HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1500] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Theoretical
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e A THEORY is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might, for example, include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek , but in modern use it has taken on several different related meanings. Theories guide the enterprise of finding facts rather than of reaching goals, and are neutral concerning alternatives among values. :131 A theory can be a body of knowledge , which may or may not be associated with particular explanatory models. To theorize is to develop this body of knowledge. :46 As already in Aristotle's definitions, theory is very often contrasted to "practice " (from Greek _praxis_, πρᾶξις) a Greek term for _doing_, which is opposed to theory because pure theory involves no doing apart from itself. A classical example of the distinction between "theoretical" and "practical" uses the discipline of medicine: medical theory involves trying to understand the causes and nature of health and sickness, while the practical side of medicine is trying to make people healthy
[...More...]

"Theoretical" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Scientific Theory
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability * v * t * e PART OF A SERIES ON SCIENCE Formal * Logic * Mathematics * Mathematical logic * Mathematical statistics * Theoretical computer science Physical CHEMISTRY * Acid-base * Analytical * Environmental * Inorganic * Nuclear * Organic * Physical * Solid-state * Supramolecular * Sustainable ("green") * Theoretical * Astrochemistry * Biochemistry * Crystallography * Food chemistry * Geochemistry * Materials science * Molecular physics * Photochemistry * Radiochemistry * Stereochemistry * Surface science PHYSICS * Classical * Modern * Applied * Experimental * Theoretical * Computational * Atomic * Condensed matter * Mechanics * (classical * continuum * fluid * solid ) * Molecular * Nuclear * Particle * Plasma * Quantum field theory * Quantum mechanics (introduction ) * Special relativity * General relativity * Rheology * String theory * Thermodynamics EARTH SCIENCES * Climatology * Ecology * Edaphology * Environmental science * Geodesy * Geography (physical ) * Geology * Geomorphology * Geophysics * Glaciology * Hydrology * Limnology * Meteorology * Oceanography * Paleoclimatolog
[...More...]

"Scientific Theory" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Theory (other)
THEORY is a type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or its result. THEORY may also refer to: * Literary theory , the systematic study of the nature of literature, or any of a variety of scholarly approaches to reading texts * Philosophical theory , a position that explains or accounts for a general philosophy or specific branch of philosophy * Scientific theory , a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world * Theory, a type of argument in policy debate and Lincoln–Douglas debate * Theory
Theory
(chess) , consensus and literature on how the game should be played *
[...More...]

"Theory (other)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Certainty
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e CERTAINTY is perfect knowledge that has total security from error, or the mental state of being without doubt . Objectively defined, certainty is total continuity and validity of all foundational inquiry, to the highest degree of precision. Something is certain only if no skepticism can occur. Philosophy
Philosophy
(at least, historical Cartesian philosophy) seeks this state. It is widely held that certainty about the real world is a failed historical enterprise (that is, beyond deductive truths, tautology , etc.). This is in large part due to the power of David Hume
David Hume
's problem of induction . Physicist Carlo Rovelli adds that certainty, in real life, is useless or often damaging (the idea is that "total security from error" is impossible in practice, and a complete "lack of doubt" is undesirable)
[...More...]

"Certainty" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Approximation
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e An APPROXIMATION is anything that is similar but not exactly equal to something else. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and usage * 2 Mathematics * 3 Science * 4 Unicode
Unicode
* 5 LaTeX Symbols * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGY AND USAGEThe word _approximation_ is derived from Latin
Latin
_approximatus_, from _proximus_ meaning _very near_ and the prefix _ap-_ (_ad-_ before _p_) meaning _to_. Words like _approximate_, _approximately_ and _approximation_ are used especially in technical or scientific contexts. In everyday English, words such as _roughly_ or _around_ are used with a similar meaning. The term can be applied to various properties (e.g., value, quantity, image, description) that are nearly, but not exactly correct; similar, but not exactly the same (e.g., the approximate time was 10 o'clock). Although approximation is most often applied to numbers , it is also frequently applied to such things as mathematical functions , shapes , and physical laws . In science, approximation can refer to using a simpler process or model when the correct model is difficult to use. An approximate model is used to make calculations easier
[...More...]

