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The Main Library At The Linnean Society Of London 2
A SOCIETY is a group of people involved in persistent social interaction , or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations ) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions ; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences , a larger society often evinces stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. Insofar as it is collaborative , a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture , a term used extensively within criminology . More broadly, and especially within structuralist thought , a society may be illustrated as an economic , social, industrial or cultural infrastructure , made up of, yet distinct from, a varied collection of individuals. In this regard society can mean the objective relationships people have with the material world and with other people, rather than "other people" beyond the individual and their familiar social environment
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Society (other)
SOCIETY is a grouping of individuals which are united by a network of social relations, traditions and may have distinctive culture and institutions. SOCIETY may also refer to: * high society * a club * Student society , a student club * Learned society * Society
Society
of apostolic life , a group within the Catholic Church as a proper name * Society
Society
Islands , a group of islands in French Polynesia, thus dubbed in 1769 * Society
Society
Recordings , a mid-20th century American record label * Society
Society
(journal) , an academic journal, founded in 1962 * Society
Society
(film) , a 1989 Brian Yuzna film * "Society" (song) , a 1996 song by Pennywise * "Society", a 2007 song by Jerry Hannan , best known for the cover by Eddie Vedder
Eddie Vedder
on the Into the Wild soundtrack * Society, a fictional video game in the 2009 film Gamer * Society
Society
(video game) , an online computer game by Stardock, released in 2010SEE ALSO * Category:Clubs and societies This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title SOCIETY. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Society_(other) additional terms may apply
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Anthropology
ANTHROPOLOGY is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies . Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans
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Outline Of Anthropology
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to anthropology: ANTHROPOLOGY – study of humanity . Anthropology has origins in the natural sciences , the humanities , and the social sciences . The term was first used by François Péron when discussing his encounters with Tasmanian Aborigines . CONTENTS * 1 What _type_ of thing is anthropology? * 2 History of anthropology * 3 Fields of anthropology * 3.1 Archaeological and biological subfields * 3.2 Linguistics subfields * 3.3 Socio-cultural anthropology subfields * 4 General anthropology concepts * 5 Theories * 6 Methods and frameworks * 7 Anthropology organizations * 8 Books, journals, and other literature * 9 Anthropology scholars * 10 Anthropology lists * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links WHAT _TYPE_ OF THING IS ANTHROPOLOGY? Anthropology can be described as all of the following: * Academic discipline – body of knowledge given to - or received by - a disciple (student); a branch or sphere of knowledge, or field of study, that an individual has chosen to specialise in. * Field of science – widely recognized category of specialized expertise within science, and typically embodies its own terminology and nomenclature
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History Of Anthropology
HISTORY OF ANTHROPOLOGY in this article refers primarily to the 18th- and 19th-century precursors of modern anthropology. The term anthropology itself, innovated as a New Latin scientific word during the Renaissance , has always meant "the study (or science) of man." The topics to be included and the terminology have varied historically. At present they are more elaborate than they were during the development of anthropology. For a presentation of modern social and cultural anthropology as they have developed in Britain, France, and North America since approximately 1900, see the relevant sections under Anthropology . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 The science of history * 3 Proto-anthropology * 3.1 Classical Age * 3.1.1 Herodotus * 3.1.2 Tacitus * 3.2 Middle Ages * 3.3 Renaissance * 4 The Enlightenment roots of the discipline * 5 Overview of the modern discipline * 6 National Anthropological Traditions * 6.1 Britain * 6.1.1 E.B
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Archaeology
ARCHAEOLOGY, or ARCHEOLOGY, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture . The archaeological record consists of artifacts , architecture , biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes . Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities . In North America , archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology , while in Europe archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history , from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology , the study of fossil remains. To reiterate, archaeologists do not dig dinosaurs, and tend to find this misconception rather disheartening. Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time
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Biological Anthropology
