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Theatre Of The Oppressed
The THEATRE OF THE OPPRESSED (TO) describes theatrical forms that the Brazilian theatre practitioner Augusto Boal first elaborated in the 1970s, initially in Brazil
Brazil
and later in Europe
Europe
. Boal was influenced by the work of the educator and theorist Paulo Freire . Boal's techniques use theatre as means of promoting social and political change. In the Theatre of the Oppressed, the audience becomes active, such that as "spect-actors" they explore, show, analyse and transform the reality in which they are living. _ AUGUSTO BOAL presenting a workshop on the Theatre of the Oppressed_ in New York City. Riverside Church , May 13, 2008
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Theatre Practitioner
THEATRE PRACTITIONER is a modern term to describe someone who both creates theatrical performances and who produces a theoretical discourse that informs his or her practical work. A theatre practitioner may be a director , a dramatist , an actor , or—characteristically—often a combination of these traditionally-separate roles. " Theatre
Theatre
practice" describes the collective work that various theatre practitioners do. The term is not ordinarily applied to theatre-makers prior to the rise of modernism in the theatre, instead describing theatre praxis from Stanislavski 's development of his 'system ', through Meyerhold 's biomechanics , Antonin Artaud 's Theatre
Theatre
of cruelty , Bertolt Brecht 's epic and Jerzy Grotowski 's poor theatre , down to the present day, with contemporary theatre practitioners including Augusto Boal with his Theatre
Theatre
of the Oppressed , Dario Fo
Dario Fo
's popular theatre, Eugenio Barba 's theatre anthropology and Anne Bogart 's viewpoints . REFERENCES * ^ Milling and Ley (2001, vi, 173) and Pavis (1998, 280). German : Theaterpraktiker, French : praticien, Spanish : teatrista. * ^ Pavis (1998, 392). * ^ McCullough (1996, 15-36) and Milling and Ley (2001, vii, 175).SOURCES * Counsell, Colin. 1996. Signs of Performance: An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Theatre
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Augusto Boal
AUGUSTO BOAL (16 March 1931 – 2 May 2009) was a Brazilian theatre director , writer and politician. He was the founder of Theatre of the Oppressed , a theatrical form originally used in radical popular education movements. Boal served one term as a Vereador (the Brazilian equivalent of a city councillor) in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
from 1993 to 1997, where he developed legislative theatre . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Work at the Arena Theatre of São Paulo
São Paulo
* 1.3 Exile * 1.4 Center for the Theatre of the Oppressed-CTO- Brazil
Brazil
* 1.5 Death * 2 Influences * 3 Published works * 3.1 Theatre of the Oppressed
Theatre of the Oppressed
(London: Pluto Press, 1979) * 3.2 Games For Actors and Non-Actors (London: Routledge, 1992; Second Edition 2002) * 3.3 The Rainbow of Desire: The Boal Method of Theatre and Therapy. (London: Routledge, 1995) * 3.4 Other books * 4 Recognition * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFE Augusto Boal
Augusto Boal
studied at Columbia University in New York with the critic John Gassner. Gassner introduced Boal to the techniques of both Bertolt Brecht and Konstantin Stanislavski , and encouraged Boal to form links with theatre groups like the Black Experimental Theatre
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Brazil
Coordinates : 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52 Federative Republic of Brazil _República Federativa do Brasil_ (Portuguese ) _ Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * Ordem e Progresso_ (Portuguese) * (English: "Order and Progress") ANTHEM: * _Hino Nacional Brasileiro _ * (English: "Brazilian National Anthem")* ------------------------- * FLAG ANTHEM: * _Hino à Bandeira Nacional_ * (English: "National Flag Anthem")* NATIONAL SEAL * _Selo Nacional do Brasil _ * National Seal of Brazil * CAPITAL Brasília 15°47′S 47°52′W / 15.783°S 47.867°W / -15.783; -47.867 LARGEST CITY São Paulo 23°33′S 46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633 Official language and national language Portuguese ETHNIC GROUPS (2010 ) * 47.73% White * 43.13% Pardo (
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015
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Paulo Freire
PAULO REGLUS NEVES FREIRE (/ˈfrɛəri/ , Portuguese: ; September 19, 1921 – May 2, 1997) was a Brazilian educator and philosopher who was a leading advocate of critical pedagogy . He is best known for his influential work, _ Pedagogy of the Oppressed _, considered to be one of the foundational texts of the critical pedagogy movement. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Theoretical contributions * 2.1 Banking model of education * 2.2 Culture of silence * 3 Global impact * 3.1 Recognition * 4 Bibliography * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYFreire was born September 19, 1921 to a middle-class family in Recife , Brazil. Freire became familiar with poverty and hunger during the Great Depression of the 1930s. In 1931, the family moved to the less expensive city of Jaboatão dos Guararapes . On October 31, 1934 his father died. In school, he ended up four grades behind, and his social life revolved around playing pick up football with other poor children, from whom he learned a great deal. These experiences would shape his concerns for the poor and would help to construct his particular educational viewpoint. Freire stated that poverty and hunger severely affected his ability to learn. These experiences influenced his decision to dedicate his life to improving the lives of the poor: "I didn't understand anything because of my hunger. I wasn't dumb
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Riverside Church
RIVERSIDE CHURCH is a Christian church in Morningside Heights , Upper Manhattan , New York City
New York City
. It opened its doors on October 5, 1930. It is situated at 120th Street and 490 Riverside Drive , within the Columbia University
