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Three
3 (THREE; /ˈθriː/ ) is a number , numeral , and glyph . It is the natural number following 2 and preceding 4 . CONTENTS* 1 Evolution of the glyph * 1.1 Flat top 3 * 2 In mathematics * 2.1 In numeral systems * 2.2 List of basic calculations * 3 In science * 3.1 In protoscience * 3.2 In pseudoscience * 4 In philosophy * 5 In religion * 5.1 In Christianity
Christianity
* 5.2 In Judaism * 5.3 In Buddhism
Buddhism
* 5.4 In Shinto * 5.5 In Taoism
Taoism
* 5.6 In Hinduism * 5.7 In Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
* 5.8 In Norse mythology
Norse mythology
* 5.9 In other religions * 5.10 In esoteric tradition * 5.11 As a lucky or unlucky number * 6 In sports * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links EVOLUTION OF THE GLYPHThree is the largest number still written with as many lines as the number represents
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Ternary Numeral System
The TERNARY numeral system (also called BASE-3) has three as its base . Analogous to a bit , a ternary digit is a TRIT (TRinary digIT). One trit is equivalent to log23 (about 1.58496) bits of information . Although ternary most often refers to a system in which the three digits 0 , 1 , and 2 are all non-negative numbers, the adjective also lends its name to the balanced ternary system, comprising the digits −1 , 0 and +1, used in comparison logic and ternary computers
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Numeral System
A NUMERAL SYSTEM (or SYSTEM OF NUMERATION) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner. It can be seen as the context that allows the symbols "11" to be interpreted as the binary symbol for three, the decimal symbol for eleven, or a symbol for other numbers in different bases . The number the numeral represents is called its value. Ideally, a numeral system will: * Represent a useful set of numbers (e.g. all integers , or rational numbers ) * Give every number represented a unique representation (or at least a standard representation) * Reflect the algebraic and arithmetic structure of the numbers.For example, the usual decimal representation of whole numbers gives every nonzero whole number a unique representation as a finite sequence of digits , beginning by a non-zero digit
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Factorization
In mathematics , FACTORIZATION (also FACTORISATION in some forms of British English ) or FACTORING is the decomposition of a mathematical object (for example, a number , a polynomial , or a matrix ) into a product of other objects, or factors, which when multiplied together give the original. For example, the number 15 factors into primes as 3 × 5, and the polynomial x2 − 4 factors as (x − 2)(x + 2). In all cases, a product of simpler objects is obtained. The aim of factoring is usually to reduce something to “basic building blocks” that cannot be further factored, such as numbers to prime numbers, or polynomials to irreducible polynomials . Factoring integers is covered by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and factoring polynomials by the fundamental theorem of algebra . Viète\'s formulas relate the coefficients of a polynomial to its roots , which appear in the polynomial's factors
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Prime Number
A PRIME NUMBER (or a PRIME) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a prime number is called a composite number . For example, 5 is prime because 1 and 5 are its only positive integer factors , whereas 6 is composite because it has the divisors 2 and 3 in addition to 1 and 6. The fundamental theorem of arithmetic establishes the central role of primes in number theory : any integer greater than 1 is either a prime itself or can be expressed as a product of primes that is unique up to ordering. The uniqueness in this theorem requires excluding 1 as a prime because one can include arbitrarily many instances of 1 in any factorization, e.g., 3, 1 · 3, 1 · 1 · 3, etc. are all valid factorizations of 3. The property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of verifying the primality of a given number n is known as trial division
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Divisor
In mathematics , a DIVISOR of an integer n {displaystyle n} , also called a FACTOR of n {displaystyle n} , is an integer m {displaystyle m} that may be multiplied by some other integer to produce n {displaystyle n} . In this case one says also that n {displaystyle n} is a MULTIPLE of m . {displaystyle m.} An integer n {displaystyle n} is DIVISIBLE by another integer m {displaystyle m} if m {displaystyle m} is a divisor of n {displaystyle n} ; this implies dividing n {displaystyle n} by m {displaystyle m} leaves no remainder
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Ordinal Number (linguistics)
In linguistics , ORDINAL NUMBERS are words representing position or rank in a sequential order. The order may be of size, importance, chronology, and so on. In English , they are adjectives such as third and tertiary. They differ from cardinal numbers , which represent quantity. Ordinal numbers may be written in English with numerals and letter suffixes: 1st, 2nd or 2d, 3rd or 3d, 4th, 11th, 21st, 101st, 477th, etc., with the suffix acting as an ordinal indicator . Written dates often omit the suffix, although it is, nevertheless, pronounced. For example: 5 November 1605 (pronounced "the fifth of November ... "); November 5, 1605, ("November Fifth ..."). When written out in full with "of", however, the suffix is retained: the 5th of November. In other languages, different ordinal indicators are used to write ordinal numbers
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Cardinal Number (linguistics)
In linguistics , more precisely in traditional grammar , a CARDINAL NUMBER or CARDINAL NUMERAL (or just CARDINAL) is a part of speech used to count , such as the English words one, two, three, but also compounds , e.g. three hundred and forty-two (Commonwealth English ) or three hundred forty-two ( American English
American English
). Cardinal numbers are classified as definite numerals and are related to ordinal numbers , such as first, second, third, etc. SEE ALSO * Cardinal number
Cardinal number
for the related usage in mathematics * English numerals (in particular the Cardinal numbers section) * Distributive number * Multiplier * Numeral (linguistics) for examples of number systems in various languagesREFERENCESNOTES * ^ David Crystal (2011). Dictionary of Linguistics
Linguistics
and Phonetics (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 65
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70 (number)