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, also known as PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors. It is a subfield of anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic study of human beings . CONTENTS * 1 Branches * 2 History * 3 Notable biological anthropologists * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BRANCHESAs a subfield of anthropology, biological anthropology itself is further divided into several branches. All branches are united in their common application of evolutionary theory to understanding human morphology and behavior. * Paleoanthropology , the study of fossil evidence for human evolution , studying extinct hominid and other primate species to determine the environment into which modern humans evolved, and how our species dispersed to eventually cover much of the earth's land mass. * Human biology is an interdisciplinary field of biology, biological anthropology, nutrition and medicine, concentrates upon international, population-level perspectives on health, evolution , anatomy , physiology , molecular biology , neuroscience , and genetics . * Primatology , the study of non-human primate behavior, morphology, and genetics
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Cultural Anthropology
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans. It is in contrast to social anthropology , which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant. A variety of methods are involved in cultural anthropological, including participant observation (often called fieldwork because it requires the anthropologist spending an extended period of time at the research location), interviews , and surveys . Edward Burnett Tylor One of the earliest articulations of the anthropological meaning of the term "culture" came from Sir Edward Tylor who writes on the first page of his 1871 book: "Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." The term "civilization" later gave way to definitions given by V. Gordon Childe , with culture forming an umbrella term and civilization becoming a particular kind of culture. The anthropological concept of "culture" reflects in part a reaction against earlier Western discourses based on an opposition between "culture " and "nature ", according to which some human beings lived in a "state of nature". Anthropologists have argued that culture _is_ "human nature", and that all people have a capacity to classify experiences , encode classifications symbolically (i.e
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Linguistic Anthropology
LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life. It is a branch of anthropology that originated from the endeavor to document endangered languages , and has grown over the past century to encompass most aspects of language structure and use. Linguistic anthropology explores how language shapes communication, forms social identity and group membership, organizes large-scale cultural beliefs and ideologies, and develops a common cultural representation of natural and social worlds. CONTENTS* 1 Historical development * 1.1 Anthropological linguistics * 1.2 Linguistic anthropology * 1.3 Anthropological issues studied via linguistic methods and data * 2 Areas of interest * 2.1 Identity * 2.2 Socialization * 2.3 Ideologies * 2.4 Social space * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTAs Alessandro Duranti has noted, three paradigms have emerged over the history of the subdiscipline: the first, now known as "anthropological linguistics ," focuses on the documentation of languages; the second, known as "linguistic anthropology," engages in theoretical studies of language use; the third, developed over the past two or three decades, studies questions related to other subfields of anthropology with the tools of linguistic inquiry
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Social Anthropology
SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY or ANTHROPOSOCIOLOGY is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe ( France in particular ), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology . In the United States, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology (or under the relatively new designation of sociocultural anthropology ). In contrast to cultural anthropology, culture and its continuity (including narratives , rituals , and symbolic behavior associated with them) have been traditionally seen more as the dependent 'variable' (cf. _explanandum _) by social anthropology, embedded in its historical and social context, including its diversity of positions and perspectives, ambiguities, conflicts, and contradictions of social life , rather than the independent (explanatory) one (cf. _explanans _)
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Aerial Archaeology
AERIAL ARCHAEOLOGY is the study of archaeological remains by examining them from altitude. The advantages of gaining a good aerial view of the ground had been long appreciated by archaeologists as a high viewpoint permits a better appreciation of fine details and their relationships within the wider site context. Early investigators attempted to gain birdseye views of sites using hot air balloons, scaffolds or cameras attached to kites. Following the invention of the aeroplane and the military importance placed on aerial photography during the First and Second World Wars , archaeologists were able to more effectively use the technique to discover and record archaeological sites. Photographs may be taken either vertically, that is from directly overhead, or obliquely, meaning that they are taken at an angle. In order to provide a three-dimensional effect, an overlapping pair of vertical photographs, taken from slightly offset positions, can be viewed stereoscopically . Aerial archeological photograph of the "Nazca monkey" in Peru . The advantages of aerial photographs to archaeologists are manifold. Large sites could for the first time be viewed accurately, in their entirety and within their landscape
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Aviation Archaeology
