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Theatre Of The Oppressed
The THEATRE OF THE OPPRESSED (TO) describes theatrical forms that the Brazilian theatre practitioner Augusto Boal
Augusto Boal
first elaborated in the 1970s, initially in Brazil
Brazil
and later in Europe
Europe
. Boal was influenced by the work of the educator and theorist Paulo Freire
Paulo Freire
. Boal's techniques use theatre as means of promoting social and political change. In the Theatre of the Oppressed, the audience becomes active, such that as "spect-actors" they explore, show, analyse and transform the reality in which they are living. AUGUSTO BOAL presenting a workshop on the Theatre of the Oppressed
Theatre of the Oppressed
in New York City. Riverside Church , May 13, 2008
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Base And Superstructure
In Marxist theory , human society consists of two parts: the BASE (or SUBSTRUCTURE) and SUPERSTRUCTURE; the base comprises the forces and relations of production —employer–employee work conditions, the technical division of labour , and property relations—into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life. These relations determine society’s other relationships and ideas, which are described as its superstructure. The superstructure of a society includes its culture , institutions , political power structures , roles , rituals , and state . The base determines (conditions) the superstructure, yet their relation is not strictly causal, because the superstructure often influences the base; the influence of the base, however, predominates. In Orthodox Marxism , the base determines the superstructure in a one-way relationship
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Mozambique
Coordinates : 18°15′S 35°00′E / 18.250°S 35.000°E / -18.250; 35.000 Republic
Republic
of Mozambique * República de Moçambique (Portuguese ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Pátria Amada (Portuguese) Beloved Homeland Location of Mozambique
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Ideology
IDEOLOGY (from Greek ιδεολογία) is a comprehensive set of normative beliefs , conscious and unconscious ideas, that an individual, group or society has. An ideology is narrower in ambit than the ideas expressed in concepts such as worldview , imaginary and ontology . Political
Political
ideologies can be proposed by the dominant class of society such as the elite to all members of society as suggested in some Marxist and critical-theory accounts. In societies that distinguish between public and private life , every political or economic tendency entails ideology, whether or not it is propounded as an explicit system of thought. In the Althusserian sense, ideology is "the imaginary relation to the real conditions of existence"
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada
O Canada
"------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen
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Drama Therapy
DRAMA THERAPY (written dramatherapy in the UK, Europe, Australia, and Africa) is the use of theatre techniques to facilitate personal growth and promote mental health . Dramatherapy is used in a wide variety of settings, including hospitals , schools, mental health centers, prisons , and businesses. Drama therapy, as a form of 'expressive therapy' (also known as creative arts therapies'), exists in many forms and can be applicable to individuals, couples, families, and various groups. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Core processes * 3 Becoming a drama therapist * 4 In practice * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links * 7.1 Governing bodies * 7.2 Other drama therapy-related websites HISTORYThe modern use of dramatic process and theatre as a therapeutic intervention began with Dr. Jacob L. Moreno 's development of Psychodrama
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Alderman
An ALDERMAN is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law . The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council member elected by voters. The title is derived from the Old English title of ealdorman , literally meaning "elder man", and was used by the chief nobles presiding over shires . Similar titles exist in other Germanic countries, such as the Swedish Ålderman, the Danish and Frisian Olderman, the Dutch Ouderman, the Finnish Oltermanni and the German Ältester which all mean "elder man" or "wise man"
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Rogério Manjate
ROGéRIO MANJATE (born April 1972) is an actor, theater director and filmmaker from Mozambique , and the author of poetry and fiction. CONTENTS * 1 Early career * 2 Author and journalist * 3 Actor and filmmaker * 4 References * 5 External links EARLY CAREERRogério Manjate was born in the Malanga neighborhood of Maputo in April 1972. He grew up there and as of 2002 still lived there. He studied Agronomy at Eduardo Mondlane University . From 1991 he was a member of the Mbêu actors group, and from 1992 he was a member of the theater group Mutumbela Gogo, working in both groups until 1995. AUTHOR AND JOURNALISTIn 2000 Rogério Manjate selected the texts for the book Colectânea Breve de Literatura Moçambicana (Short collection of Mozambican Literature). In 2001 he published a book of stories Amor Silvestre (Wild Love) which won the TDM Literary Prize in 2001
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Bertolt Brecht
EUGEN BERTHOLD FRIEDRICH "BERTOLT" BRECHT (/brɛxt/ ; German: ; 10 February 1898 – 14 August 1956) was a German poet, playwright, and theatre director of the 20th century . He made contributions to dramaturgy and theatrical production, the latter through the tours undertaken by the Berliner Ensemble – the post-war theatre company operated by Brecht and his wife, long-time collaborator and actress Helene Weigel
Helene Weigel

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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Crowdsourcing
CROWDSOURCING is a specific sourcing model in which individuals or organizations use contributions from Internet
Internet
users to obtain needed services or ideas. Crowdsourcing was coined in 2005 as a portmanteau of crowd and outsourcing . This mode of sourcing, which is to divide work between participants to achieve a cumulative result, was already successful prior to the digital age (i.e., "offline "). Crowdsourcing is distinguished from outsourcing in that the work can come from an undefined public (instead of being commissioned from a specific, named group) and in that crowdsourcing includes a mix of bottom-up and top-down processes. Advantages of using crowdsourcing may include improved costs, speed, quality, flexibility, scalability, or diversity
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Playback Theatre
PLAYBACK THEATRE is an original form of improvisational theatre in which audience or group members tell stories from their lives and watch them enacted on the spot. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current festivals and gatherings * 3 Theatrical form * 4 Applications * 5 Education * 6 Social change * 7 Business * 8 Therapy * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links HISTORYThe first Playback Theatre company was founded in 1975 by Jonathan Fox and Jo Salas. Fox was a student of improvisational theatre , oral traditional storytelling , Jacob Moreno 's psychodrama method and the work of educator Paulo Freire . Salas was a trained musician and activist. Both had served as volunteers in developing countries: Fox as a Peace Corps volunteer in Nepal , Salas with New Zealand's Volunteer Service Abroad in Malaysia
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Antagonist
An ANTAGONIST is a character, group of characters, institution or concept that stands in or represents opposition against which the protagonist (s) must contend. In other words, an antagonist is a person or a group of people who opposes a protagonist. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Types * 2.1 Heroes and villains * 2.2 Other characters * 2.3 Aspects of the protagonist * 2.4 Non-corporeal * 3 Usage * 4 See also * 5 References ETYMOLOGYThe English word antagonist comes from the Greek ἀνταγωνιστής - antagonistēs , "opponent, competitor, villain, enemy, rival," which is derived from anti-("against") and agonizesthai ("to contend for a prize"). TYPESHEROES AND VILLAINSIn the classic style of stories where the action consists of a hero fighting a villain /enemy , the two may be regarded as protagonist and antagonist, respectively
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