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The Wash
The Wash
The Wash
is a largely rectangular bay and estuary at the north-west corner of East Anglia
East Anglia
on the East coast of England, where Norfolk meets Lincolnshire. It is among the broadest estuaries in the United Kingdom. The Wash
The Wash
is fed by the rivers Witham, Welland, Nene and Great Ouse.Contents1 Geography 2 Water temperature 3 Wash River 4 Wildlife 5 History5.1 Hanse league 5.2 King John and his jewels6 Air weapons training range 7 Local traditions 8 Landmark 9 Proposed racetrack 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksGeography[edit]Map of the Wash and neighbouring areas The Wash
The Wash
is a large indentation in the coastline of Eastern England that separates the curved coast of East Anglia
East Anglia
from Lincolnshire
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Pink-footed Goose
The pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) is a goose which breeds in eastern Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard. It is migratory, wintering in northwest Europe, especially Ireland, Great Britain, the Netherlands, and western Denmark. The name is often abbreviated in colloquial usage to "pinkfoot" (plural "pinkfeet"). Anser is the Latin for "goose", and brachyrhynchus comes from the Greek brakhus "short" and rhunkhos "bill".[2] It is a medium-sized goose, 60–75 cm (24–30 in) long, the wingspan 135–170 cm (53–67 in), and weighing 1.8–3.4 kg (4.0–7.5 lb). It has a short bill, bright pink in the middle with a black base and tip, and pink feet. The body is mid-grey-brown, the head and neck a richer, darker brown, the rump and vent white, and the tail grey with a broad white tip. The upper wing-coverts are of a somewhat similar pale bluish-grey as in the greylag goose, and the flight feathers blackish-grey
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Brackish Water
Brackish water
Brackish water
is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater. It may result from mixing of seawater with fresh water, as in estuaries, or it may occur in brackish fossil aquifers. The word comes from the Middle Dutch root "brak". Certain human activities can produce brackish water, in particular civil engineering projects such as dikes and the flooding of coastal marshland to produce brackish water pools for freshwater prawn farming. Brackish water
Brackish water
is also the primary waste product of the salinity gradient power process
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Special Protection Area
A Special
Special
Protection Area (SPA) is a designation under the European Union Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds. Under the Directive, Member States of the European Union
European Union
(EU) have a duty to safeguard the habitats of migratory birds and certain particularly threatened birds. Together with Special
Special
Areas of Conservation (SACs), the SPAs form a network of protected sites across the EU, called Natura 2000
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European Union
The European Union
European Union
(EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states
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Salt Marsh
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides. It is dominated by dense stands of salt-tolerant plants such as herbs, grasses, or low shrubs.[1][2] These plants are terrestrial in origin and are essential to the stability of the salt marsh in trapping and binding sediments. Salt marshes play a large role in the aquatic food web and the delivery of nutrients to coastal waters
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Habitat (ecology)
In ecology, a habitat is the kind of natural environment in which a particular organism species lives. It is characterized by both physical and biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction. The physical factors are for example soil, moisture, range of temperature, and light intensity as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, but some are tolerant of wide variations while others are very specific in their requirements
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Bird
Birds (Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world’s most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds
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Wader
Waders are birds commonly found along shorelines and mudflats that wade in order to forage for food (such as insects or crustaceans) in the mud or sand. They are called shorebirds in North America, where the term "wader" is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons. Waders are members of the order Charadriiformes, which includes gulls, auks and their allies. There are about 210[verification needed] species of wader, most of which live in wetland or coastal environments. Many species of Arctic and temperate regions are strongly migratory, but tropical birds are often resident, or move only in response to rainfall patterns
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Sustainable
In ecology, sustainability (from sustain and ability) is the property of biological systems to remain diverse and productive indefinitely. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. In more general terms, sustainability is the endurance of systems and processes. The organizing principle for sustainability is sustainable development, which includes the four interconnected domains: ecology, economics, politics and culture.[1] Sustainability science
Sustainability science
is the study of sustainable development and environmental science.[2] Sustainability
Sustainability
can also be defined as a socio-ecological process characterized by the pursuit of a common ideal.[3] An ideal is by definition unattainable in a given time and space
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Coastal Management
Coastal management
Coastal management
is defence against flooding and erosion, and techniques that stop erosion to claim lands.[1] Coastal zones occupy less than 15% of the Earth's land area, while they host more than 40% of the world population. Nearly 1.2 billion people live within 100 km of a shoreline and 100 m of sea level, with an average density nearly 3 times higher than the global average for population.[2] With three-quarters of the world population expected to reside in the coastal zone by 2025, human activities originating from this small land area will impose heavy pressure on coasts. Coastal zones contain rich resources to produce goods and services and are home to most commercial and industrial activities. In the European Union, almost half of the population lives within 50 kilometres of the sea and coastal resources produce much of the Union's economic wealth
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Soft Engineering
In civil engineering of shorelines, soft engineering is the use of ecological principles and practices to reduce erosion and achieve the stabilization and safety of shorelines and the area surrounding rivers, while enhancing habitat, improving aesthetics, and saving money
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Lagoon
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs. Lagoons are commonly divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons. They have also been identified as occurring on mixed-sand and gravel coastlines. There is an overlap between bodies of water classified as coastal lagoons and bodies of water classified as estuaries. Lagoons are common coastal features around many parts of the world. Lagoons can also be man-made and used for wastewater treatment, as is the case for waste stabilization ponds.Contents1 Definition 2 Etymology 3 Atoll
Atoll
lagoons 4 Coastal lagoons 5 River-mouth lagoons on mixed sand and gravel beaches5.1 Hapua environment 5.2 Hapua characteristics 5.3 Hapua case study6 Images 7 See also 8 ReferencesDefinition[edit] Lagoons are shallow, often elongated bodies of water separated from a larger body of water by a shallow or exposed shoal, coral reef, or similar feature
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Bay
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, lake, or another bay.[1][2][3] A large bay is usually called a gulf, sea, sound, or bight. A cove is a type of smaller bay with a circular inlet and narrow entrance. A fjord is a particularly steep bay shaped by glacial activity. Bays can be the estuary of a river, such as the Chesapeake Bay, an estuary of the Susquehanna River.[2] Bays may also be nested within each other; for example, James Bay
James Bay
is an arm of Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay
in northeastern Canada. Some large bays, such as the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Hudson Bay, have varied marine geology. The land surrounding a bay often reduces the strength of winds and blocks waves. Bays were significant in the history of human settlement because they provided safe places for fishing
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Gravel
Gravel
Gravel
/ˈɡrævəl/ is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel is classified by particle size range and includes size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. In the Udden-Wentworth scale gravel is categorized into granular gravel (2 to 4 mm or 0.079 to 0.157 in) and pebble gravel (4 to 64 mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in). ISO 14688 grades gravels as fine, medium, and coarse with ranges 2 mm to 6.3 mm to 20 mm to 63 mm. One cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg (or a cubic yard weighs about 3,000 pounds). Gravel
Gravel
is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic
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Shellfish
Shellfish
Shellfish
is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms. Although most kinds of shellfish are harvested from saltwater environments, some kinds are found in freshwater. In addition, a few species of land crabs are eaten, for example Cardisoma guanhumi
Cardisoma guanhumi
in the Caribbean. Despite the name, shellfish are not a kind of fish, but are simply water-dwelling animals
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