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The Main Library At The Linnean Society Of London 2
A SOCIETY is a group of people involved in persistent social interaction , or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations ) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions ; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences , a larger society often evinces stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. Insofar as it is collaborative , a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society
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Society (other)
SOCIETY is a grouping of individuals which are united by a network of social relations, traditions and may have distinctive culture and institutions
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Anthropology
ANTHROPOLOGY is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies . Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans
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Outline Of Anthropology
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to anthropology: ANTHROPOLOGY – study of humanity . Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences , the humanities , and the social sciences . The term was first used by François Péron when discussing his encounters with Tasmanian Aborigines
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History Of Anthropology
HISTORY OF ANTHROPOLOGY in this article refers primarily to the 18th- and 19th-century precursors of modern anthropology. The term anthropology itself, innovated as a New Latin scientific word during the Renaissance , has always meant "the study (or science) of man." The topics to be included and the terminology have varied historically. At present they are more elaborate than they were during the development of anthropology. For a presentation of modern social and cultural anthropology as they have developed in Britain, France, and North America since approximately 1900, see the relevant sections under Anthropology
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Archaeology
ARCHAEOLOGY, or ARCHEOLOGY, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture . The archaeological record consists of artifacts , architecture , biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes . Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities . In North America , archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology , while in Europe archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history , from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology , the study of fossil remains. To reiterate, archaeologists do not dig dinosaurs, and tend to find this misconception rather disheartening
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Biological Anthropology
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, also known as PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield of anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic study of human beings . CONTENTS * 1 Branches * 2 History * 3 Notable biological anthropologists * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BRANCHESAs a subfield of anthropology, biological anthropology itself is further divided into several branches. All branches are united in their common application of evolutionary theory to understanding human morphology and behavior
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Cultural Anthropology
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans. It is in contrast to social anthropology , which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant. A variety of methods are involved in cultural anthropological, including participant observation (often called fieldwork because it requires the anthropologist spending an extended period of time at the research location), interviews , and surveys . Edward Burnett Tylor One of the earliest articulations of the anthropological meaning of the term "culture" came from Sir Edward Tylor who writes on the first page of his 1871 book: "Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." The term "civilization" later gave way to definitions given by V
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Linguistic Anthropology
LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life. It is a branch of anthropology that originated from the endeavor to document endangered languages , and has grown over the past century to encompass most aspects of language structure and use. Linguistic anthropology explores how language shapes communication, forms social identity and group membership, organizes large-scale cultural beliefs and ideologies, and develops a common cultural representation of natural and social worlds
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Social Anthropology
SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY or ANTHROPOSOCIOLOGY is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe ( France in particular ), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology . In the United States, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology (or under the relatively new designation of sociocultural anthropology ). In contrast to cultural anthropology, culture and its continuity (including narratives , rituals , and symbolic behavior associated with them) have been traditionally seen more as the dependent 'variable' (cf. _explanandum _) by social anthropology, embedded in its historical and social context, including its diversity of positions and perspectives, ambiguities, conflicts, and contradictions of social life , rather than the independent (explanatory) one (cf. _explanans _)
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Aerial Archaeology
AERIAL ARCHAEOLOGY is the study of archaeological remains by examining them from altitude. The advantages of gaining a good aerial view of the ground had been long appreciated by archaeologists as a high viewpoint permits a better appreciation of fine details and their relationships within the wider site context. Early investigators attempted to gain birdseye views of sites using hot air balloons, scaffolds or cameras attached to kites. Following the invention of the aeroplane and the military importance placed on aerial photography during the First and Second World Wars , archaeologists were able to more effectively use the technique to discover and record archaeological sites. Photographs may be taken either vertically, that is from directly overhead, or obliquely, meaning that they are taken at an angle. In order to provide a three-dimensional effect, an overlapping pair of vertical photographs, taken from slightly offset positions, can be viewed stereoscopically
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Aviation Archaeology
AVIATION ARCHAEOLOGY is a recognized sub-discipline within archaeology and underwater archaeology as a whole. It is an activity practiced by both enthusiasts and academics in pursuit of finding, documenting, recovering, and preserving sites important in aviation history . For the most part, these sites are aircraft wrecks and crash sites, but also include structures and facilities related to aviation. It is also known in some circles and depending on the perspective of those involved as AIRCRAFT ARCHAEOLOGY or AEROSPACE ARCHAEOLOGY and has also been described variously as CRASH HUNTING, UNDERWATER AIRCRAFT RECOVERY, WRECK CHASING, or WRECKOLOGY
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Battlefield Archaeology
BATTLEFIELD ARCHAEOLOGY is a sub-discipline of archaeology that began in North America with Dr. Douglas D. Scott 's, National Park Service, metal detecting of Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument in 1983. It is not considered distinct from MILITARY ARCHAEOLOGY or Recceology (i.e., the recovery of surface finds and non-invasive site surveying). _Battlefield archaeology_ also refers to the specific study of a particular archaeological horizon in which a military action occurred. This may include both 'bounded' battlefields where troop dispositions, numbers and the order of battle are known from textual records, and also from undocumented evidence of conflict. The discipline is distinct from military history in that it seeks to answer different questions, including the experiences of ordinary soldiers in wider political frameworks
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Biblical Archaeology
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible book Bible portal * v * t * e BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible , be they from the Old Testament ( Tanakh ) or from the New Testament , as well as the history and cosmogony of the Judeo-Christian religions. The principal location of interest is what is known in the relevant religions as the Holy Land , which from a western perspective is also called the Middle East . The scientific techniques used are the same as those used in general archaeology, such as excavation and radiocarbon dating
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Bioarchaeology
The term BIOARCHAEOLOGY was first coined by British archaeologist Grahame Clark in 1972 as a reference to zooarchaeology , or the study of animal bones from archaeological sites . Redefined in 1977 by Jane Buikstra , bioarchaeology in the US now refers to the scientific study of human remains from archaeological sites, a discipline known in other countries as OSTEOARCHAEOLOGY or PALAEO-OSTEOLOGY. In England and other European countries, the term 'bioarchaeology' is borrowed to cover all biological remains from sites. Bioarchaeology was largely born from the practices of New Archaeology , which developed in the US in the 1970s as a reaction to a mainly cultural-historical approach to understanding the past. Proponents of New Archaeology advocated using processual methods to test hypotheses about the interaction between culture and biology, or a biocultural approach
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Environmental Archaeology
ENVIRONMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY is a sub-field of archaeology and is the science of reconstructing the relationships between past societies and the environments they lived in. The field represents an archaeological-palaeoecological approach to studying the palaeoenvironment through the methods of human palaeoecology. Reconstructing past environments and past peoples' relationships and interactions with the landscapes they inhabited provides archaeologists with insights into the origin and evolution of anthropogenic environments, and prehistoric adaptations and economic practices
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