70 (SEVENTY) is the natural number following 69 and preceding 71 . CONTENTS * 1 In mathematics * 2 In science * 2.1 Astronomy * 3 In religion * 4 In law * 5 In sports * 6 In other fields * 7 Number name * 8 Notes IN MATHEMATICS70 is: * a sphenic number because it factors as 3 distinct primes. * a Pell number and a generalized heptagonal number , one of only two numbers to be both. * the seventh pentagonal number . * the fourth triskaidecagonal number . * the fifth pentatope number . * the number of ways to choose 4 objects out of 8 if order does not matter. This makes it a central binomial coefficient . * the smallest weird number , a natural number that is abundant but not semiperfect
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80 (number)
80 (EIGHTY) is the natural number following 79 and preceding 81 . CONTENTS * 1 In mathematics * 2 In science * 3 In religion * 4 In sports * 5 In other fields * 6 References * 7 External links IN MATHEMATICS80 is: * the sum of Euler\'s totient function φ(x) over the first sixteen integers. * a semiperfect number , since adding up some subsets of its divisors (e.g., 1 , 4 , 5 , 10 , 20 and 40 ) gives 80. * a ménage number . * palindromic in bases 3 (22223), 6 (2126), 9 (889), 15 (5515), 19 (4419) and 39 (2239). * a repdigit in bases 3, 9, 15, 19 and 39.The Pareto principle (also known as the 80-20 rule) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. Every solvable configuration of the Fifteen puzzle can be solved in no more than 80 single-tile moves
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90 (number)
90 (NINETY) is the natural number preceded by 89 and followed by 91 . In English speech, the numbers 90 and 19 are often confused, as sounding very similar. When carefully enunciated, they differ in which syllable is stressed: 19 /naɪnˈtiːn/ vs 90 /ˈnaɪnti/. However, in dates such as 1999, and when contrasting numbers in the teens and when counting, such as 17, 18, 19, the stress shifts to the first syllable: 19 /ˈnaɪntiːn/. Look up NINETY in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Interstate 90
Interstate 90
is a freeway that runs from Washington to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
. CONTENTS * 1 In mathematics * 2 In science * 3 In sports * 4 In other fields * 5 References IN MATHEMATICS90 is: * a unitary perfect number because it is the sum of its unitary divisors (excluding itself). * a semiperfect number because it is equal to the sum of a subset of its divisors. * a pronic number . * a nontotient
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100 (number)
100 or ONE HUNDRED (Roman numeral : Ⅽ) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101 . In medieval contexts, it may be described as the SHORT HUNDRED or five score in order to differentiate the English and Germanic use of "hundred" to describe the long hundred of six score or 120 . CONTENTS * 1 In mathematics * 2 In science * 3 In religion * 4 In politics * 5 In money * 6 In other fields * 7 In sports * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links IN MATHEMATICS100 is the square of 10 (in scientific notation it is written as 102). The standard SI prefix
SI prefix
for a hundred is "hecto -". 100 is the basis of percentages (per cent meaning "per hundred" in Latin), with 100% being a full amount. 100 is the sum of the first nine prime numbers , as well as the sum of some pairs of prime numbers e.g., 3 + 97, 11 + 89, 17 + 83, 29 + 71, 41 + 59, and 47 + 53
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Roman Numerals
The numeric system represented by ROMAN NUMERALS originated in ancient Rome
Rome
and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe
Europe
well into the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet . Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols: SYMBOL I V X L C D M VALUE 1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000The use of Roman numerals
Roman numerals
continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. From the 14th century on, Roman numerals
Roman numerals
began to be replaced in most contexts by the more convenient Hindu-Arabic numerals ; however, this process was gradual, and the use of Roman numerals persists in some minor applications to this day
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Unicode
UNICODE is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding , representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems . The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts , as well as multiple symbol sets. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard is maintained in conjunction with ISO/IEC 10646 , and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode
Unicode
Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings , a set of reference data files , and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization , decomposition, collation , rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew , and left-to-right scripts)
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Octal
The OCTAL numeral system , or OCT for short, is the base -8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Octal
Octal
numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping consecutive binary digits into groups of three (starting from the right). For example, the binary representation for decimal 74 is 1001010. Two zeroes can be added at the left: (00)1 001 010, corresponding the octal digits 1 1 2, yielding the octal representation 112. In the decimal system each decimal place is a power of ten. For example: 74 10 = 7 10 1 + 4 10 0 {displaystyle mathbf {74} _{10}=mathbf {7} times 10^{1}+mathbf {4} times 10^{0}} In the octal system each place is a power of eight
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Duodecimal
The DUODECIMAL system (also known as BASE 12 or DOZENAL) is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base . In this system, the number ten may be written by a rotated "2" (2) and the number eleven by a rotated "3" (3). This notation was introduced by Sir Isaac Pitman . These digit forms are available as Unicode characters on computerized systems since June 2015 as ↊ (Code point 218A) and ↋ ( Code point 218B), respectively. Other notations use "A", "T", or "X" for ten and "B" or "E" for eleven. The number twelve (that is, the number written as "12" in the base ten numerical system) is instead written as "10" in duodecimal (meaning "1 dozen and 0 units", instead of "1 ten and 0 units"), whereas the digit string "12" means "1 dozen and 2 units" (i.e. the same number that in decimal is written as "14")
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