Columbia University
Morningside Heights Campus, across the street from, and one block south of, President Grant\'s Tomb . Although interdenominational , it is also associated with the American Baptist Churches USA and the United Church of Christ . It is famous for its large size and elaborate Neo-Gothic architecture as well as its history of social justice . It was described by The New York Times in 2008 as "a stronghold of activism and political debate throughout its 75-year history ... influential on the nation's religious and political landscapes." It has been a focal point of global and national activism since its inception. The church was conceived by industrialist, financier, and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr. (1874–1960), and minister Harry Emerson Fosdick
Harry Emerson Fosdick
(1878–1969), as a large, interdenominational church in a neighborhood important to the city, open to all who profess faith in Christ
Christ
. Its congregation includes more than forty ethnic groups. As of 2007, the church had a $14 million annual operating budget and a paid staff of 130
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Joker (playing Card)
The JOKER is a playing card found in most modern card decks, as an addition to the standard four suits (clubs, diamonds, hearts and spades). The Joker originated in the United States during the civil war and was created as a trump card for the game of Euchre . It has since been adopted into many other card games where it may function as a wild card . The card is unique in that it lacks an industry-wide standard appearance. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Appearance * 3 Tarot
Tarot
and cartomancy * 4 Use of the Joker in card games * 4.1 Specific roles * 5 References * 6 External links ORIGIN Imperial Bower, the earliest Joker, by Samuel Hart, c. 1863. In the game of Euchre , the highest trump card is the Jack of the trump suit, called the right bower (from the German Bauer); the second-highest trump, the left bower, is the Jack of the suit of the same color as trumps. Around 1860, American Euchre players may have devised a higher trump, the "Best Bower", out of a blank card. Samuel Hart is credited with printing the first illustrated "Best Bower" card in 1863 with his "Imperial Bower". Best Bower-type jokers continued to be produced well into the 20th-century. Cards labelled "Joker" began appearing around the late 1860s with some depicting clowns and jesters . It is believed that the term "Joker" comes from Juker or Juckerspiel, the original German spelling of Euchre
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Image Theatre
IMAGE THEATRE is a performance technique in which one person, acting as a sculptor, moulds one or more people acting as statues, using only touch and resisting the use of words or mirror-image modelling. Image theatre originated as a form of theatrical protest in the Theatre of the Oppressed
Theatre of the Oppressed
created by Augusto Boal
Augusto Boal
in the 1960s. The form increased in popularity within performance studies and broadened in use to become an exercise or game for students of performance learning how to see what they are looking at. Actors do not use words or signs (i.e. nodding) but must instead use their hands to create an image out of another actor's body to communicate an idea, an event, or an emotion. REFERENCES * ^ Boal, Augusto (2002). Games for Actors and Non-Actors (2nd Ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Image_theatre additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Forum Theatre
The FORUM THEATRE (formerly known as the STATE THEATRE) is a theatre and live music venue located on the corner of Flinders Street and Russell Street in the East End Theatre District of Melbourne
Melbourne
, Australia
Australia
. The building was designed by American architect John Eberson , who has designed many theatres around the globe, along with a local architectural firm at the time; Bohringer, Taylor & Johnson. It was designed as an " Atmospheric theatre " movie palace . The interior features reproductions of Greco-Roman statuary and a sky-blue ceiling decorated with small stars, mimicking a twilight sky. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current use * 3 References * 3.1 Additional Reference HISTORYFormerly the sites of Morning Post-Herald Building (on Flinders Street) and State Migration Office (on Russell Street) the site was initially purchased by Rufe Naylor's Empire Theatres Ltd of Sydney with the goal of building a 'live' theatre sister to his Empire in Quay Street, Sydney. The building features a Moorish Revival exterior, including minarets and a clock tower . When it opened in February 1929, the cinema had the largest seating capacity in Australia, holding 3,371 people
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Dramaturgy
DRAMATURGY is the study of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage. The word _dramaturgy_ was coined by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in his influential work _ Hamburg Dramaturgy _, which was written while employed as the world's first dramaturg at the Hamburg National Theatre . Dramaturgy is a distinct practice separate from play writing and directing, although a single individual may perform any combination of the three. Some dramatists combine writing and dramaturgy when creating a drama. Others work with a specialist, called a dramaturg , to adapt a work for the stage. Dramaturgy may also be defined, more broadly, as shaping a story into a form that may be acted. Dramaturgy gives the work or the performance a structure , an understructure as well as a reference to Zeitgeist . Dramaturgy is a tool to scrutinize narrative strategies, cross-cultural signs and references, theater and film historic sources, genre, ideological approach, representing of gender roles etc. of a narrative-performative work
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Chauvinist
