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Theoretical
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eA theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.[citation needed] Depending on the context, the results might, for example, include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek, but in modern use it has taken on several related meanings. Theories guide the enterprise of finding facts rather than of reaching goals, and are neutral concerning alternatives among values.[1]:131 A theory can be a body of knowledge, which may or may not be associated with particular explanatory models. To theorize is to develop this body of knowledge.[2]:46 As already in Aristotle's definitions, theory is very often contrasted to "practice" (from Greek praxis, πρᾶξις) a Greek term for doing, which is opposed to theory because pure theory involves no doing apart from itself
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Praxis (process)
Praxis (from Ancient Greek: πρᾶξις, translit. praxis) is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, embodied, or realized. "Praxis" may also refer to the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realizing, or practicing ideas. This has been a recurrent topic in the field of philosophy, discussed in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, Martin Heidegger, Hannah Arendt, Paulo Freire, Ludwig von Mises, and many others. It has meaning in the political, educational, spiritual and medical realms.“ So, I tried to do a kind of semantic clarification in which praxis—if not on the thither side of this divide—was perhaps somehow between the theoretical and the practical as they are generally understood, and particularly as they are understood in modern philosophy
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Contemplation
Contemplation
Contemplation
is profound thinking about something
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Abstraction
Abstraction
Abstraction
in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods. "An abstraction" is the outcome of this process—a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category.[1] Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, selecting only the aspects which are relevant for a particular subjectively valued purpose
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Nature (philosophy)
Nature
Nature
has two inter-related meanings in philosophy. On the one hand, it means the set of all things which are natural, or subject to the normal working of the laws of nature. On the other hand, it means the essential properties and causes of individual things. How to understand the meaning and significance of nature has been a consistent theme of discussion within the history of Western Civilization, in the philosophical fields of metaphysics and epistemology, as well as in theology and science. The study of natural things and the regular laws which seem to govern them, as opposed to discussion about what it means to be natural, is the area of natural science. The word "nature" derives from Latin
Latin
nātūra, a philosophical term derived from the verb for birth, which was used as a translation for the earlier (pre-Socratic) Greek term phusis, derived from the verb for natural growth
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Theory (other)
Theory is a type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or its result. Theory may also refer to:Literary theory, the systematic study of the nature of literature, or any of a variety of scholarly approaches to reading texts Philosophical theory, a position that explains or accounts for a general philosophy or specific branch of philosophy Scientific theory, a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world Theory, a type of argument in policy debate and Lincoln–Douglas debate Theory (chess), consensus and literature on how the game should be played Theory (clothing retailer), a New York-based fashion label Theory (mathematical logic), a set of sentences (theorems) in a formal language Theory (poem), a poem from Wallace Stevens's first book of poetry, Harmonium, published in 1917 Theory (restaurant), an American cuisine restaurant in Portland, Oregon Ki:Theory, the American recording artist and producer Joel BurlesonSee also[edit]List of notable
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Body Of Knowledge
A body of knowledge (BOK or BoK) is the complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association.[1] It is a type of knowledge representation by any knowledge organization. Several definitions of BOK have been developed, for example:"Structured knowledge that is used by members of a discipline to guide their practice or work.” “The prescribed aggregation of knowledge in a particular area an individual is expected to have mastered to be considered or certified as a practitioner.” (BOK-def)
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Natural Philosopher
Natural philosophy
Natural philosophy
or philosophy of nature (from Latin
Latin
philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural science. From the ancient world, starting with Aristotle, to the 19th century, the term "natural philosophy" was the common term used to describe the practice of studying nature
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Medical Theory
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research),[1] involving the explanation of more fundamental scientific principles, to clinical research, which is distinguished by the involvement of patients. Within this spectrum is applied research, or translational research conducted to aid and support the development of knowledge in the field of medicine, and pre-clinical research, for example involving animals. Both clinical and pre-clinical research phases exist in the pharmaceutical industry's drug development pipelines, where the clinical phase is denoted by the term clinical trial. However, only part of the clinical or pre-clinical research is oriented towards a specific pharmaceutical purpose
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Scientific Laws
A scientific law is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the universe.Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 References 4 Further readingOverview[edit] A scientific law always applies under the same conditions, and implies that there is a causal relationship involving its elements. Factual and well-confirmed statements like "Mercury is liquid at standard temperature and pressure" are considered too specific to qualify as scientific laws. A central problem in the philosophy of science, going back to David Hume, is that of distinguishing causal relationships (such as those implied by laws) from principles that arise due to constant conjunction.[1] Laws differ from scientific theories in that they do not posit a mechanism or explanation of phenomena: they are merely distillations of the results of repeated observation
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Speculative Reason
Speculative reason or pure reason is theoretical (or logical, deductive) thought (sometimes called theoretical reason), as opposed to practical (active, willing) thought. The distinction between the two goes at least as far back as the ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato
Plato
and Aristotle, who distinguished between theory (theoria, or a wide, bird's eye view of a topic, or clear vision of its structure) and practice (praxis), as well as techne. Speculative reason is contemplative, detached, and certain, whereas practical reason is engaged, involved, active, and dependent upon the specifics of the situation. Speculative reason provides the universal, necessary principles of logic, such as the principle of non-contradiction, which must apply everywhere, regardless of the specifics of the situation. Practical reason, on the other hand, is the power of the mind engaged in deciding what to do
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Theoria
Christian contemplation, from contemplatio (Latin; Greek θεωρία, Theoria[1]), refers to several Christian practices which aim at "looking at", "gazing at", "being aware of" God
God
or the Divine.[2][3][4] It includes several practices and theological concepts, and until the sixth century the practice of what is now called mysticism was referred to by the term contemplatio, c.q. theoria. Christianity
Christianity
took up the use of both the Greek (theoria) and Latin (contemplatio, contemplation) terminology to describe various forms of prayer and the process of coming to know God
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Nature
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large, if not the only, part of science
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Consistency
In classical deductive logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.[1][2] The lack of contradiction can be defined in either semantic or syntactic terms. The semantic definition states that a theory is consistent if and only if it has a model, i.e., there exists an interpretation under which all formulas in the theory are true. This is the sense used in traditional Aristotelian logic, although in contemporary mathematical logic the term satisfiable is used instead. The syntactic definition states a theory T displaystyle T is consistent if and only if there is no formula ϕ displaystyle phi such that both ϕ displaystyle phi and its negation ¬ ϕ displaystyle lnot phi are elements of the set T displaystyle T
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Classical Greece
Classical Greece
Greece
was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.[1] This Classical period saw the annexation of much of modern-day Greece
Greece
by the Persian Empire[2] and its subsequent independence. Classical Greece
Greece
had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and on the foundations of western civilization. Much of modern Western politics, artistic thought (architecture, sculpture), scientific thought, theatre, literature, and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history. In the context of the art, architecture, and culture of Ancient Greece, the Classical period[3] corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC (the most common dates being the fall of the last Athenian
Athenian
tyrant in 510 BC and the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC)
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