HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

Theoretical
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e A THEORY is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Depending on the context, the results might, for example, include generalized explanations of how nature works. The word has its roots in ancient Greek , but in modern use it has taken on several different related meanings. Theories guide the enterprise of finding facts rather than of reaching goals, and are neutral concerning alternatives among values. :131 A theory can be a body of knowledge , which may or may not be associated with particular explanatory models. To theorize is to develop this body of knowledge
[...More...]

"Theoretical" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Nature
NATURE, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe . "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large part of science . Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. The word _nature_ is derived from the Latin word _natura_, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth". _Natura_ is a Latin translation of the Greek word _physis _ (φύσις), which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord. The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe , is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since
[...More...]

"Nature" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Consistency
In classical deductive logic , a CONSISTENT theory is one that does not contain a contradiction . The lack of contradiction can be defined in either semantic or syntactic terms. The semantic definition states that a theory is consistent if and only if it has a model , i.e., there exists an interpretation under which all formulas in the theory are true. This is the sense used in traditional Aristotelian logic , although in contemporary mathematical logic the term SATISFIABLE is used instead. The syntactic definition states a theory T {displaystyle T} is consistent if and only if there is no formula {displaystyle phi } such that both {displaystyle phi } and its negation {displaystyle lnot phi } are elements of the set T {displaystyle T}
[...More...]

"Consistency" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Empirical Evidence
EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE, also known as SENSORY EXPERIENCE, is the knowledge received by means of the senses , particularly by observation and experimentation . The term comes from the Greek word for experience, ἐμπειρία (_empeiría_). After Immanuel Kant , in philosophy, it is common to call the knowledge gained _a posteriori_ knowledge (in contrast to _a priori _ knowledge). CONTENTS * 1 Meaning * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 References * 5 External links MEANING Empirical evidence is information that justifies the truth or falsity of a claim. In the empiricist view, one can claim to have knowledge only when based on empirical evidence. This stands in contrast to the rationalist view under which reason or reflection alone is considered evidence for the truth or falsity of some propositions . Empirical evidence is information acquired by observation or experimentation. This data is recorded and analyzed by scientists
[...More...]

"Empirical Evidence" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Falsifiability
Statements , hypotheses , or theories have FALSIFIABILITY or REFUTABILITY if there is the inherent possibility that they can be proven false . They are falsifiable if it is possible to conceive of an observation or an argument which could negate them. In this sense, _falsify_ is synonymous with _nullify_, meaning to invalidate or "show to be false". For example, by the problem of induction , no number of confirming observations can verify a universal generalization , such as _All swans are white_, since it is logically possible to falsify it by observing a single black swan. Thus, the term _falsifiability_ is sometimes synonymous to _testability_. Some statements, such as _It will be raining here in one million years_, are falsifiable in principle, but not in practice. The concern with falsifiability gained attention by way of philosopher of science Karl Popper 's scientific epistemology "falsificationism "
[...More...]

"Falsifiability" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Medical Theory
BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH (or EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE) encompasses a wide array of research from "basic research " (also called bench science or bench research), involving the elucidation of more fundamental scientific principles, to clinical research , which is distinguished by the involvement of patients. Within this spectrum is applied research , or translational research conducted to aid and support the development of knowledge in the field of medicine , and pre-clinical research , for example involving animals. Both clinical and pre-clinical research phases exist in the pharmaceutical industry's drug development pipelines , where the clinical phase is denoted by the term clinical trial . However, only part of the clinical or pre-clinical research is oriented towards a specific pharmaceutical purpose
[...More...]

"Medical Theory" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Praxis (process)
PRAXIS (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: πρᾶξις, translit. práxis) is the process by which a theory , lesson, or skill is enacted, embodied, or realized. "Praxis" may also refer to the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realizing, or practising ideas. This has been a recurrent topic in the field of philosophy, discussed in the writings of Plato
Plato
, Aristotle
Aristotle
, St. Augustine
St. Augustine
, Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
, Søren Kierkegaard
Søren Kierkegaard
, Karl Marx , Antonio Gramsci
Antonio Gramsci
, Martin Heidegger
Martin Heidegger
, Hannah Arendt
Hannah Arendt
, Paulo Freire , Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig von Mises
, and many others. It has meaning in the political, educational, spiritual and medical realms
[...More...]

