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The Magazine Of Fantasy
A MAGAZINE is a publication , usually a periodical publication , which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine ). Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content . They are generally financed by advertising , by a purchase price , by prepaid subscriptions , or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles. This explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines , artillery magazines , firearms magazines , and, in French, retail stores such as department stores . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Distribution * 2.1 Paid circulation * 2.2 Non-paid circulation * 2.3 Controlled circulation * 3 History * 3.1 Britain * 3.2 France * 3.3 United States * 3.3.1 Late 19th century * 3.3.2 Progressive Era: 1890s-1920s * 3.3.3 21st century * 4 Women\'s magazines * 4.1 Fashion * 5 See also * 5.1 Lists * 5.2 Categories * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 7.1 United States * 8 External links DEFINITION This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Quartering (heraldry)
QUARTERING in heraldry is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division. Simple quartering, crudely drawn. De Salis quartered with Fane. The flag of Maryland has a quartering of the coats of arms of the Calvert and Crossland families Typically, a quartering consists of a division into four equal parts, two above and two below (party per cross). An example is the Sovereign Arms of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, as used outside Scotland
Scotland
, which consists of four quarterings, displaying the Arms of England
England
, Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
, with the coat for England
England
repeated at the end. (In the royal arms as used in Scotland, the Scottish quartering appears in the first and fourth quarters and the English one second.) The coats of arms of the 28 Member States of the modern European Union hypothetically arranged as quarterings in a traditional union shield. However, in most traditions there is no limit on the number of divisions allowed, and the records of the College of Arms include a shield of 323 quarterings for the family of Lloyd of Stockton . These 323 quarterings include numerous repeated attributed arms assigned to Welsh chieftains from the 9th century or earlier
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Journalism
JOURNALISM is the production and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts, ideas, and people that are the "news of the day" and that impacts society to at least some degree. The word applies to the occupation (professional or not), the methods of gathering information, and the organizing literary styles. Journalistic media include: print, television, radio, Internet , and, in the past, newsreels . Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism varies between countries. In some nations, the news media is controlled by a government intervention, and is not a fully independent body. In others, the news media is independent from the government but the profit motive is in tension with constitutional protections of freedom of the press . Access to freely available information gathered by independent and competing journalistic enterprises with transparent editorial standards can enable citizens to effectively participate in the political process. In the United States, journalism is protected by the freedom of the press clause in the First Amendment. The role and status of journalism, along with that of the mass media, has undergone changes over the last two decades with the advent of digital technology and publication of news on the Internet
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News
NEWS is information about current events. Journalists provide news through many different media , based on word of mouth , printing , postal systems , broadcasting , electronic communication , and also on their own testimony , as witnesses of relevant events. Common topics for news reports include war, government, politics, education, health, the environment, economy, business, and entertainment, as well as athletic events, quirky or unusual events. Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, laws, taxes, public health, criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times. Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news, which they satisfy by talking to each other and sharing information. Technological and social developments, often driven by government communication and espionage networks, have increased the speed with which news can spread, as well as influenced its content. The genre of news as we know it today is closely associated with the newspaper , which originated in China as a court bulletin and spread, with paper and printing press , to Europe
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News Style
NEWS STYLE, JOURNALISTIC STYLE or NEWS WRITING STYLE is the prose style used for news reporting in media such as newspapers , radio and television . News style encompasses not only vocabulary and sentence structure , but also the way in which stories present the information in terms of relative importance, tone , and intended audience . The tense used for news style articles is past tense. News writing attempts to answer all the basic questions about any particular event—WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE AND WHY (the Five Ws ) and also often HOW—at the opening of the article. This form of structure is sometimes called the "inverted pyramid ", to refer to the decreasing importance of information in subsequent paragraphs. News stories also contain at least one of the following important characteristics relative to the intended audience: proximity, prominence, timeliness, human interest, oddity, or consequence. The related term journalese is sometimes used, usually pejoratively, to refer to news-style writing. Another is headlinese
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Journalism Ethics And Standards
