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Opening Campaign
The Opening Campaign of the Chinese Civil War was the second phase of the conflict, beginning at the end of World War II with the surrender of Japan. After the war ended, the Second United Front had no more meaning, and it disbanded. The generals of the nationalist and communist causes scrapped for territory, beginning the second chapter of the bloody conflict. Japan's defeat at the end of the Pacific War left a power vacuum across large parts of China, as the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek and the Chinese Communist Party under Mao Zedong began to take over territories that were recently conquered by Japan. The end of World War II brought an end to the Japanese control over China and their puppet the Reorganized National Government of China's over Nanjing, but sporadic fighting between the Japanese and both Chinese political groups continued for a while
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Ningdu Uprising
The Ningdu revolt (simplified Chinese: 宁都暴动; traditional Chinese: 寧都暴動), also known as the Ningdu uprising (Chinese: 宁都起义), was a rebellion by the 26th Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China in Ningdu County, Jiangxi Province on December 14, 1931. 17,000 soldiers of the 26th Route Army defected from the Kuomintang to the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of the Communist Party of China. After the conclusion of the Central Plains War, the 5th Route Army of the Northwest Army, formerly under the command of Feng Yuxiang, was redesignated as the 26th Route Army and brought the direct control of the Nationalist Government of Chiang Kai-shek. Sun Lianzhong was made commander of this army. Members of this unit had contacts with the communists dating to the Northern Expedition
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Battle Of Ürümqi (1933–34)
Republic of China The Second Battle of Ürümqi was a conflict in the winter of 1933–1934 at Ürümqi, between the provincial forces of Sheng Shicai and the alliance of the Chinese Muslim Gen. Ma Zhongying and Han Chinese Gen. Zhang Peiyuan.[1][2] Zhang seized the road between Tacheng and the capital.[3] Sheng Shicai commanded Manchurian troops and a unit of White Russian soldiers, led by Col. Pappengut.[4][5] The Kuomintang Republic of China government had secretly incited Zhang and Ma to overthrow Sheng—even as they prepared to swear him in as governor of Xinjiang—because of his ties to the Soviet Union. Chinese Nationalist leader Gen
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Battle Of Toksun
Republic of China The Battle of Toksun occurred in July 1933 when Khoja Niyas Hajji, a Uighur leader, defected with his forces to the newly enthroned government of Sheng Shicai. Khoja Niyas Hajji marched with his troops across Dawan Ch'eng and occupied Toksun, where the 36th Division forces of General Ma Shih-ming achieved victory over Niyas Hajji's forces.[1]
  1. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 111. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.Khoja Niyas Hajji, a Uighur leader, defected with his forces to the newly enthroned government of Sheng Shicai
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Battle Of Tutung
Soviet victory The Battle of Tutong (1934) occurred when Gen. Ma Zhongying's Chinese Muslim 36th Division was attacked by the Soviet Red Army on the banks of the frozen Tutung River. The battle took place over several days, and Soviet bombers used mustard gas.[1] At one point the Chinese Muslim troops dressed up in sheepskins for camouflage in the snow, and stormed Soviet machine-gun posts with curved swords at a short range and defeated a Soviet pincer attack. Casualties were getting heavy on both sides before Ma Zhongying ordered a retreat.[2][3]
  1. ^ "Uses of CW since the First World War". Retrieved 2010-06-28.