high-pressure compressor, combustor, and high-pressure turbine, Safran manufactures the fan, gearbox, exhaust and the low-pressure turbine, and some components are made by Avio of Italy and Honeywell from the US. The engines are assembled by GE in Evendale, Ohio, and by Safran in Villaroche, France. The completed engines are marketed by CFMI
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Soloviev D-30
The Soloviev D-30 (now the Aviadvigatel PS-30) is a Soviet two-shaft low-bypass turbofan engine, officially referred to as a "bypass turbojet". It is probably the single most important turbofan engine developed in Soviet Union to date. Development of the turbofan spurred numerous growth versions with increased fan diameter and modified component arrangements. Developed within an amazingly short period of time (about three years), the engine turned out to be one of the most reliable engines in the history of Soviet engine development. The D-30 development was recognized with the USSR State Prize.[1] The original version of the Soloviev D-30 or Solowjow D-30 was developed to power the Tupolev Tu-134 short-to-medium range jet airliner, and had specifications similar to those of Western analogues such as Pratt & Whitney JT8D
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JT8D
The Pratt & Whitney JT8D is a low-bypass (0.96 to 1) turbofan engine introduced by Pratt & Whitney in February 1963 with the inaugural flight of the Boeing 727. It was a modification of the Pratt & Whitney J52 turbojet engine which powered the US Navy A-6 Intruder attack aircraft. The Volvo RM8 is an afterburning version that was license-built in Sweden for the Saab 37 Viggen fighter. Pratt & Whitney also sells static versions for powerplant and ship propulsion as the FT8. The JT8D is an axial-flow front turbofan engine incorporating dual-spool design. There are two coaxially-mounted independent rotating assemblies: one rotating assembly for the low pressure compressor (LPC) which consists of the first six stages (i.e
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Progress D-436
The Progress D-436 is a three-shaft high by-pass turbofan engine developed by the Ukrainian company Ivchenko-Progress. It was initially developed to meet the requirements for late versions of the Yakovlev Yak-42 and the Antonov An-72 in the 1980s. The engine first ran in 1985 and was subsequently certified in 1987.[1] Several variants have been developed and are currently in service with a variety of aircraft. The D-436 engine was developed as a follow on to the Lotarev D-36. The engine took several of its design features from that engine and another Progress engine, the Progress D-18. The D-436 incorporated an updated, higher RPM fan, a lower emissions combustor, and new compressor sections
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GE CF34
The General Electric CF34 is a civilian high-bypass turbofan developed by GE Aircraft Engines from its TF34 military engine. The CF34 is used on a number of business and regional jets, including the Bombardier CRJ series, the Embraer E-Jets, and the Chinese ARJ21.[4][5] In 2012, there were 5,600 engines in service. The original engine contained a single stage fan driven by a 4-stage low pressure (LP) turbine, supercharging a 14-stage HP compressor driven by a 2-stage high pressure (HP) turbine, with an annular combustor. Later higher thrust versions of the CF34 feature an advanced technology core, with only 10 HP compressor stages. Latest variants, the -10A and -10E, were derived from the CFM56 engine family,[citation needed] and have a radically different HP spool, containing a 9-stage compressor driven by a single stage turbine. The LP spool has 3 core booster stages behind the fan
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