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Theory Of Justification
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e THEORY OF JUSTIFICATION is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs . Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, which include the ideas of justification, warrant, rationality , and probability . Loosely speaking, justification is the reason that someone (properly) holds a belief. When a claim is in doubt, justification can be used to support the claim and reduce or remove the doubt. Justification can use empiricism (the evidence of the senses), authoritative testimony (the appeal to criteria and authority), or logical deduction
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Evidentialism
For philosophers Richard Feldman and Earl Conee, EVIDENTIALISM is the strongest argument for justification because it identifies the primary notion of epistemic justification. They argue that if a person's attitude towards a proposition fits their evidence, then their doxastic attitude for that proposition is epistemically justified. Feldman and Conee offer the following argument for evidentialism as an epistemic justification: (EJ) Doxastic attitude D toward proposition p is epistemically justified for S at t if and only if having D toward p fits the evidence. For Feldman and Conee a person's doxastic attitude is justified if it fits their evidence. EJ is meant to show the idea that justification is characteristically epistemic. This idea makes justification dependent on evidence. Feldman and Conee believe that because objections to EJ have become so prominent their defense for it is appropriate
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Jonathan Kvanvig
JONATHAN LEE KVANVIG (born December 7, 1954) is Professor of Philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis
Washington University in St. Louis
. Kvanvig has published extensively in areas such as epistemology, philosophy of religion, logic, and philosophy of language. Some of his books include Rationality and Reflection, The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit of Understanding, and The Problem of Hell
Hell
(published 1993), which debates Hell
Hell
in a modern theological and philosophical way. He is the owner and administrator of the blog Certain Doubts, which covers topics related to epistemology . SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY * Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion, ed., Volume 1, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008
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Negation
In logic , NEGATION, also called LOGICAL COMPLEMENT, is an operation that takes a proposition p to another proposition "not p", written ¬p, which is interpreted intuitively as being true when p is false, and false when p is true. Negation is thus a unary (single-argument) logical connective . It may be applied as an operation on propositions , truth values , or semantic values more generally. In classical logic , negation is normally identified with the truth function that takes truth to falsity and vice versa. In intuitionistic logic , according to the Brouwer–Heyting–Kolmogorov interpretation , the negation of a proposition p is the proposition whose proofs are the refutations of p
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Epistemological Skepticism
PHILOSOPHICAL SKEPTICISM (UK spelling SCEPTICISM; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge. It is generally agreed that knowledge requires justification. It is not enough to have a true belief: one must also have good reasons for that belief. Skeptics claim that it is not possible to have only an adequate justification. Skepticism is not a single position but covers a range of different positions. In the ancient world there were two main skeptical traditions. Academic skepticism took the dogmatic position that knowledge was not possible; Pyrrhonian skeptics refused to take a dogmatic position on any issue—including skepticism. Radical skepticism ends in the paradoxical claim that one cannot know anything—including that one cannot know about knowing anything. Skepticism can be classified according to its scope
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Logical
LOGIC (from the Ancient Greek : λογική, translit. logikḗ ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference . A valid inference is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the inference and its conclusion . (In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words like therefore, hence, ergo and so on.) There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions , below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of inference , including fallacies , and the study of semantics , including paradoxes
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Rationality
RATIONALITY is the quality or state of being reasonable, based on facts or reason . Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with one's reasons to believe, or of one's actions with one's reasons for action. "Rationality" has different specialized meanings in philosophy , economics , sociology , psychology , evolutionary biology , and political science . To determine what behavior is the most rational, one needs to make several key assumptions, and also needs a quantifiable formulation of the problem. When the goal or problem involves making a decision, rationality factors in how much information is available (e.g. complete or incomplete knowledge )
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Proposition
