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Thioglycollate Broth
Thioglycolate
Thioglycolate
broth is a multipurpose, enriched, differential medium used primarily to determine the oxygen requirements of microorganisms. Sodium thioglycolate in the medium consumes oxygen and permits the growth of obligate anaerobes.[1] This, combined with the diffusion of oxygen from the top of the broth, produces a range of oxygen concentrations in the medium along its depth. The oxygen concentration at a given level is indicated by a redox-sensitive dye such as resazurine that turns pink in the presence of oxygen. Thioglycolate
Thioglycolate
broth medium is recommended to isolate strict anaerobes should an anaerobic infection be suspected.[2]This allows the differentiation of obligate aerobes, obligate anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, microaerophiles, and aerotolerant organisms
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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MRS Agar
De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar, often abbreviated to MRS, is a selective culture medium designed to favour the luxuriant growth of Lactobacilli
Lactobacilli
for lab study. Developed in 1960, this medium was named for its inventors. It contains sodium acetate, which suppresses the growth of many competing bacteria (although some other Lactobacillales, like Leuconostoc and Pediococcus, may grow)
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Middlebrook 7H10 Agar
Middlebrook 7H10 Agar
Agar
is a solid growth medium specially used for culture of Mycobacterium, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis.[1] It has been reported that the 7H10 medium tends to grow fewer contaminants than the egg-based media commonly used for the cultivation of mycobacteria.Contents1 Composition 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksComposition[edit] Ingredients (g/L)[2]Ammonium sulfate, 0.50 Monopotassium phosphate, 1.50 Disodium phosphate, 1.50 Sodium citrate, 0.40 Magnesium sulfate, 0.025 Zinc sulfate, 0.001 Copper sulfate, 0.001 L-Glutamic acid, 0.50 Ferric ammonium citrate, 0.04 Pyridoxine
Pyridoxine
hydrochloride, 0.001 Biotin, 0.0005 Malachite green, 0.00025 Agar, 15.00Cultures should be read within 5-7 days after inoculation and once a week thereafter for up to 8 weeks. See also[edit]Lowenstein-Jensen medium Middlebrook 7H9 BrothReferences[edit]^ Atlas, Ronald M.; James W. Snyder (2006)
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Middlebrook 7H11 Agar
Middlebrook 7H11 agar is identical to Middlebrook 7H10 agar, with an addition of pancreatic digest of casein to facilitate the growth of fastidious cultures of M. tuberculosis.[1] Mycobactin J may also be added to Middlebrook 7H11 agar to allow the recovery of M. genavense.[2] See also[edit]Lowenstein-Jensen medium Middlebrook 7H9 brothReferences[edit]^ Cohn, M.L., et al. 1968. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis.; 98:295 ^ Coyle, M.; et al. (1992). "Laboratory aspects of "Mycobacterium genavense," a proposed species isolated from AIDS patients". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 30 (12): 3206–3212
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Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
Mycoplasma
Mycoplasma
pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes. It is a human pathogen that causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia related to cold agglutinin disease. M. pneumoniae is characterized by the absence of a peptidoglycan cell wall and resulting resistance to many antibacterial agents. The persistence of M
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Eaton's Agar
Eaton's agar is a type of agar media is used to grow Mycoplasma pneumoniae. One recipe for the cultivation of M. pneumoniae (Eaton's agar) includes (v/v):[1]70% Difco PPLO
PPLO
(pleuropneumonia-like organism) agar or broth base 20% unheated horse serum 10% fresh aqueous extract of baker's yeast 1000 units/ml Penicillin GReferences[edit]^ Dajani AS, Clyde WA, Denny FW (1965). "Experimental infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
(Eaton's agent)". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 121 (6): 1071–1086. doi:10.1084/jem.121.6.1071. PMC 2138014 
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Firmicutes
The Firmicutes
Firmicutes
(/fɜːrˈmɪkjʊtiːz/;[3] Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.[4] A few, however, such as Megasphaera, Pectinatus, Selenomonas
Selenomonas
and Zymophilus, have a porous pseudo-outer membrane that causes them to stain Gram-negative. Scientists once classified the Firmicutes
Firmicutes
to include all Gram-positive bacteria, but have recently defined them to be of a core group of related forms called the low-G+C group, in contrast to the Actinobacteria. They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod-like forms (bacillus). Many Firmicutes
Firmicutes
produce endospores, which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions. They are found in various environments, and the group includes some notable pathogens
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Corynebacterium Diphtheriae
Corynebacterium
Corynebacterium
diphtheriae[a] is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria.[2] It is also known as the Klebs-Löffler bacillus, because it was discovered in 1884 by German bacteriologists Edwin Klebs (1834–1912) and Friedrich Löffler