JOURNALISM ETHICS AND STANDARDS comprise principles of ethics and of good practice as applicable to the specific challenges faced by journalists . Historically and currently, this subset of media ethics is widely known to journalists as their professional "code of ethics" or the "canons of journalism". The basic codes and canons commonly appear in statements drafted by both professional journalism associations and individual print , broadcast , and online news organizations. While various existing codes have some differences, most share common elements including the principles of—truthfulness , accuracy , objectivity , impartiality , fairness and public accountability —as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public. Like many broader ethical systems, journalism ethics include the principle of "limitation of harm." This often involves the withholding of certain details from reports such as the names of minor children , crime victims' names or information not materially related to particular news reports release of which might, for example, harm someone's reputation. Some journalistic codes of ethics, notably the European ones, also include a concern with discriminatory references in news based on race , religion , sexual orientation , and physical or mental disabilities
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Journalistic Objectivity
JOURNALISTIC OBJECTIVITY is a considerable notion within the discussion of journalistic professionalism . Journalistic objectivity may refer to fairness , disinterestedness , factuality , and nonpartisanship , but most often encompasses all of these qualities. First evolving as a practice in the 18th century , a number of critiques and alternatives to the notion have emerged since, fuelling ongoing and dynamic discourse surrounding the ideal of objectivity in journalism. Most newspapers and TV stations depend upon news agencies for their material, and each of the four major global agencies (Agence France-Presse (formerly the Havas agency), Associated Press , Reuters and Agencia EFE ) began with and continue to operate on a basic philosophy of providing a single objective news feed to all subscribers. That is, they do not provide separate feeds for conservative or liberal newspapers. Journalist Jonathan Fenby has explained the notion: to achieve such wide acceptability, the agencies avoid overt partiality. Demonstrably correct information is their stock in trade. Traditionally, they report at a reduced level of responsibility, attributing their information to a spokesman, the press, or other sources. They avoid making judgments and steer clear of doubt and ambiguity
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News Values
NEWS VALUES, sometimes called NEWS CRITERIA, determine how much prominence a news story is given by a media outlet, and the attention it is given by the audience. A. Boyd states that: " News journalism has a broadly agreed set of values, often referred to as 'newsworthiness'..." News values are not universal and can vary widely between different cultures. In Western practice, decisions on the selection and prioritization of news are made by editors on the basis of their experience and intuition, although analysis by J. Galtung and M. Ruge showed that several factors are consistently applied across a range of news organizations. Some of these factors are listed below, together with others put forward by Schlesinger and Bell. According to Ryan, "there is no end to lists of news criteria". Among the many lists of news values that have been drawn up by scholars and journalists, some, like Galtung and Ruge's, attempt to describe news practices across cultures, while others have become remarkably specific to the press of certain (often Western) nations. Galtung and Ruge, in their seminal study in the area put forward a system of twelve factors describing events that together are used as a definition of 'newsworthiness'. Focusing on newspapers and broadcast news, Galtung and Ruge devised a list describing what they believed were significant contributing factors as to how the news is constructed
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Source (journalism)
In journalism , a SOURCE is a person, publication, or other record or document that gives timely information . Outside journalism, sources are sometimes known as "news sources". Examples of sources include official records, publications or broadcasts, officials in government or business, organizations or corporations, witnesses of crime, accidents or other events, and people involved with or affected by a news event or issue. According to Shoemaker (1996) and McQuail (1994), there are a multitude of factors that tend to condition the acceptance of sources as bona fide by investigative journalists. Reporters are expected to develop and cultivate sources, especially if they regularly cover a specific topic, known as a "beat". Beat reporters must, however, be cautious of becoming too close to their sources. Reporters often, but not always, give greater leeway to sources with little experience. For example, sometimes a person will say they don't want to talk, and then proceed to talk; if that person is not a public figure, reporters are less likely to use that information. Journalists are also encouraged to be skeptical without being cynical as per the saying "If your mother says she loves you, check it out." popularized by the City News Bureau of Chicago . As a rule of thumb, but especially when reporting on controversy, reporters are expected to use multiple sources
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Defamation