"Approximation" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Belief
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e BELIEF is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case, with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty. Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true . In the context of Ancient Greek thought , two related concepts were identified with regards to the concept of belief: _pistis _ and _doxa _. Simplified, we may say that _pistis_ refers to "trust" and "confidence", while _doxa_ refers to "opinion" and "acceptance". The English word "orthodoxy " derives from _doxa_. Jonathan Leicester suggests that belief has the purpose of guiding action rather than indicating truth. In epistemology , philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to personal attitudes associated with true or false ideas and concepts. However, "belief" does not require active introspection and circumspection. For example, we never ponder whether or not the sun will rise. We simply assume the sun will rise
[...More...]

"Belief" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Doubt
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e DOUBT characterises a status in which the mind remains suspended between two contradictory propositions and unable to assent to either of them. Doubt
Doubt
on an emotional level is indecision between belief and disbelief. Doubt
Doubt
involves uncertainty , distrust or lack of sureness of an alleged fact , an action, a motive, or a decision . Doubt questions a notion of a perceived "reality ", and may involve delaying or rejecting relevant action out of concerns for mistakes or faults or appropriateness. (Compare paradox ). Doubt
Doubt
CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Impact on society * 3 Psychology * 4 Philosophy * 5 Theology * 6 Law
Law
* 7 In animals * 8 See also * 9 Notes and references * 10 Further reading DEFINITIONThe concept of doubt as a suspense between two contradictory propositions covers a range of phenomena: on a level of the mind it involves reasoning, examination of facts and evidence and on an emotional level believing and disbelieving In premodern theology doubt was "the voice of an uncertain conscience" and important to realize, because when in doubt "the safer way is not to act at all"
[...More...]

"Doubt" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Determinism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e DETERMINISM is the philosophical position that for every event there exist conditions that could cause no other event. "There are many determinisms, depending on what pre-conditions are considered to be determinative of an event or action." Deterministic theories throughout the history of philosophy have sprung from diverse and sometimes overlapping motives and considerations. Some forms of determinism can be empirically tested with ideas from physics and the philosophy of physics . The opposite of determinism is some kind of indeterminism (otherwise called _nondeterminism_). Determinism
Determinism
is often contrasted with free will . Determinism
Determinism
often is taken to mean _causal determinism_, which in physics is known as cause-and-effect. It is the concept that events within a given paradigm are bound by causality in such a way that any state (of an object or event) is completely determined by prior states. This meaning can be distinguished from other varieties of determinism mentioned below
[...More...]

"Determinism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Fallibilism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability * v * t * e Broadly speaking, FALLIBILISM (from Medieval Latin : _fallibilis_, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief. However, not all fallibilists believe that fallibilism extends to all domains of knowledge . CONTENTS * 1 Usage * 2 Proponents * 3 Moral fallibilism * 4 Criticism * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading USAGEThe term "fallibilism" is used in a variety of senses in contemporary epistemology . The term was coined in the late nineteenth century by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce . By "fallibilism", Peirce meant the view that "people cannot attain absolute certainty concerning questions of fact." Other theorists of knowledge have used the term differently. Thus, "fallibilism" has been used to describe the claim that: * No beliefs can be conclusively justified. * Knowledge does not require certainty. * Almost no basic (that is, non-inferred) beliefs are certain or conclusively justified. Additionally, some theorists embrace global versions of fallibilism (claiming that no human beliefs have truth-guaranteeing justification), while others restrict fallibilism to particular areas of human inquiry, such as empirical science or morality
[...More...]

"Fallibilism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Fatalism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e FATALISM is a philosophical doctrine that stresses the subjugation of all events or actions to fate . Fatalism generally refers to any of the following ideas: * The view that we are powerless to do anything other than what we actually do. Included in this is that humans have no power to influence the future, or indeed, their own actions. This belief is very similar to predeterminism . * An attitude of resignation in the face of some future event or events which are thought to be inevitable. Friedrich Nietzsche named this idea with "Turkish fatalism" in his book _The Wanderer and His Shadow _. * That acceptance is appropriate, rather than resistance against inevitability. This belief is very similar to defeatism .CONTENTS * 1 Antiquity * 2 Determinism and predeterminism * 3 Idle Argument * 4 Logical fatalism and the argument from bivalence * 5 Criticism * 5.1 Semantic equivocation * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ANTIQUITY _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
[...More...]

"Fatalism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Hypothesis
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e A HYPOTHESIS (plural HYPOTHESES) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon . For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory " are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory . A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research . A different meaning of the term _hypothesis_ is used in formal logic , to denote the antecedent of a proposition ; thus in the proposition "If _P_, then _Q_", _P_ denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); _Q_ can be called a consequent . _P_ is the assumption in a (possibly counterfactual ) _What If_ question. The adjective _hypothetical_, meaning "having the nature of a hypothesis", or "being assumed to exist as an immediate consequence of a hypothesis", can refer to any of these meanings of the term "hypothesis"
[...More...]