AVIATION ARCHAEOLOGY is a recognized sub-discipline within archaeology and underwater archaeology as a whole. It is an activity practiced by both enthusiasts and academics in pursuit of finding, documenting, recovering, and preserving sites important in aviation history . For the most part, these sites are aircraft wrecks and crash sites, but also include structures and facilities related to aviation. It is also known in some circles and depending on the perspective of those involved as AIRCRAFT ARCHAEOLOGY or AEROSPACE ARCHAEOLOGY and has also been described variously as CRASH HUNTING, UNDERWATER AIRCRAFT RECOVERY, WRECK CHASING, or WRECKOLOGY . CONTENTS * 1 History of Aviation Archaeology and Current Issues * 2 Protection Laws and Regulations * 2.1 United States * 2.2 United Kingdom * 3 Types of Aviation Archaeology Sites * 3.1 Terrestrial Sites * 3.1.1 Aircraft Crash Sites * 3.1.2 Abandoned airfields * 3.1.3 Abandoned missile silos and sites * 3.2 Underwater crash sites * 4 Underwater surveying and recovery * 4.1 Australia * 5 As a profession * 5.1 North America conference * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links HISTORY OF AVIATION ARCHAEOLOGY AND CURRENT ISSUES The remains of a Royal Canadian Air Force DC-3 Dakota crashed on 19 January 1946
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Battlefield Archaeology
BATTLEFIELD ARCHAEOLOGY is a sub-discipline of archaeology that began in North America with Dr. Douglas D. Scott 's, National Park Service, metal detecting of Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument in 1983. It is not considered distinct from MILITARY ARCHAEOLOGY or Recceology (i.e., the recovery of surface finds and non-invasive site surveying). _Battlefield archaeology_ also refers to the specific study of a particular archaeological horizon in which a military action occurred. This may include both 'bounded' battlefields where troop dispositions, numbers and the order of battle are known from textual records, and also from undocumented evidence of conflict. The discipline is distinct from military history in that it seeks to answer different questions, including the experiences of ordinary soldiers in wider political frameworks. Therefore, _battlefield archaeology_ is not concerned, primarily, with the causes of conflict but of the sites where conflict actually took place, and of the archaeology of the event. Whilst the _battlefield_ is a contemporary concept, the archaeology of battlefields incorporates the study of both ancient and modern military technologies, features and conflicts. It may also incorporate events such as civil unrest, including public demonstrations and riots. The discipline, therefore, applies the approaches and techniques of archaeology to military and civil conflict
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Biblical Archaeology
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible book Bible portal * v * t * e BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible , be they from the Old Testament ( Tanakh ) or from the New Testament , as well as the history and cosmogony of the Judeo-Christian religions. The principal location of interest is what is known in the relevant religions as the Holy Land , which from a western perspective is also called the Middle East . The scientific techniques used are the same as those used in general archaeology, such as excavation and radiocarbon dating . In contrast, the archaeology of the ancient Middle East simply deals with the Ancient Near East , or Middle East, without giving any especial consideration to whether its discoveries have any relationship with the Bible. Biblical archaeology is polemical as there are a number of points of view regarding the nature of its purpose. A number of points of view from important archaeologists are included in the section on Expert Commentaries
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Bioarchaeology
The term BIOARCHAEOLOGY was first coined by British archaeologist Grahame Clark in 1972 as a reference to zooarchaeology , or the study of animal bones from archaeological sites . Redefined in 1977 by Jane Buikstra , bioarchaeology in the US now refers to the scientific study of human remains from archaeological sites, a discipline known in other countries as OSTEOARCHAEOLOGY or PALAEO-OSTEOLOGY. In England and other European countries, the term 'bioarchaeology' is borrowed to cover all biological remains from sites. Bioarchaeology was largely born from the practices of New Archaeology , which developed in the US in the 1970s as a reaction to a mainly cultural-historical approach to understanding the past. Proponents of New Archaeology advocated using processual methods to test hypotheses about the interaction between culture and biology, or a biocultural approach. Some archaeologists advocate a more holistic approach to bioarchaeology that incorporates critical theory and is more relevant to modern descent populations. If possible, human remains from archaeological sites are analyzed to determine sex, age, and health
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Environmental Archaeology
ENVIRONMENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY is a sub-field of archaeology and is the science of reconstructing the relationships between past societies and the environments they lived in. The field represents an archaeological-palaeoecological approach to studying the palaeoenvironment through the methods of human palaeoecology. Reconstructing past environments and past peoples' relationships and interactions with the landscapes they inhabited provides archaeologists with insights into the origin and evolution of anthropogenic environments, and prehistoric adaptations and economic practices. Environmental archaeology is commonly divided into three sub-fields: * archaeobotany (the study of plant remains) * zooarchaeology (the study of faunal remains) * geoarchaeology (the study of geological processes and their relationship to the archaeological record)Other related fields include: * landscape archaeology * bioarchaeology and human ecology * climatology * palaeoecology * archival research Environmental archaeology often involves studying plant and animal remains in order to investigate which plant and animal species were present at the time of prehistoric habitations, and how past societies managed them. It may also involve studying the physical environment and how similar or different it was in the past compared to the present-day. An important component of such analyses represents the study of site formation processes
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