"Praxis (process)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Abstraction
ABSTRACTION in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete ") signifiers, first principles , or other methods. "An abstraction" is the outcome of this process—a concept that acts as a super-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category. Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon , selecting only the aspects which are relevant for a particular purpose. For example, abstracting a leather soccer ball to the more general idea of a ball selects only the information on general ball attributes and behavior, eliminating the other characteristics of that particular ball. In a type–token distinction , a type (e.g., a 'ball') is more abstract than its tokens (e.g., 'that leather soccer ball')
[...More...]

"Abstraction" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Nature (philosophy)
Nature
Nature
has two inter-related meanings in philosophy . On the one hand, it means the set of all things which are natural, or subject to the normal working of the laws of nature . On the other hand, it means the essential properties and causes of individual things. How to understand the meaning and significance of nature has been a consistent theme of discussion within the history of Western Civilization , in the philosophical fields of metaphysics and epistemology , as well as in theology and science . The study of natural things and the regular laws which seem to govern them, as opposed to discussion about what it means to be natural, is the area of natural science . The word "nature" derives from Latin
Latin
nātūra, a philosophical term derived from the verb for birth , which was used as a translation for the earlier ancient Greek term phusis which was derived from the verb for natural growth, for example that of a plant
[...More...]

"Nature (philosophy)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Body Of Knowledge
A BODY OF KNOWLEDGE (BOK or BOK) is the complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association . It is a type of knowledge representation by any knowledge organization . Several definitions of BOK have been developed, for example: * (1) "Structured knowledge that is used by members of a discipline to guide their practice or work.” (2) “The prescribed aggregation of knowledge in a particular area an individual is expected to have mastered to be considered or certified as a practitioner.” (BOK-def). Waite’s pragmatic view is also worth noting: “BOK is a stepping stone to unifying community” (Waite 2004)
[...More...]

"Body Of Knowledge" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Scientific Laws
A SCIENTIFIC LAW is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspect of the universe. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading OVERVIEWA scientific law always applies under the same conditions, and implies that there is a causal relationship involving its elements. Factual and well-confirmed statements like "Mercury is liquid at standard temperature and pressure" are considered too specific to qualify as scientific laws. A central problem in the philosophy of science , going back to David Hume
David Hume
, is that of distinguishing causal relationships (such as those implied by laws) from principles that arise due to constant conjunction . Laws differ from scientific theories in that they do not posit a mechanism or explanation of phenomena: they are merely distillations of the results of repeated observation
[...More...]

"Scientific Laws" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Classical Greece
CLASSICAL GREECE was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture. This Classical period saw the annexation of much of modern-day Greece by the Persian Empire and its subsequent independence. Classical Greece had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and on the foundations of western civilization . Much of modern Western politics , artistic thought (architecture , sculpture), scientific thought, theatre , literature , and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history . In the context of the art, architecture, and culture of Ancient Greece , the CLASSICAL PERIOD, sometimes called the HELLENIC PERIOD, corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC (the most common dates being the fall of the last Athenian tyrant in 510 BC and the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC)
[...More...]

"Classical Greece" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Orphics
ORPHISM (more rarely ORPHICISM; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ὀρφικά) is the name given to a set of religious beliefs and practices originating in the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Hellenistic
Hellenistic
world, as well as by the Thracians , associated with literature ascribed to the mythical poet Orpheus
Orpheus
, who descended into the Greek underworld
Greek underworld
and returned. Orphics also revered Persephone
Persephone
(who annually descended into the Underworld for a season and then returned) and Dionysus
Dionysus
or Bacchus (who also descended into the Underworld and returned). Orpheus
Orpheus
was said to have invented the Mysteries of Dionysus
Dionysus

[...More...]

"Orphics" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Pythagoras
PYTHAGORAS OF SAMOS (US : /pᵻˈθæɡərəs/ ; UK : /paɪˈθæɡərəs/ ; Greek : Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάμιος _Pythagóras ho Sámios_ " Pythagoras the Samian ", or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek ; c. 570–495 BC) was an Ionian Greek philosopher , mathematician , and putative founder of the Pythagoreanism movement. He is often revered as a great mathematician and scientist and is best known for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. Legend and obfuscation cloud his work, so it is uncertain whether he truly contributed much to mathematics or natural philosophy . Many of the accomplishments credited to Pythagoras may actually have been accomplishments of his colleagues or successors. Some accounts mention that the philosophy associated with Pythagoras was related to mathematics and that numbers were important