"Hypothesis" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Theory Of Justification
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability * v * t * e THEORY OF JUSTIFICATION is a part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs . Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, which include the ideas of justification, warrant, rationality , and probability . Loosely speaking, justification is the reason that someone (properly) holds a belief. When a claim is in doubt, justification can be used to support the claim and reduce or remove the doubt. Justification can use empiricism (the evidence of the senses), authoritative testimony (the appeal to criteria and authority), or logical deduction . CONTENTS * 1 Subjects of justification * 2 Justifications and explanations * 3 Justification is a normative activity * 4 Theories of justification * 5 Justifiers * 5.1 Commonly used justifiers * 6 Criticisms * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links SUBJECTS OF JUSTIFICATIONJustification focuses on beliefs. This is in part because of the influence of the definition of knowledge as "justified true belief " often associated with a theory discussed near the end of the Socratic dialogue Theaetetus . More generally, theories of justification focus on the justification of statements or propositions
[...More...]

"Theory Of Justification" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Nihilism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e NIHILISM (/ˈnaɪ.ᵻlɪzəm/ or /ˈniː.ᵻlɪzəm/ ; from the Latin
Latin
_nihil_, nothing) is a philosophical doctrine that suggests the lack of belief in one or more reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Most commonly, nihilism is presented in the form of existential nihilism , which argues that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value . Moral nihilists assert that there is no inherent morality , and that accepted moral values are abstractly contrived. Nihilism
Nihilism
may also take epistemological , ontological , or metaphysical forms, meaning respectively that, in some aspect, knowledge is not possible, or reality does not actually exist. The term is sometimes used in association with anomie to explain the general mood of despair at a perceived pointlessness of existence that one may develop upon realising there are no necessary norms, rules, or laws. Movements such as futurism and deconstruction , among others, have been identified by commentators as "nihilistic"
[...More...]

"Nihilism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Proof (truth)
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability * v * t * e A PROOF is sufficient evidence or a sufficient argument for the truth of a proposition . The concept applies in a variety of disciplines, with both the nature of the evidence or justification and the criteria for sufficiency being area-dependent. In the area of oral and written communication such as conversation , dialog , rhetoric , etc., a proof is a persuasive perlocutionary speech act , which demonstrates the truth of a proposition. In any area of mathematics defined by its assumptions or axioms , a proof is an argument establishing a theorem of that area via accepted rules of inference starting from those axioms and from other previously established theorems. The subject of logic , in particular proof theory , formalizes and studies the notion of formal proof . In some areas of epistemology and theology , the notion of justification plays approximately the role of proof, while in jurisprudence the corresponding term is evidence , with "burden of proof" as a concept common to both philosophy and law . ON PROOFIn most disciplines, evidence is required to prove something. Evidence is drawn from experience of the world around us, with science obtaining its evidence from nature , law obtaining its evidence from witnesses and forensic investigation , and so on
[...More...]

"Proof (truth)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Skepticism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e SKEPTICISM ( American English ) or SCEPTICISM ( British English ; see spelling differences ) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief. It is often directed at domains, such as morality (moral skepticism), religion (skepticism about the existence of God), or knowledge (skepticism about the possibility of knowledge, or of certainty). Formally, skepticism as a topic occurs in the context of philosophy, particularly epistemology , although it can be applied to any topic such as politics, religion, and pseudoscience. Philosophical skepticism comes in various forms. Radical forms of skepticism deny that knowledge or rational belief is possible and urge us to suspend judgment on many or all controversial matters. More moderate forms of skepticism claim only that nothing can be known with certainty, or that we can know little or nothing about the "big questions" in life, such as whether God exists or whether there is an afterlife. Religious skepticism is "doubt concerning basic religious principles (such as immortality, providence, and revelation)"
[...More...]

"Skepticism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Solipsism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability * v * t * e SOLIPSISM (/ˈsɒlᵻpsɪzəm/ (_ listen ); from Latin solus_, meaning 'alone', and _ipse_, meaning 'self') is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist. As an epistemological position, solipsism holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure; the external world and other minds cannot be known and might not exist outside the mind. As a metaphysical position, solipsism goes further to the conclusion that the world and other minds do not exist
[...More...]

"Solipsism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.