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The Observer
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays. In the same place on the political spectrum as its sister papers The Guardian
The Guardian
and The Guardian
The Guardian
Weekly, whose parent company Guardian Media Group Limited acquired it in 1993, it takes a social liberal or social democratic line on most issues. First published in 1791, it is the world's oldest Sunday newspaper.[4]Contents1 History1.1 Origins 1.2 Nineteenth century 1.3 Twentieth century 1.4 Twenty-first century2 Supplements and features 3 The Newsroom 4 Bans 5 Editors 6 Photographers 7 Awards 8 Conventions sponsored 9 Bibliography 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksHistory[edit] Origins[edit] The first issue, published on 4 December 1791 by W.S. Bourne, was the world's first Sunday newspaper. Believing that the paper would be a means of wealth, Bourne instead soon found himself facing debts of nearly £1,600
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Podcast
A podcast, or generically netcast, is an episodic series of digital audio or video files which a user can download and listen to. It is often available for subscription, so that new episodes are automatically downloaded via web syndication to the user's own local computer, mobile application, or portable media player.[1] It is distinct from Internet
Internet
radio, which involves streaming rather than downloading. The word was originally suggested by Ben Hammersley
Ben Hammersley
as a portmanteau of "iPod" (a brand of media player) and "broadcast".[2] The files distributed are in audio format, but may sometimes include other file formats such as PDF or EPUB. Videos which are shared following a podcast model are called video podcasts or vodcasts. The generator of a podcast maintains a central list of the files on a server as a web feed that can be accessed through the Internet
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Social Democracy
Social democracy
Social democracy
is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy
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Iraq
Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraqجمهورية العراق (Arabic) کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: الله أكبر (Arabic) "Allahu Akbar" (transliteration) "God is the Greatest"Anthem: "Mawtini" "موطني" (English: "My Homeland")Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433Official languagesArabic KurdishReligion IslamDemonym IraqiGovernment Federal parliamentary republic•&#
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The Independent
The Independent
The Independent
is a British online newspaper.[2] Established in 1986 as an independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch
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Lonrho
Lonrho is a London-based conglomerate that is engaged in multiple business sectors in Africa mainly agribusiness, infrastructure, transport, hospitality and support services.[1] History[edit] Lonrho traces its roots from the original Lonrho plc (now Lonmin) a company was incorporated in the United Kingdom on 13 May 1909[2] as the London and Rhodesian Mining and Land Company Limited.[3] Lonrho plc grew to be one of the world's largest companies with over 800 subsidiary companies in 80 countries.[2] The current Lonrho was formed on 26 February 1998[4] as a spin-off of Lonmin (at the time called "Lonrho")[5] and it was then known as Lonrho Africa plc.[6] The demerger transferred all non-mining African assets to the separate publicly listed Lonrho Africa plc[7] while Lonrho plc (now Lonmin) retained the mining businesses
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ARCO
Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) is an American oil company with operations in the United States, Indonesia, the North Sea, the South China Sea and Mexico.[1] It has more than 1,300 gas stations in the western part of the United States
United States
[2], and recently (as of 2017) 5 gas stations at northwestern Mexico[3][4]. ARCO
ARCO
was formed by the merger of East Coast–based Atlantic Refining and California-based Richfield Oil Corporation in 1966. A merger in 1969 brought in Sinclair Oil Corporation.[1] It became a subsidiary of UK-based BP plc in 2000 through its BP West Coast Products LLC (BPWCP) affiliate.[5] On August 13, 2012, it was announced[6] that Tesoro
Tesoro
would purchase ARCO
ARCO
and its refinery for $2.5 billion. However, the deal came under fire due to increasing fuel prices
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Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party,[11] is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. It is currently the governing party, having been so since the 2010 general election, where a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats was formed. In 2015, the Conservatives led by David Cameron won a surprise majority and formed the first Conservative majority government since 1992.[12] However, the 2017 snap election on Thursday 8 June resulted in a hung parliament, and the party lost its parliamentary majority.[13] It is reliant on the support of a Northern Irish political party, the Democratic Unionist Party
Democratic Unionist Party
(DUP), in order to command a majority in the House of Commons through a confidence-and-supply deal. The party leader, Theresa May,[14] has served as both Leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister since 13 July 2016
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Great Depression In The United Kingdom
The Great Depression in the United Kingdom, also known as the Great Slump, was a period of national economic downturn in the 1930s, which had its origins in the global Great Depression. It was Britain's largest and most profound economic depression of the 20th century. The Great Depression originated in the United States in late 1929 and quickly spread to the world. Britain had never experienced the boom that had characterized the U.S., Germany, Canada and Australia in the 1920s, so its effect appeared less severe.[1] Britain's world trade fell by half (1929–33), the output of heavy industry fell by a third, employment profits plunged in nearly all sectors. At the depth in summer 1932, registered unemployed numbered 3.5 million, and many more had only part-time employment. Particularly hardest hit by economic problems were the industrial and mining areas in the north of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales
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American Civil War
Union victoryDissolution of the Confederate States U.S. territorial integrity preserved Slavery abolished Beginning of the Reconstruction EraBelligerents United States  Confederate StatesCommanders and leaders Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman David Farragut George B. McClellan Henry Halleck George Meade and others Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee  J. E. Johnston  G. T. Beauregard  A. S
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Reform Act 1832
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales. According to its preamble, the Act was designed to "take effectual Measures for correcting divers Abuses that have long prevailed in the Choice of Members to serve in the Commons House of Parliament".[1] Before the reform, most members nominally represented boroughs. The number of electors in a borough varied widely, from a dozen or so up to 12,000. Frequently the selection of MPs was effectively controlled by one powerful patron: for example Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk controlled eleven boroughs
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Broadsheet
A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages (typically 22 inches or 56 centimetres). The term derives from types of popular prints usually just of a single sheet, sold on the streets and containing various types of material, from ballads to political satire. The first broadsheet newspaper was the Dutch Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c
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Peterloo Massacre
The Peterloo Massacre
Massacre
occurred at St Peter's Field, Manchester, England, on 16 August 1819, when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation. The end of the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in 1815 had resulted in periods of famine and chronic unemployment, exacerbated by the introduction of the first of the Corn Laws. By the beginning of 1819, the pressure generated by poor economic conditions, coupled with the relative lack of suffrage in Northern England, had enhanced the appeal of political radicalism
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Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley
FRS (/ˈpriːstli/;[2] 24 March [O.S. 13 March] 1733 – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works. He has historically been credited with the discovery of oxygen,[3] having isolated it in its gaseous state, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
and Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
also have strong claims to the discovery.[4] During his lifetime, Priestley's considerable scientific reputation rested on his invention of soda water, his writings on electricity, and his discovery of several "airs" (gases), the most famous being what Priestley dubbed "dephlogisticated air" (oxygen)
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Francis Burdett
Sir Francis Burdett, 5th Baronet (25 January 1770 – 23 January 1844) was a British reformist politician, the son of Francis Burdett and his wife Eleanor, daughter of William Jones of Ramsbury manor, Wiltshire, and grandson of Sir Robert Burdett, Bart
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Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
(or Pain;[1] February 9, 1737 [O.S. January 29, 1736][Note 1] – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary. One of the Founding Fathers of the United States, he authored the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution
American Revolution
and inspired the rebels in 1776 to declare independence from Britain.[2] His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era rhetoric of transnational human rights.[3] Saul K. Padover described him as "a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination".[4] Born in Thetford
Thetford
in the English county of Norfolk, Paine migrated to the British American colonies in 1774 with the help of Benjamin Franklin, arriving just in time to participate in the American Revolution
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