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Theses On Feuerbach
The "THESES ON FEUERBACH" are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
as a basic outline for the first chapter of the book The German Ideology in 1845. Like the book for which they were written, the theses were never published in Marx's lifetime, seeing print for the first time in 1888 as an appendix to a pamphlet by his co-thinker Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. The document is best remembered for the epigrammatic 11th thesis and final line: "Philosophers have hitherto only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it." CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Content * 1.3 Publication history * 1.4 Uses of the text * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 External links HISTORYBACKGROUNDIn February 1845 Karl Marx
Karl Marx
was deported from France at the behest of minister of foreign affairs François Guizot
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Marxist Philosophy
MARXIST PHILOSOPHY or MARXIST THEORY are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx 's materialist approach to theory , or works written by Marxists . Marxist philosophy may be broadly divided into Western Marxism , which drew out of various sources, and the official philosophy in the Soviet Union , which enforced a rigid reading of Marx called dialectical materialism , in particular during the 1930s. Marxist philosophy is not a strictly defined sub-field of philosophy, because the diverse influence of Marxist theory has extended into fields as varied as aesthetics , ethics , ontology , epistemology , theoretical psychology and philosophy of science , as well as its obvious influence on political philosophy and the philosophy of history . The key characteristics of Marxism in philosophy are its materialism and its commitment to political practice as the end goal of all thought
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Marxism
MARXISM is a form of socioeconomic analysis that analyses class relations and societal conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the mid-to-late 19th century works of German philosophers Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. Marxist methodology originally used a method of economic and sociopolitical inquiry known as historical materialism to analyze and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change. According to Marxist perspective, class conflict within capitalism arises due to intensifying contradictions between the highly productive mechanized and socialized production performed by the proletariat , and the private ownership and appropriation of the surplus product (profit) by a small minority of the population who are private owners called the bourgeoisie
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Young Hegelians
The YOUNG HEGELIANS (German : Junghegelianer), or LEFT HEGELIANS (Linkshegelianer), or THE HEGELIAN LEFT (die Hegelsche Linke), were a group of German intellectuals who, in the decade or so after the death of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
in 1831, reacted to and wrote about his ambiguous legacy. The Young Hegelians
Young Hegelians
drew on his idea that the purpose and promise of history was the total negation of everything conducive to restricting freedom and reason; and they proceeded to mount radical critiques, first of religion and then of the Prussian political system. They rejected anti-utopian aspects of his thought that "Old Hegelians" have interpreted to mean that the world has already essentially reached perfection
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Wikisource
WIKISOURCE is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki , operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the Déclaration universelle des Droits de l\'Homme ), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name PROJECT SOURCEBERG, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
. The name Wikisource
Wikisource
was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later
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LibriVox
LIBRIVOX is a group of worldwide volunteers who read and record public domain texts creating free public domain audiobooks for download from their website and other digital library hosting sites on the internet. It was founded in 2005 by Hugh McGuire to provide "Acoustical liberation of books in the public domain" and the LibriVox
LibriVox
objective is "To make all books in the public domain available, for free, in audio format on the internet". By the end of 2017, LibriVox
LibriVox
had a catalog of over 12,000 works and from 2009-2017 was producing about 1,000 per year. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are also available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content
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Young Marx
Some theorists consider Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's thought to be divided into a "YOUNG" period and a "mature" one. There is disagreement to when Marx's thought began to mature, and the problem of the idea of a "Young Marx" is the problem of tracking the development of Marx's works and of its possible unity. The problem thus centres on Marx's transition from philosophy to economics , which has been considered by orthodox Marxism
Marxism
as a progressive change towards scientific socialism . This positivist reading has however been challenged by Marxist theorists , as well as members of the New Left
New Left
. They pointed out the humanist side in Marx's work, and how he in his early writings focused on liberation from wage-slavery and freedom from alienation , that they claimed was a forgotten element of Marx's writings and central to understanding his later work
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Workers Of The World, Unite!
The political slogan WORKERS OF THE WORLD, UNITE! is one of the most famous rallying cries from the Communist Manifesto (1848), by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
(German : Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" but soon popularized in English as " Workers of the world, unite!
Workers of the world, unite!
You have nothing to lose but your chains!") A variation of this phrase ("Workers of all lands, unite") is also inscribed on Marx's tombstone. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Variations * 3 Non-English usage * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWFive years before the Communist Manifesto, the phrase appeared in the 1843 book "The Workers' Union" by Flora Tristan
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Tombstone
A HEADSTONE, TOMBSTONE, or GRAVESTONE is a stele or marker, usually stone, that is placed over a grave . They are traditional for burials in the Christian , Jewish and Muslim religions, among others. In most cases they have the deceased's name, date of birth, and date of death inscribed on them, along with a personal message, or prayer , but they may contain pieces of funerary art , especially details in stone relief . In many parts of Europe insetting a photograph of the deceased in a frame is very common. CONTENTS * 1 Use * 2 Materials * 2.1 Stone * 2.2 Metal, wood and plants * 3 Inscriptions * 4 Form and decoration * 5 Safety * 6 Gallery * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links USE Marble
Marble
headstone of a couple buried together in Singapore
Singapore
, showing an arched emblem, signifying the reunification with one's partner in heaven
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Highgate Cemetery
HIGHGATE CEMETERY is a place of burial in north London
London
, England. It is designated Grade I on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens . It is divided into two parts, named the East and West cemetery. There are approximately 170,000 people buried in around 53,000 graves at Highgate Cemetery. Highgate Cemetery
Cemetery
is notable both for some of the people buried there as well as for its de facto status as a nature reserve
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London
LONDON (/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London
London
has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it Londinium . London's ancient core, the City of London
London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Communist Manifesto
THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO (originally MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. Commissioned by the Communist League
Communist League
and originally published in London (in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms. The Communist Manifesto summarises Marx and Engels' theories about the nature of society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles"
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Capital
CAPITAL may refer to: * Capital city
Capital city
, the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status, usually but not always the seat of the government* Capital letter , an upper-case letter in a writing system *
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On The Jewish Question
"ON THE JEWISH QUESTION" is a work by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, written in 1843, and first published in Paris in 1844 under the German title "ZUR JUDENFRAGE" in the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher . It was one of Marx's first attempts to develop what would later be called the materialist conception of history . The essay criticizes two studies by Marx's fellow Young Hegelian Bruno Bauer
Bruno Bauer
on the attempt by Jews to achieve political emancipation in Prussia. Bauer argued that Jews could achieve political emancipation only by relinquishing their particular religious consciousness, since political emancipation requires a secular state , which he assumes does not leave any "space" for social identities such as religion. According to Bauer, such religious demands are incompatible with the idea of the " Rights of Man ". True political emancipation, for Bauer, requires the abolition of religion
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Critique Of Hegel's Philosophy Of Right
CRITIQUE OF HEGEL\'S PHILOSOPHY OF RIGHT (Zur Kritik der Hegelschen Rechtsphilosophie) is a manuscript written by German political philosopher Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in 1843 in Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher . Unpublished during his lifetime (except for the introduction in 1844), it is a manuscript in which Marx comments on fellow philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
's 1820 book Elements of the Philosophy of Right paragraph by paragraph. One of Marx's major criticisms of Hegel in the document is the fact that many of his dialectical arguments begin in abstraction . This work contains the formulations of Marx's particular alienation theory , which was informed by Ludwig Feuerbach 's work
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