Friedrich Löffler
(1852–1915).Contents1 Classification 2 Pathogen and Disease 3 Pathogenesis 4 Sensitivity 5 Genetics 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksClassification[edit] Four subspecies are recognized: C. d. mitis, C. d. intermedius, C. d. gravis, and C. d. belfanti. The four subspecies differ slightly in their colonial morphology and biochemical properties, such as the ability to metabolize certain nutrients, but all may be toxigenic (and therefore cause diphtheria) or not toxigenic. C. diphtheriae produces diphtheria toxin which alters protein function in the host by inactivating the elongation factor EF-2
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Hoyle's Agar
Hoyle's agar is a selective medium that uses tellurite to differentially select Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
from other upper respiratory tract flora. Hoyle's tellurite agar contains:Proteose peptone 10 g/LBeef extract 10 g/LSodium chloride 5 g/LBlood, lakedTellurite 0.35 g/LAgar 15
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Enterococcus
Enterococcus
Enterococcus
is a large genus of lactic acid bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Enterococci are Gram-positive
Gram-positive
cocci that often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains, and are difficult to distinguish from streptococci on physical characteristics alone.[4] Two species are common commensal organisms in the intestines of humans: E. faecalis (90–95%) and E. faecium (5–10%). Rare clusters of infections occur with other species, including E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, and E
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Bile Esculin Agar
Bile Esculin
Esculin
Agar
Agar
(BEA) is a selective differential agar used to isolate and identify members of the genus Enterococcus,[1] formerly part of the "group D streptococci" (enterococci were reclassified in their own genus in 1984).[2]Contents1 Composition and process 2 Uses 3 References 4 External linksComposition and process[edit] Enterococcus
Enterococcus
colonies (black) growing on BEABile salts are the selective ingredient, while esculin is the differential component
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Lactobacillus
Lactobacillus
Lactobacillus
is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.[1] They are a major part of the lactic acid bacteria group (i.e. they convert sugars to lactic acid). In humans, they constitute a significant component of the microbiota at a number of body sites, such as the digestive system, urinary system, and genital system
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Lactococcus
L. chungangensis L. formosensis L. fujiensis L. garvieae L. hircilactis[1] L. lactis L. laudensis[1] L. nasutitermitis[1] L. piscium L. plantarum L. raffinolactis L. taiwanensis Lactococcus
Lactococcus
is a genus of lactic acid bacteria that were formerly included in the genus Streptococcus
Streptococcus
Group N1.[2] They are known as homofermenters meaning that they produce a single product, lactic acid in this case, as the major or only product of glucose fermentation. Their homofermentative character can be altered by adjusting environmental conditions such as pH, glucose concentration, and nutrient limitation. They are gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-motile cocci that are found singly, in pairs, or in chains. The genus contains strains known to grow at or below 7˚C.[3] Twelve species of Lactococcus
Lactococcus
are currently recognized.[4] They are:L. chungangensis L. formosensis L
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Löwenstein–Jensen Medium
The Löwenstein–Jensen medium, more commonly known as LJ medium, is a growth medium[1] specially used for culture of Mycobacterium species, notably Mycobacterium
Mycobacterium
tuberculosis. When grown on LJ medium, M. tuberculosis appears as brown, granular colonies (sometimes called "buff, rough and tough"). The medium must be incubated for a significant length of time, usually four weeks, due to the slow doubling time of M. tuberculosis (15–20 hours) compared with other bacteria.Contents1 Composition 2 Uses 3 Alternatives3.1 Alternative culture media3.1.1 Solid media 3.1.2 Liquid media3.2 Rapid detection techniques4 See also 5 ReferencesComposition[edit] The usual composition[2] as applicable to M
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M17 Agar
This bacterial growth medium was developed in 1971 for Lactococcus species isolated from milk products. It was originally called M16 medium,[1] but in 1975 Terzaghi and Sandine[2] added disodium-β-glycerophosphate to the medium as a buffer, and named the new growth medium M17 medium. It was later found that the addition of disodium-β-glycerophosphate inhibits the growth of many Lactobacillus species[3] Typical composition[edit] Per 950 ml:[4]5.0 g Pancreatic Digest of Casein 5.0 g Soy Peptone 5.0 g Beef Extract 2.5 g Yeast Extract 0.5 g Ascorbic Acid 0.25 g Magnesium Sulfate 10.0 g Disodium-β-glycerophosphate 11.0 g AgarPreparation:1. Heat with frequent agitation and boil for 1 minute to completely dissolve. 2. Autoclave at 121°C for 15 minutes. Cool to 50°C. 3. Add 50 ml filter sterilized 10% lactose solution and mix well (the lactose can be exchanged to other carbohydrates e.g. glucose, resulting in GM17 medium)References[edit]^ Lowrie, R. J., and L. E. Pearce
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