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Theatre Of The Oppressed
The THEATRE OF THE OPPRESSED (TO) describes theatrical forms that the Brazilian theatre practitioner Augusto Boal first elaborated in the 1970s, initially in Brazil
Brazil
and later in Europe
Europe
. Boal was influenced by the work of the educator and theorist Paulo Freire . Boal's techniques use theatre as means of promoting social and political change. In the Theatre of the Oppressed, the audience becomes active, such that as "spect-actors" they explore, show, analyse and transform the reality in which they are living. _ AUGUSTO BOAL presenting a workshop on the Theatre of the Oppressed_ in New York City. Riverside Church , May 13, 2008
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Theatre Practitioner
THEATRE PRACTITIONER is a modern term to describe someone who both creates theatrical performances and who produces a theoretical discourse that informs his or her practical work. A theatre practitioner may be a director , a dramatist , an actor , or—characteristically—often a combination of these traditionally-separate roles. " Theatre
Theatre
practice" describes the collective work that various theatre practitioners do
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Augusto Boal
AUGUSTO BOAL (16 March 1931 – 2 May 2009) was a Brazilian, writer and politician. He was the founder of Theatre of the Oppressed , a theatrical form originally used in radical popular education movements. Boal served one term as a Vereador (the Brazilian equivalent of a city councillor) in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
from 1993 to 1997, where he developed legislative theatre
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Brazil
Coordinates : 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52 Federative Republic of Brazil _República Federativa do Brasil_ (Portuguese ) _ Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * Ordem e Progresso_ (Portuguese) * (English: "Order and Progress") ANTHEM: * _Hino Nacional Brasileiro _ * (English: "Brazilian National Anthem")* ------------------------- * FLAG ANTHEM: * _Hino à Bandeira Nacional_ * (English: "National Flag Anthem")* NATIONAL SEAL * _Selo Nacional do Brasil _ * National Seal of Brazil * CAPITAL Brasília 15°47′S 47°52′W / 15.783°S 47.867°W / -15.783; -47.867
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia
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Paulo Freire
PAULO REGLUS NEVES FREIRE (/ˈfrɛəri/ , Portuguese: ; September 19, 1921 – May 2, 1997) was a Brazilian educator and philosopher who was a leading advocate of critical pedagogy . He is best known for his influential work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed , considered to be one of the foundational texts of the critical pedagogy movement. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Theoretical contributions * 2.1 Banking model of education * 2.2 Culture of silence * 3 Global impact * 3.1 Recognition * 4 Bibliography * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYFreire was born September 19, 1921 to a middle-class family in Recife , Brazil. Freire became familiar with poverty and hunger during the Great Depression of the 1930s. In 1931, the family moved to the less expensive city of Jaboatão dos Guararapes
Jaboatão dos Guararapes
. On October 31, 1934 his father died
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Riverside Church
RIVERSIDE CHURCH is a Christian church in Morningside Heights , Upper Manhattan , New York City
New York City
. It opened its doors on October 5, 1930. It is situated at 120th Street and 490 Riverside Drive , within the Columbia University
Columbia University
Morningside Heights Campus, across the street from, and one block south of, President Grant\'s Tomb . Although interdenominational , it is also associated with the American Baptist Churches USA and the United Church of Christ . It is famous for its large size and elaborate Neo-Gothic architecture
Neo-Gothic architecture
as well as its history of social justice . It was described by The New York Times in 2008 as "a stronghold of activism and political debate throughout its 75-year history ... influential on the nation's religious and political landscapes." It has been a focal point of global and national activism since its inception
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Joker (playing Card)
The JOKER is a playing card found in most modern card decks, as an addition to the standard four suits (clubs, diamonds, hearts and spades). The Joker originated in the United States during the civil war and was created as a trump card for the game of Euchre
Euchre
. It has since been adopted into many other card games where it may function as a wild card . The card is unique in that it lacks an industry-wide standard appearance. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Appearance * 3 Tarot and cartomancy * 4 Use of the Joker in card games * 4.1 Specific roles * 5 References ORIGIN Imperial Bower, the earliest Joker, by Samuel Hart, c. 1863. In the game of Euchre
Euchre
, the highest trump card is the Jack of the trump suit, called the right bower (from the German Bauer); the second-highest trump, the left bower, is the Jack of the suit of the same color as trumps
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Image Theatre
IMAGE THEATRE is a performance technique in which one person, acting as a sculptor, moulds one or more people acting as statues, using only touch and resisting the use of words or mirror-image modelling. Image theatre originated as a form of theatrical protest in the Theatre of the Oppressed created by Augusto Boal
Augusto Boal