CHAUVINISM is an exaggerated patriotism and a belligerent belief in national superiority and glory. Whereas patriotism and nationalism may represent temperate pride , chauvinism is intemperate. It can be also defined as "an irrational belief in the superiority or dominance of one's own group or people". Moreover, the chauvinist's own people are seen as unique and special while the rest of the people are considered weak or inferior. According to legend, French soldier Nicolas Chauvin was badly wounded in the Napoleonic wars . He received a pension for his injuries but it was not enough to live on. After Napoleon abdicated, Chauvin was a fanatical Bonapartist despite the unpopularity of this view in Bourbon Restoration France. His single-minded blind devotion to his cause, despite neglect by his faction and harassment by its enemies, started the use of the term. Chauvinism has extended from its original use to include fanatical devotion and undue partiality to any group or cause to which one belongs, especially when such partisanship includes prejudice against or hostility toward outsiders or rival groups and persists even in the face of overwhelming opposition. This French quality finds its parallel in the British term jingoism , which has retained the meaning of chauvinism strictly in its original sense; that is, an attitude of belligerent nationalism
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Dialectic
DIALECTIC or DIALECTICS (Greek : διαλεκτική, _dialektikḗ_), also known as the DIALECTICAL METHOD, is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments. The term _dialectic_ is not synonymous with the term _debate _. While in theory debaters are not necessarily emotionally invested in their point of view, in practice debaters frequently display an emotional commitment that may cloud rational judgment. Debates are won through a combination of persuading the opponent, proving one's argument correct, and proving the opponent's argument incorrect. Debates do not necessarily require promptly identifying a clear winner or loser; however, clear winners are frequently determined by a judge, a jury or group consensus . The term _dialectics_ is also not synonymous with the term _rhetoric _, a method or art of discourse that seeks to persuade, inform, or motivate an audience. Concepts, like "_logos _" or rational appeal, "_pathos _" or emotional appeal, and "_ethos _" or ethical appeal, are intentionally used by rhetoricians to persuade an audience. Socrates favoured truth as the highest value, proposing that it could be discovered through reason and logic in discussion: ergo, _dialectic_
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Didacticism
DIDACTICISM is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading OVERVIEWThe term has its origin in the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word διδακτικός (didaktikos), "related to education and teaching", and signified learning in a fascinating and intriguing manner. Didactic art was meant both to entertain and to instruct. Didactic plays, for instance, were intended to convey a moral theme or other rich truth to the audience. An example of didactic writing is Alexander Pope 's An Essay on Criticism
An Essay on Criticism
(1711), which offers a range of advice about critics and criticism. An example of didactism in music is the chant Ut queant laxis , which was used by Guido of Arezzo to teach solfege syllables. Around the 19th century the term didactic came to also be used as a criticism for work that appears to be overburdened with instructive, factual, or otherwise educational information, to the detriment of the enjoyment of the reader (a meaning that was quite foreign to Greek thought). Edgar Allan Poe even called didacticism the worst of "heresies" in his essay The Poetic Principle . EXAMPLESSome instances of didactic literature include: * Works and Days , by Hesiod (c
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Invisible Theatre
INVISIBLE THEATRE is a form of theatrical performance that is enacted in a place where people would not normally expect to see one, for example in the street or in a shopping centre. Performers disguise the fact that it is a performance from those who observe and who may choose to participate in it, thus leading spectators to view it as a real, unstaged event. The Brazilian theater practitioner Augusto Boal and Panagiotis Assimakopoulos developed the form during their time in Argentina in the 1960s as part of his Theatre of the Oppressed
Theatre of the Oppressed
, which focused on oppression and social issues. Invisible theatre developed in the context of increasingly repressive dictatorship in Brazil and Argentina. The purpose of invisible theatre was to show oppression in everyday life, in an everyday setting, without the audience or Spect-actors knowing. Boal went on to develop forum theater . CONTENTS * 1 Invisible Theatre in Argentina * 2 Invisible Theatre in Europe * 3 Invisible Theatre in Brazil * 4 Comparison to happenings * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources INVISIBLE THEATRE IN ARGENTINAInvisible theatre was developed in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
as public and participatory action that avoided police authority. The Brazilian Augusto Boal was in exile in Argentina from 1971 to 1976 and wrote his first invisible theatre in collaboration with a group of actors
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Protagonist
A PROTAGONIST (from Ancient Greek πρωταγωνιστής _(protagonistes)_, meaning 'player of the first part, chief actor') is the main character in any story, such as a literary work or drama. The protagonist is at the center of the story, typically makes the key decisions, and experiences the consequences of those decisions. The protagonist usually affects the main characters' circumstances as well, as they are often the primary actor propelling the story forward. If a story contains a subplot , or is a narrative made up of several stories, then there may be a character who is interpreted as the protagonist of each subplot or individual story. The word _protagonist_ is used notably in stories and forms of literature and culture that