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Thrombolysis
Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots formed in blood vessels, using medication. It is used in ST elevation myocardial infarction, stroke, and very large pulmonary embolisms. The main complication is bleeding (which can be dangerous), and in some situations thrombolysis may therefore be unsuitable
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Lysis
Lysis
Lysis
(/ˈlaɪsɪs/ LY-sis; Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" /ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək) mechanisms that compromise its integrity. A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a lysate
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Anistreplase
Anistreplase is a thrombolytic drug.[1][2][3] Anistreplase has been developed by Beecham as Eminase. It is also known as anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC) Mechanism[edit] It is a complex of purified human plasminogen and bacterial streptokinase that has been acylated to protect the enzyme's active site. When the drug is administered, the acyl group gets hydrolyzed, thereby freeing the activator complex. It converts plasminogen to plasmin, which in turn degrades fibrin (blood clots) to fibrin split products. References[edit]^ Rawles J (January 1996). "Magnitude of benefit from earlier thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction: new evidence from Grampian region early anistreplase trial (GREAT)". BMJ. 312 (7025): 212–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.312.7025.212
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South Africa
[Note 1]11 languagesAfrikaans Northern Sotho English Southern Ndebele Southern Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa ZuluEthnic groups (2014[3])80.2% Black 8.8% Coloured 8.4% White 2.5% AsianReligion See Religion in South AfricaDemonym South AfricanGovernment Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentCyril Ramaphosa• Deputy PresidentDavid Mabuza• Chairperson of the National Council of ProvincesThandi Modise• Speaker of the National AssemblyBaleka Mbete• Chief JusticeMogoeng MogoengLegislature Parliament• Upper houseNational Council• Lower houseNational AssemblyIndependence from the United Kingdom• Union31 May 1910• Self-governance11 December 1931• Republic31 May 1961•
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK)[15] or Britain,[note 11] is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands.[16] Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland
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Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease. After accessing the blood stream through the femoral or radial artery, the procedure uses coronary catheterization to visualise the blood vessels on X-ray imaging. After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open. Various other procedures can also be performed. Primary PCI is the very urgent use of PCI in people with acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), especially where there is evidence of severe heart damage on the electrocardiogram (ST elevation MI)
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Antihistamine
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.[1] Antihistamines can give relief when a person has nasal congestion, sneezing, or hives because of pollen, dust mites, or animal allergy.[1] Typically people take antihistamines as an inexpensive, generic, over-the-counter drug with few side effects.[1] As an alternative to taking an antihistamine, people who suffer from allergies can instead avoid the substance which irritates them.[1] Antihistamines are usually for short-term treatment.[1] Chronic allergies increase the risk of health problems which antihistamines might not treat, including asthma, sinusitis, and lower respiratory tract infection.[1] Doctors recommend that people talk to them before any longer term use of antihistamines.[1] Although typical people use the word “antihistamine” to describe drugs for treating allergies, doctors and scientists use the term to describe a class of drug that opposes the activity of histamine receptors in the bo
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Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxis
is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.[4][5] It typically causes more than one of the following: an itchy rash, throat or tongue swelling, shortness of breath, vomiting, lightheadedness, and low blood pressure.[1] These symptoms typically come on over minutes to hours.[1] Common causes include insect bites and stings, foods, and medications.[1] Other causes include latex exposure and exercise.[1] Additionally cases may occur without an obvious reason.[1] The mechanism involves the release of mediators from certain types of white blood cells trigg
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Streptococcus
Streptococcus
Streptococcus
is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes[4] and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria). Cell division
Cell division
in this genus occurs along a single axis in these bacteria, thus they grow in chains or pairs, hence the name—from Greek στρεπτός streptos, meaning easily bent or twisted, like a chain (twisted chain). (Contrast this with staphylococci, which divide along multiple axes and generate grape-like clusters of cells.) Most are oxidase-negative and catalase-negative, and many are facultative anaerobes. In 1984, many bacteria formerly considered Streptococcus
Streptococcus
were separated out into the genera Enterococcus
Enterococcus
and Lactococcus.[5] Currently, over 50 species are recognised in this genus
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Recombinant DNA
Recombinant DNA
DNA
(rDNA) molecules are DNA
DNA
molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome. Recombinant DNA
DNA
in a living organism was first achieved in 1973 by Herbert Boyer, of the University of California
University of California
at San Francisco, and Stanley Cohen, at Stanford University, who used E. coli
E. coli
restriction enzymes to insert foreign DNA
DNA
into plasmids.[1] Recombinant DNA
DNA
is the general name for a piece of DNA
DNA
that has been created by the combination of at least two strands
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Alteplase
Alteplase (trade names Activase, Actilyse) is a thrombolytic drug, used to treat acute myocardial infarctions (heart attacks) and other severe conditions caused by blood clotting by breaking up the blood clots that cause them. It is a tissue plasminogen activator. It is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of myocardial infarction with ST-elevation (STEMI), acute ischemic stroke (AIS), acute massive pulmonary embolism, and occluded central venous access devices (CVAD).[1][2][3] References[edit]^ "Thrombolytic Therapy: Background, Thrombolytic Agents, Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Myocardial Infarction". 2017-05-02.  ^ Drugs.com: Monograph for Activase. ^ Austria-Codex (in German). Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag. 2017
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1][a] .mw-parser-outpu
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Reteplase
Reteplase (trade names Retavase, Rapilysin) is a thrombolytic drug, used to treat heart attacks by breaking up the clots that cause them. Reteplase is a recombinant non-glycosylated form of human tissue plasminogen activator, which has been modified to contain 357 of the 527 amino acids of the original protein. It is produced in the bacterium Escherichia coli.[citation needed] Reteplase is similar to recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (alteplase), but the modifications give reteplase a longer half-life of 13–16 minutes
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Biomarker
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition. The term is also occasionally used to refer to a substance whose detection indicates the presence of a living organism. Biomarkers are often measured and evaluated to examine normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval.[1] From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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