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Theses On Feuerbach
The "THESES ON FEUERBACH" are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx as a basic outline for the first chapter of the book _ The German Ideology _ in 1845. Like the book for which they were written, the theses were never published in Marx's lifetime, seeing print for the first time in 1888 as an appendix to a pamphlet by his co-thinker Friedrich Engels . The document is best remembered for the epigrammatic 11th thesis and final line: "Philosophers have hitherto only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it." CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Content * 1.3 Publication history * 1.4 Uses of the text * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 External links HISTORYBACKGROUNDIn February 1845 Karl Marx was deported from France at the behest of minister of foreign affairs François Guizot . Marx found sanctuary in Brussels , where he was joined for a number of months by his political compatriot Frederick Engels beginning in April of that same year. It was in Brussels that Marx first began to shape the concept of historical materialism — the idea that underlying fundamental changes in political history was a corresponding economic struggle between ruling and oppressed classes which was at root of these structural transformations
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Philosophy
PHILOSOPHY (from Greek φιλοσοφία, _philosophia_, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real ? However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will ? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy " encompassed astronomy , medicine and physics . For example, Newton 's 1687 _Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy _ later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology , sociology , linguistics and economics
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Karl Marx
KARL MARX (/mɑːrks/ ; German: ; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a Prussian-born philosopher , economist , political theorist , sociologist , journalist , and revolutionary socialist . Born in Trier to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy . As an adult, Marx became stateless and spent much of his life in London, England , where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and published various works, the most well-known being the 1848 pamphlet _ The Communist Manifesto _. His work has since influenced subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history. Marx's theories about society, economics, and politics—collectively understood as Marxism —hold that human societies develop through class struggle ; in capitalism , this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie ) that control the means of production and working classes (known as the proletariat ) that enable these means by selling their labour for wages. Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism , Marx predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism
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The German Ideology
THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY (German: Die deutsche Ideologie) is a set of manuscripts written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels around April or early May 1846. Marx and Engels did not find a publisher, but the work was later retrieved and published for the first time in 1932 by David Riazanov through the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow
Moscow
. The multi-part book consists of many satirically written polemics against Bruno Bauer
Bruno Bauer
, other Young Hegelians , and Max Stirner 's The Ego and Its Own (1844). Part I, however, is a work of exposition giving the appearance of being the work for which the "Theses on Feuerbach " served as an outline. The work is a restatement of the theory of history Marx was beginning to call the "materialist conception of history ". Since its first publication, Marxist scholars have found the work particularly valuable since it is perhaps the most comprehensive statement of Marx\'s theory of history stated at such length and detail. CONTENTS * 1 Text * 2 General outline * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TEXT The first page of the manuscript (written by Marx) The text itself was written by Marx and Engels in Brussels in 1845 and 1846 but it was not published until 1932. The Preface and some of the alterations and additions are in Marx's hand
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Friedrich Engels
FRIEDRICH ENGELS (English: /ˈɛŋɡəlz/ or /ˈɛŋəlz/ ; German: ; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher , social scientist , journalist , and businessman . He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
. In 1845, he published _The Condition of the Working Class in England
England
_, based on personal observations and research in Manchester
Manchester
. In 1848, he co-authored _ The Communist Manifesto _ with Marx, though he also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) many other works, and later he supported Marx
Marx
financially to do research and write _ Das Kapital
Das Kapital
_. After Marx's death, Engels edited the second and third volumes. Additionally, Engels organised Marx's notes on the _ Theories of Surplus Value
Theories of Surplus Value
_, which he later published as the "fourth volume" of _Capital_. He also made contributions to family economics
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François Guizot
