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The Republic (Plato)
The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica[1]) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato
Plato
around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.[2] It is Plato's best-known work, and has proven to be one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory, both intellectually and historically.[3][4] In the book's dialogue, Socrates
Socrates
discusses the meaning of justice and whether or not the just man is happier than the unjust man with various Athenians and foreigners.[5] They consider the natures of existing regimes and then propose a series of different, hypothetical cities in comparison. This culminates in the discussion of Kallipolis (Καλλίπολις), a hypothetical city-state ruled by a philosopher king
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Epinomis
The Epinomis
Epinomis
(Greek: Ἐπινομίς) is a dialogue attributed to Plato. Some sources in antiquity began attributing its authorship to Philip of Opus, and many modern scholars consider it spurious. The dialogue continues the discussion undertaken in Plato's Laws.Contents1 Title 2 Dramatis personae 3 Question of authenticity 4 References 5 External linksTitle[edit] The title Epinomis
Epinomis
designates the work as an appendix to Plato's Laws (whose title in Greek is Nomoi)
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Parmenides (dialogue)
Parmenides
Parmenides
(Greek: Παρμενίδης) is one of the dialogues of Plato. It is widely considered to be one of the more, if not the most, challenging and enigmatic of Plato's dialogues.[1][2][3] The Parmenides
Parmenides
purports to be an account of a meeting between the two great philosophers of the Eleatic school, Parmenides
Parmenides
and Zeno of Elea, and a young Socrates
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Lysis (dialogue)
Lysis (/ˈlaɪsɪs/; Greek: Λύσις) is a dialogue of Plato
Plato
which discusses the nature of friendship. It is generally classified as an early dialogue. The main characters are Socrates, the boys Lysis and Menexenus
Menexenus
who are friends, as well as Hippothales, who is in unrequited love with Lysis and therefore, after the initial conversation, hides himself behind the surrounding listeners
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Cratylus (dialogue)
Cratylus (/krəˈtaɪləs/; Ancient Greek: Κρατύλος, Kratylos) is the name of a dialogue by Plato
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Euthydemus (dialogue)
Euthydemus (Greek: Εὐθύδημος, Euthydemos), written c. 384 BC, is a dialogue by Plato
Plato
which satirizes what Plato
Plato
presents as the logical fallacies of the Sophists.[1] In it, Socrates
Socrates
describes to his friend Crito
Crito
a visit he and various youths paid to two brothers, Euthydemus and Dionysodorus, both of whom were prominent Sophists from Chios
Chios
and Thurii. The Euthydemus contrasts Socratic argumentation and education with the methods of Sophism, to the detriment of the latter
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Gorgias (dialogue)
Gorgias
Gorgias
(/ˈɡɔːrdʒiəs/;[1] Greek: Γοργίας, Ancient Greek: [ɡorɡíaːs]) is a Socratic dialogue
Socratic dialogue
written by Plato (Steph. 447a - 527) around 380 BC. The dialogue depicts a conversation between Socrates
Socrates
and a small group of sophists (and other guests) at a dinner gathering. Socrates
Socrates
debates with the sophist seeking the true definition of rhetoric, attempting to pinpoint the essence of rhetoric and unveil the flaws of the sophistic oratory popular in Athens
Athens
at the time. The art of persuasion was widely considered necessary for political and legal advantage in classical Athens, and rhetoricians promoted themselves as teachers of this fundamental skill. Some, like Gorgias, were foreigners attracted to Athens
Athens
because of its reputation for intellectual and cultural sophistication
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Menexenus (dialogue)
The Menexenus
Menexenus
(/ˌməˈnɛksənəs/; Greek: Μενέξενος) is a Socratic dialogue
Socratic dialogue
of Plato, traditionally included in the seventh tetralogy along with the Greater and Lesser Hippias and the Ion. The speakers are Socrates
Socrates
and Menexenus, who is not to be confused with Socrates' son Menexenus. The Menexenus
Menexenus
of Plato's dialogue appears also in the Lysis, where he is identified as the "son of Demophon",[1] as well as the Phaedo. The Menexenus
Menexenus
consists mainly of a lengthy funeral oration, referencing the one given by Pericles
Pericles
in Thucydides' account of the Peloponnesian War
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Meno
Meno
Meno
(/ˈmiːnoʊ/; Greek: Μένων) is a Socratic dialogue
Socratic dialogue
written by Plato
Plato
(Steph. 70–100). It appears to attempt to determine the definition of virtue, or arete, meaning virtue in general, rather than particular virtues, such as justice or temperance. The first part of the work is written in the Socratic dialectical style and Meno
Meno
is reduced to confusion or aporia
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Phaedo
Phædo or Phaedo
Phaedo