DEFAMATION — also CALUMNY, VILIFICATION, and TRADUCEMENT — is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an individual person, business , product , group , government , religion , or nation . Under common law , to constitute defamation, a claim must generally be false and must have been made to someone other than the person defamed. Some common law jurisdictions also distinguish between spoken defamation, called SLANDER, and defamation in other media such as printed words or images, called LIBEL. False light laws protect against statements which are not technically false, but which are misleading. In some civil law jurisdictions, defamation is treated as a crime rather than a civil wrong . The United Nations Human Rights Committee ruled in 2012 that the libel law of one country, the Philippines, was inconsistent with Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights , as well as urging that "State parties should consider the decriminalization of libel". In Saudi Arabia , defamation of the state, or a past or present ruler, is punishable under terrorism legislation. A person who defames another may be called a "defamer", "libeler", "slanderer", or rarely - "famacide"
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Editorial Independence
EDITORIAL INDEPENDENCE is the freedom of editors to make decisions without interference from the owners of a publication . Editorial independence is tested, for instance, if a newspaper runs articles that may be unpopular with its advertising clientele or critical of its ownership. SEE ALSO * Journalism portal * Embedded journalism * Freedom of the press , the freedom from interference by governments * Media manipulation * Objectivity (journalism) RELATED CONTROVERSIES * Fox television and Monsanto Company This story is featured at length in the documentaries The Corporation and Outfoxed .REFERENCES * ^ "Blowing the Whistle On Your Own Station.". _Columbia Journalism Review _. March 1, 2001. Retrieved 2008-09-10. * ^ Schweitzer, Sarah (August 19, 2000). "Reporter wins suit over firing". _ St. Petersburg Times _. Retrieved 2008-09-10. * ^ "The media can legally lie". _St. Louis Journalism Review _. December 1, 2004. Retrieved 2008-09-10
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Journalism School
A JOURNALISM SCHOOL is a school or department, usually part of an established university , where journalists are trained. An increasingly used term for a journalism department, school or college is 'J-School'. Many of the most famous and respected journalists of the past and present had no formal training in journalism , but learned their craft on the job, often starting out as _copy boys _/_copy girls_. Today, in many parts of the world it is usual for journalists to first complete university -level training which incorporates both technical skills such as research skills, interviewing technique and shorthand and academic studies in media theory , cultural studies and ethics . Historically, in the United Kingdom entrants used first to complete a non media-studies related degree course, giving maximum educational breadth, prior to taking a specialist postgraduate pre-entry course. However, this has changed over the last ten years with journalism training and education moving to higher educational institutions. There are now over 60 universities in the UK offering BA honours degrees in journalism. Postgraduate courses are more well-established, some of which are either recognised by the National Union of Journalists (NUJ) or the National Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ)
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Index Of Journalism Articles
Articles related to the field of JOURNALISM include: Contents : * 0–9 * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z 0–9 * 24-hour news cycle * 2003 invasion of Iraq media coverage A * ABC News * Advocacy journalism * Afghanistanism * AP Stylebook * Assignment editor *
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Arts Journalism
ARTS JOURNALISM is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion of the arts, including but is not limited to the visual arts , film , literature , music , theater , and architecture . Traditionally, journalists and critics writing about the arts have a background in writing and the arts; apart from baccalaureate studies in literary criticism, the humanities, and art history, there is no other formal advanced journalistic training in this field. For instance, an art magazine is a publication whose main topic is art, contributed to by people from the practice of artmaking, curating, critical theory, or teaching, among other functions, whether they be institution-based, academe-based or independent and self-taught. Such a magazine can be in print form, online, or both, and may be aimed at different audiences, including galleries, buyers, amateur or professional artists and the general public. In short, art magazines can be either trade or consumer magazines or both. There are also radio and TV features covering art topics
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Business Journalism
BUSINESS JOURNALISM is the branch of journalism that tracks, records, analyzes and interprets the business, economic and financial activities and changes that take place in a society. Topics widely cover the entire purview of all business activities related to the economy of a nation. This area of journalism covers news and feature articles about people, places and issues related to the field of business . Most newspapers, magazines, radio, and television news shows carry a business segment. However, detailed and in depth business journalism can be found in publications, radio, and television channels dedicated specifically to business and financial journalism. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Personnel * 3 Scope * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORY Business journalism began as early as the Middle Ages , to help well-known trading families communicate with each other. In 1882 Charles Dow , Edward Jones and Charles Bergstresser began a wire service that delivered news to investment houses along Wall Street. And in 1889 _ The Wall Street Journal _ began publishing. While the famous muckraking journalist Ida Tarbell did not consider herself to be a business reporter, her reporting and writing about the Standard Oil Co. in 1902 provided the template for how thousands of business journalists have covered companies ever since
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