FRANçOIS PIERRE GUILLAUME GUIZOT (French: ; 4 October 1787 – 12 September 1874) was a French historian, orator , and statesman. Guizot was a dominant figure in French politics prior to the Revolution of 1848. A conservative liberal who opposed the attempt by King Charles X to usurp legislative power, he worked to sustain a constitutional monarchy following the July Revolution of 1830. He then served the "citizen king" Louis Philippe , as Minister of Education, 1832–37, ambassador to London, Foreign Minister 1840–1847, and finally Prime Minister of France from 19 September 1847 to 23 February 1848. Guizot's influence was critical in expanding public education, which under his ministry saw the creation of primary schools in every French commune. But as a leader of the "Doctrinaires ", committed to supporting the policies of Louis Phillipe and limitations on further expansion of the political franchise, he earned the hatred of more left-leaning liberals and republicans through his unswerving support for restricting suffrage to propertied men, advising those who wanted the vote to "enrich yourselves" (enrichissez-vous) through hard work and thrift
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Brussels
}} BRUSSELS (French : _Bruxelles_, (_ listen ); Dutch : Brussel_, (_ listen )), officially the BRUSSELS-CAPITAL REGION (French : Région de Bruxelles-Capitale_, Dutch : _ Brussels
Brussels
Hoofdstedelijk Gewest_), is a region of Belgium
Belgium
comprising 19 municipalities , including the City of Brussels
Brussels
which is the capital of Belgium
Belgium
. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium
Belgium
and the Flemish Community , but is separate from the region of Flanders
Flanders
(in which it forms an enclave ) or Wallonia . Compared to most regions in Europe, Brussels has a relatively small territory, with an area of ​​161 km² (62.31 sq mi). The region has a population of 1.2 million and a metropolitan area with a population of over 1.8 million, the largest agglomeration in Belgium. Brussels
Brussels
is also part of a large conurbation which extends between Brussels, Antwerp
Antwerp
, Ghent
Ghent
, Leuven and Walloon Brabant and is home to over 5 million people. Brussels
Brussels
grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe
Europe

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Frederick Engels
FRIEDRICH ENGELS (English: /ˈɛŋɡəlz/ or /ˈɛŋəlz/ ; German: ; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher , social scientist , journalist , and businessman . He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
. In 1845, he published The Condition of the Working Class in England
England
, based on personal observations and research in Manchester
Manchester
. In 1848, he co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Marx, though he also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) many other works, and later he supported Marx
Marx
financially to do research and write Das Kapital . After Marx's death, Engels edited the second and third volumes. Additionally, Engels organised Marx's notes on the Theories of Surplus Value , which he later published as the "fourth volume" of Capital. He also made contributions to family economics
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Historical Materialism
HISTORICAL MATERIALISM is a methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time. This was first articulated by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
(1818–1883) as the MATERIALIST CONCEPTION OF HISTORY. It is principally a theory of history according to which the material conditions of a society's way of producing and reproducing the means of human existence or, in Marxist terms, the union of its productive capacity and social relations of production , fundamentally determine its organization and development. Historical materialism
Historical materialism
looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social classes and the relationship between them, along with the political structures and ways of thinking in society, are founded on and reflect contemporary economic activity. Since Marx's time, the theory has been modified and expanded by Marxist writers. It now has many Marxist and non-Marxist variants
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Epigram
An EPIGRAM is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement. The word is derived from the Greek : ἐπίγραμμα epigramma "inscription" from ἐπιγράφειν epigraphein "to write on, to inscribe", and the literary device has been employed for over two millennia. The presence of wit or sarcasm tends to distinguish non-poetic epigrams from aphorisms and adages , which may lack them. CONTENTS * 1 Ancient Greek * 2 Ancient Roman * 3 English * 4 Poetic * 5 Non-poetic * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 External links ANCIENT GREEKThe Greek tradition of epigrams began as poems inscribed on votive offerings at sanctuaries – including statues of athletes – and on funerary monuments, for example "Go tell it to the Spartans, passersby..." . These original epigrams did the same job as a short prose text might have done, but in verse. Epigram
Epigram
became a literary genre in the Hellenistic period , probably developing out of scholarly collections of inscriptional epigrams. Though modern epigrams are usually thought of as very short, Greek literary epigram was not always as short as later examples, and the divide between "epigram" and "elegy " is sometimes indistinct (they share a characteristic metre, elegiac couplets ). In the classical period, the clear distinction between them was that epigrams were inscribed and meant to be read, while elegies were recited and meant to be heard
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Ludwig Feuerbach
LUDWIG ANDREAS VON FEUERBACH (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book _The Essence of Christianity
Christianity
_, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. An associate of Left Hegelian circles, Feuerbach advocated liberalism, atheism , and materialism . Many of his philosophical writings offered a critical analysis of religion. His thought was influential in the development of historical materialism , where he is often recognized as a bridge between Hegel and Marx. CONTENTS* 1 Life and career * 1.1 Education * 1.2 Early writings * 1.3 _Das Wesen des Christentums_ (_The Essence of Christianity_) * 1.4 After "1848" * 1.5 Philosophy * 1.6 Influence * 2 Works * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links LIFE AND CAREERFeuerbach was the fourth son of the eminent jurist Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach , brother of mathematician Karl Wilhelm Feuerbach and uncle of painter Anselm Feuerbach
Anselm Feuerbach

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Young Hegelian
The YOUNG HEGELIANS (German : Junghegelianer), or LEFT HEGELIANS (Linkshegelianer), or THE HEGELIAN LEFT (die Hegelsche Linke), were a group of German intellectuals who, in the decade or so after the death of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in 1831, reacted to and wrote about his ambiguous legacy. The Young Hegelians drew on his idea that the purpose and promise of history was the total negation of everything conducive to restricting freedom and reason; and they proceeded to mount radical critiques, first of religion and then of the Prussian political system. They rejected anti-utopian aspects of his thought that "Old Hegelians" have interpreted to mean that the world has already essentially reached perfection
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Materialism
MATERIALISM is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature , and that all things, including mental things and consciousness , are results of material interactions. Materialism is closely related to physicalism , the view that all that exists is ultimately physical. Philosophical physicalism has evolved from materialism with the discoveries of the physical sciences to incorporate more sophisticated notions of physicality than mere ordinary matter, such as: spacetime , physical energies and forces , dark matter , and so on. Thus the term "physicalism" is preferred over "materialism" by some, while others use the terms as if they are synonymous . Philosophies contradictory to materialism or physicalism include idealism , pluralism , dualism , and other forms of monism . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 2.1 Axial Age * 2.2 Common Era * 2.3 Modern era * 2.4 New materialism * 3 Scientific materialists * 4 Defining matter * 5 Physicalism * 6 Criticism and alternatives * 6.1 Scientific objections * 6.2 Religious and spiritual views * 6.3 Philosophical objections * 6.3.1 Idealisms * 6.4 Materialism as methodology * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links OVERVIEW Materialism belongs to the class of monist ontology
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Abstraction
ABSTRACTION in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete ") signifiers, first principles , or other methods. "An abstraction" is the outcome of this process—a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category. Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon , selecting only the aspects which are relevant for a particular purpose. For example, abstracting a leather soccer ball to the more general idea of a ball selects only the information on general ball attributes and behavior, eliminating the other characteristics of that particular ball. In a type–token distinction , a type (e.g., a 'ball') is more abstract than its tokens (e.g., 'that leather soccer ball'). Abstraction
Abstraction
in its secondary use is a material process , discussed in the themes below
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German Idealism
GERMAN IDEALISM (also known as POST-KANTIAN IDEALISM, POST-KANTIAN PHILOSOPHY, or simply POST-KANTIANISM ) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany
Germany
in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It began as a reaction to Immanuel Kant 's _ Critique of Pure Reason _ and was closely linked with both Romanticism and the revolutionary politics of the Enlightenment . The most notable thinkers in the movement were Johann Gottlieb Fichte
Johann Gottlieb Fichte
, Friedrich Schelling and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , while Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi , Gottlob Ernst Schulze , Karl Leonhard Reinhold and Friedrich Schleiermacher also made major contributions. CONTENTS * 1 Meaning of idealism * 2 Background * 3 Theorists * 3.1 Jacobi * 3.2 Reinhold * 3.3 Schulze * 3.4 Fichte * 3.5 Schelling * 3.6 Schleiermacher * 3.7 Maimon * 3.8 Hegel * 4 Responses * 4.1 Neo-Kantianism * 4.2 Hegelianism
Hegelianism
* 4.3 Schopenhauer * 4.4 British idealism * 4.5 United States * 4.6 Ortega y Gasset * 4.7 George Santayana
George Santayana
* 4.8 G. E
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Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute
The MARX-ENGELS-LENIN INSTITUTE, launched in Moscow
Moscow
in 1919 as the MARX-ENGELS INSTITUTE (Russian : Институт К. Маркса и Ф. Энгельса), was a Soviet library and archive attached to the Communist Academy
Communist Academy
. The institute was later attached to the governing Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and served as a research center and publishing house for officially published works of Marxist doctrine. The Marx-Engels Institute gathered unpublished manuscripts by Karl Marx , Frederick Engels
Frederick Engels
, V.I. Lenin , and other leading Marxist theoreticians as well as collecting books, pamphlets, and periodicals related to the socialist and organized labor move