(/ˈfiːdoʊ/; Greek: Φαίδων, Phaidōn, Greek pronunciation: [pʰaídɔːn]), also known to ancient readers as On The Soul,[1] is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the Republic and the Symposium. The philosophical subject of the dialogue is the immortality of the soul. It is set in the last hours prior to the death of Socrates, and is Plato's fourth and last dialogue to detail the philosopher's final days, following Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito. In the dialogue, Socrates
Socrates
discusses the nature of the afterlife on his last day before being executed by drinking hemlock. Socrates
Socrates
has been imprisoned and sentenced to death by an Athenian jury for not believing in the gods of the state (though some scholars think it was more for his support of "philosopher kings" as opposed to democracy)[2] and for corrupting the youth of the city
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Protagoras (dialogue)
Protagoras
Protagoras
(/proʊˈtæɡərəs/; Greek: Πρωταγόρας) is a dialogue by Plato. The traditional subtitle (which may or may not be Plato's) is "or the Sophists". The main argument is between the elderly Protagoras, a celebrated Sophist, and Socrates. The discussion takes place at the home of Callias, who is host to Protagoras
Protagoras
while he is in town, and concerns the nature of Sophists, the unity and the teachability of virtue. A total of twenty-one people are named as present.Contents1 The characters 2 Summary2.1 Introduction 2.2 Prodicus is wrestled out of bed 2.3 Protagoras' great speech 2.4 Socrates' complaint 2.5 Conclusion3 Notes 4 Texts and translations 5 External linksThe characters[edit] Of the twenty-one people who are specifically said to be present, three are known Sophists
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Symposium (Plato)
The Symposium
Symposium
(Ancient Greek: Συμπόσιον) is a philosophical text by Plato
Plato
dated c. 385–370 BC.[1][2] It depicts a friendly contest of extemporaneous speeches given by a group of notable men attending a banquet. The men include the philosopher Socrates, the general and political figure Alcibiades, and the comic playwright Aristophanes. The speeches are to be given in praise of Eros, who is the god of love and desire, and the son of Aphrodite. In the Symposium, Eros
Eros
is recognized both as erotic love, and as a phenomenon that is capable of inspiring courage, valor, great deeds and works, and vanquishing man’s natural fear of death. It is seen as transcending its earthly origins, and attaining spiritual heights. This extraordinary elevation of the concept of love raises a question of whether some of the most extreme extents of meaning might be intended as humor or farce
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Phaedrus (dialogue)
The Phaedrus (/ˈfiːdrəs/; Ancient Greek: Φαῖδρος, lit. 'Phaidros'), written by Plato, is a dialogue between Plato's protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues
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Hippias Minor
Hippias Minor (Greek: Ἱππίας ἐλάττων), or On Lying, is thought to be one of Plato's early works. Socrates
Socrates
matches wits with an arrogant polymath, who is also a smug literary critic. Hippias believes that Homer can be taken at face value, and he also thinks that Achilles
Achilles
may be believed when he says he hates liars, whereas Odysseus' resourceful (πολύτροπος) behavior stems from his ability to lie well (365b). Socrates
Socrates
argues that Achilles
Achilles
is a cunning liar who throws people off the scent of his own deceptions and that cunning liars are actually the "best" liars. Consequently, Odysseus was equally false and true and so was Achilles
Achilles
(369b). Socrates proposes, possibly for the sheer dialectical fun of it, that it is better to do evil voluntarily than involuntarily
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Theaetetus (dialogue)
The Theaetetus (/ˌθiːɪˈtiːtəs/; Greek: Θεαίτητος) is one of Plato's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge, written circa 369 BC. In this dialogue, Socrates
Socrates
and Theaetetus discuss three definitions of knowledge: knowledge as nothing but perception, knowledge as true judgment, and, finally, knowledge as a true judgment with an account. Each of these definitions is shown to be unsatisfactory. Socrates
Socrates
declares Theaetetus will have benefited from discovering what he does not know, and that he may be better able to approach the topic in the future
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Critias (dialogue)
Critias (/ˈkrɪtiəs/; Greek: Κριτίας), one of Plato's late dialogues, recounts the story of the mighty island kingdom Atlantis and its attempt to conquer Athens, which failed due to the ordered society of the Athenians. Critias is the second of a projected trilogy of dialogues, preceded by Timaeus and followed by Hermocrates.[1] The latter was possibly never written and Critias was left incomplete. Because of their resemblance (e.g. in terms of persons appearing), modern classicists occasionally combine both Timaeus and Critias as Timaeus-Critias.[2]Contents1 Protagonists 2 Content 3 See also 4 Citations 5 References 6 External linksProtagonists[edit]TimaeusUnlike the other speakers of the Critias, it is unclear whether Timaeus is a historical figure or not
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