in the 1960s. The form increased in popularity within performance studies and broadened in use to become an exercise or game for students of performance learning how to see what they are looking at. Actors do not use words or signs (i.e. nodding) but must instead use their hands to create an image out of another actor's body to communicate an idea, an event, or an emotion. REFERENCES * ^ Boal, Augusto (2002). Games for Actors and Non-Actors (2nd Ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Image_theatre additional terms may apply
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Forum Theatre
The FORUM THEATRE (originally the STATE THEATRE) is a theatre, cinema and live music venue located on the corner of Flinders Street and Russell Street in Melbourne
Melbourne
, Australia
Australia
. Built in 1929, it was designed by leading US ‘picture palace’ architect John Eberson , in association with the local architectural firm Bohringer, Taylor & Johnson. Designed as an " Atmospheric theatre ", the interior intended to evoke a Florentine walled garden, complete with a cerulean-blue ceiling sprinkled with lights like twinkling stars, mimicking a twilight sky. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current use * 3 References * 3.1 Additional Reference HISTORYThe sites of Morning Post-Herald Building (on Flinders Street) and State Migration Office (on Russell Street) were purchased by Rufe Naylor's Empire Theatres Ltd of Sydney with the goal of building a 'live' theatre sister to his Empire in Quay Street, Sydney
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Dramaturgy
DRAMATURGY is the study of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage. The word dramaturgy was coined by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
in his influential work Hamburg Dramaturgy , which was written while employed as the world's first dramaturg at the Hamburg National Theatre . Dramaturgy is a distinct practice separate from play writing and directing, although a single individual may perform any combination of the three. Some dramatists combine writing and dramaturgy when creating a drama. Others work with a specialist, called a dramaturg , to adapt a work for the stage. Dramaturgy may also be defined, more broadly, as shaping a story into a form that may be acted
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Chauvinist
CHAUVINISM is a form of extreme patriotism and a belief in national superiority and glory. Whereas patriotism and nationalism may represent temperate pride , chauvinism is intemperate. It can be also defined as "an irrational belief in the superiority or dominance of one's own group or people". Moreover, the chauvinist's own people are seen as unique and special while the rest of the people are considered weak or inferior. According to legend, French soldier Nicolas Chauvin was badly wounded in the Napoleonic wars . He received a pension for his injuries but it was not enough to live on. After Napoleon abdicated, Chauvin was a fanatical Bonapartist despite the unpopularity of this view in Bourbon Restoration France. His single-minded blind devotion to his cause, despite neglect by his faction and harassment by its enemies, started the use of the term
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Dialectic
DIALECTIC or DIALECTICS (Greek : διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ), also known as the DIALECTICAL METHOD, is a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments. In philosophy , dialectic or dialectical method implied a methodology used for examining and cognition of philosophical objects. Dialectical methods demands the users to examine the objects in relation to other objects and to the whole system, and examine the objects within a dynamic, evolutionary environment. Dialectical method is usually contrasted with metaphysical method, which examine the objects in a separated, isolated and static environment. Dialectical method has three main forms corresponding to three developmental stages. Naive dialectic, emerging in ancient history , mainly relied on intuition and personal experience with limited supporting scientific evidences
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Didacticism
DIDACTICISM is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading OVERVIEWThe term has its origin in the Ancient Greek word διδακτικός (didaktikos), "related to education and teaching", and signified learning in a fascinating and intriguing manner. Didactic art was meant both to entertain and to instruct. Didactic plays, for instance, were intended to convey a moral theme or other rich truth to the audience. An example of didactic writing is Alexander Pope 's An Essay on Criticism (1711), which offers a range of advice about critics and criticism. An example of didactism in music is the chant Ut queant laxis
Ut queant laxis
, which was used by Guido of Arezzo to teach solfege syllables
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Invisible Theatre
INVISIBLE THEATRE is a form of theatrical performance that is enacted in a place where people would not normally expect to see one, for example in the street or in a shopping centre. Performers disguise the fact that it is a performance from those who observe and who may choose to participate in it, thus leading spectators to view it as a real, unstaged event. The Brazilian theater practitioner Augusto Boal
Augusto Boal
and Panagiotis Assimakopoulos developed the form during their time in Argentina in the 1960s as part of his Theatre of the Oppressed , which focused on oppression and social issues. Invisible theatre developed in the context of increasingly repressive dictatorship in Brazil and Argentina. The purpose of invisible theatre was to show oppression in everyday life, in an everyday setting, without the au