The term PROPOSITION has a broad use in contemporary philosophy . It is used to refer to some or all of the following: the primary bearers of truth -value, the objects of belief and other "propositional attitudes " (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc.), the referents of that-clauses, and the meanings of declarative sentences . Propositions are the sharable objects of attitudes and the primary bearers of truth and falsity. This stipulation rules out certain candidates for propositions, including thought- and utterance-tokens which are not sharable, and concrete events or facts, which cannot be false
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Testimony
In law and in religion , TESTIMONY is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Law
Law
* 3 Religion
Religion
* 3.1 Types * 4 Literature
Literature
* 5 Philosophy
Philosophy
* 6 See also * 7 References ETYMOLOGY Look up TESTIMONY in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.The words "testimony" and "testify" both have a roots in the Latin testis, referring to the notion of a third person, disinterested witness. LAWIn the law , testimony is a form of evidence that is obtained from a witness who makes a solemn statement or declaration of fact. Testimony may be oral or written, and it is usually made by oath or affirmation under penalty of perjury . To be admissible in court and for maximum reliability and validity, written testimony is usually witnessed by one or more persons who swear or affirm its authenticity also under penalty of perjury
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Face On Mars
Coordinates : 40°44′N 9°28′W / 40.74°N 9.46°W / 40.74; -9.46 Small part of the Cydonia region, taken by the Viking 1
Viking 1
orbiter and released by NASA
NASA
/ JPL on July 25, 1976 CYDONIA (/sɪˈdoʊniə/ , /saɪˈdoʊniə/ ) is a region on the planet Mars
Mars
that has attracted both scientific and popular interest. The name originally referred to the albedo feature (distinctively coloured area) that was visible from Earthbound telescopes . The area borders plains of Acidalia Planitia
Acidalia Planitia
and the Arabia Terra
Arabia Terra
highlands. The area includes the regions: "Cydonia Mensae", an area of flat-topped mesa -like features, "Cydonia Colles", a region of small hills or knobs , and "Cydonia Labyrinthus", a complex of intersecting valleys
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Susan Haack
SUSAN HAACK (born 1945) is Distinguished Professor in the Humanities, Cooper Senior Scholar in Arts and Sciences, Professor of Philosophy, and Professor of Law at the University of Miami. She has written on logic , the philosophy of language , epistemology , and metaphysics . Her pragmatism follows that of Charles Sanders Peirce . CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Ideas * 3 Memberships * 4 Selected writings * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links CAREERHaack is a graduate of the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and the University of Cambridge (B.A., M.A., B.Phil, Oxford; Ph.D., Cambridge). She was elected into Phi Beta Kappa as an honorary member. At Oxford, she studied at St. Hilda\'s College , where her first philosophy teacher was Jean Austin, the widow of J. L. Austin
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Abductive Reasoning
ABDUCTIVE REASONING (also called ABDUCTION, ABDUCTIVE INFERENCE, or RETRODUCTION ) is a form of logical inference which starts with an observation then seeks to find the simplest and most likely explanation. In abductive reasoning, unlike in deductive reasoning , the premises do not guarantee the conclusion. One can understand abductive reasoning as INFERENCE TO THE BEST EXPLANATION, although not all uses of the terms abduction and inference to the best explanation are exactly equivalent. In the 1990s, as computing power grew, the fields of law, computer science , and artificial intelligence research spurred renewed interest in the subject of abduction. Diagnostic expert systems frequently employ abduction
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Occam's Razor
OCCAM\'S RAZOR (also OCKHAM\'S RAZOR; Latin : lex parsimoniae "LAW OF PARSIMONY") is a problem-solving principle attributed to William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347), who was an English Franciscan friar, scholastic philosopher, and theologian. His principle states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected. In science, Occam's razor
Occam's razor
is used as a heuristic guide in the development of theoretical models, rather than as a rigorous arbiter between candidate models. In the scientific method , Occam's razor is not considered an irrefutable principle of logic or a scientific result; the preference for simplicity in the scientific method is based on the falsifiability criterion
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Norm (philosophy)
NORMS are concepts (sentences ) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express. Normative sentences imply "ought-to" types of statements and assertions, in distinction to sentences that provide "is" types of statements and assertions. Common normative sentences include commands , permissions, and prohibitions; common normative abstract concepts include sincerity, justification, and honesty. A popular account of norms describes them as reasons to take action , to believe , and to feel . CONTENTS * 1 Types of norms * 2 Major characteristics * 3 See also * 4 Further reading TYPES OF NORMSOrders and permissions express norms. Such norm sentences do not describe how the world is, they rather prescribe how the world should be. Imperative sentences are the most obvious way to express norms, but declarative sentences also may be norms, as is the case with laws or 'principles'
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Deontic Logic
DEONTIC LOGIC is the field of philosophical logic that is concerned with obligation , permission , and related concepts. Alternatively, a deontic logic is a formal system that attempts to capture the essential logical features of these concepts
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